Bimo (Biologically Modified CassavaFlour) merupakan tepung ubikayu modifikasi dengan penambahan starter Bimo-CF pada proses perendamannya/fermentasi. Starter Bimo-CF merupakan bibit yang berbentuk tepung (pow- der) yang digunakan pada fermentasi ubikayu dalam bentuk chips atau sawut. Starter ini terdiri atas mikroba bakteri asam laktat (BAL) yang aman untuk bahan pangan, diperkaya dengan nutrisi dan dibuat dengan teknologi yang menghasilkan stabilitas dan efektifitas tinggi. Starter Bimo-CF merupakan produk Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pascapanen Pertanian, Bogor, dan saat ini sudah dikembangkan secara komersial (Misgyarta 2010). Karakteristik kimia tepung ubikayu dengan penambahan Bimo-CF dan tanpa penambahan Bimo-CF disajikan dalam Tabel 10.
Due to its high moisture content, cassava root is highly perishable with a postharvest life less than 72 hours. However, processing cassava root into food forms and raw materials such as flour, chips and pellets can extend the shelf life, facilitate trade and promote industrial use . High quality cassavaflour is white or creamy, unfermented and gluten-free flour obtained from cassava root and it is used in the food industry for the production of pasta and confectionery . When wheat was substituted by up to 20% in bread, it was found that cassavaflour added no foreign odour or taste to the product formed and no significant changes were observed in other bread characteristics .
The aim of this work was to assess the effect of adding the cassavaflour gel and the amylopectin in earth bricks on their drying kinetics and to model the drying kinetics. The results show that: 1) the drying duration decreases with the in- creasing of the stabilizer content. For the content of 20% and in comparison to non-stabilized bricks, this decrease varies from 2 to 7 days depending on the soil and the stabilizer. Termite mound soils have the greatest decrease, and the cas- sava flour gel is more effective than amylopectin; 2) all the five models used fit well the earth brick drying kinetics, with the coefficient of determination higher than 0.997 and the chi square inferior to 3 × 10 −4 . The Khazaei’s model is the
By Machado's insertion (2002), the Manufacturing standards indicate that the basic requirements for food producing / industrializing facilities, aiming to guarantee adequate hygienic-sanitary conditions. Culturally, the making of flour had no purpose of hygiene standards, as each location acted according to its knowledge or culture passed on. But for the preparation of flour from cassava in one oven automated requires the equipment and utensils appropriate, with construction - Features of smooth and non - porous materials, with easy corners to be clean and easy to handle; the most suitable materials for the development of an automated oven is formed by a machine working in drying and roasting flour, with appropriate materials developed within standards to ensure the health of operatives in the house flour. The flour from cassava, according Sanni (2018) is a product particulate dry, fibrous and of free - flowing, obtained from cassava roots, prepared from dried chips milled or mashed moist. The root is processed, grated or softened, beating or grinding peeled roots. The preparation can be fermented or non- fermented. When the dough does not fermented is dried and ground, giving rise to one tasteless particulate product, odorless, white or off-white, also known as high quality cassavaflour.
WHO (WHO, 1982). Statistically, there was no significant difference between the levels of Cu determined in the solar dried grated – high quality cassavaflour (SDG-HQCF) and mechanically dried grated – high quality cassavaflour (MDG-HQCF) at p ≤ 0.05. The difference in Cu concen- tration between solar dried chips-high quality cassavaflour (SDC-HQCF) and mechanically dried – high quality cassavaflour (MDC-HQCF) was also statistically not significant. According to Senesse et al., 2004; excess intake of Fe is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. The concentration of Fe determined ranged from 10.91 ± 0.44 to 16.64 ± 0.35 mg/kg in which the maximum concentration slightly exceed the 15 mg/kg limit set by WHO (WHO, 1982). However, the maximum and mini- mum Fe concentrations determined in the HQCF samples analysed was 14.75 ± 0.65 and 10.91 ± 0.44 mg/kg respect- ively and are below the 15 mg/kg limit set WHO. Impair- ment related to Hg toxicity includes peripheral vision, disturbances in sensations, muscle weakness and lack of movement coordination (Xiong et al., 2013). The highest concentration of Hg determined was <0.01 mk/kg. WHO has recommended a Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) of Hg as 1.6 μg/kg body weight (WHO, 2003). Mercury level in samples analysed do not pose public health concern. Zinc constitutes about 33 ppm of adult body weight and is essential as a constituent of many en- zymes involved in a number of physiological functions, such as protein synthesis and energy metabolism (Ma and Betts, 2000). The concentration of Zn determined ranged from 3.92 ± 0.03 to 10.79 ± 0.16 mg/kg which is far below the limit of 60 mg/kg set by WHO (WHO, 1982). Sta- tistically, there was significant difference between Zn concentration determined in HQCF produced from sliced cassava and HQCF produced from grated cas- sava at p ≤ 0.05.
Abstract: Recent hike in food prices in Nigeria has led to increased food insecurity among rural and urban dwellers. Rural households who are majorly farmers are faced with low income generation from farm produce. This study examined the economic analysis of cassavaflour production among women in Boripe Local Government Area of Osun state. Primary data were collected through a well structured questionnaire supplemented with oral interview and a multi-stage sampling technique was adopted in selecting 146 respondents. Data were subjected to descriptive statistics, gross margin technique to estimate the profitability of cassavaflour production. Ordinary least square regression model was used to analyze determinants of total revenue generated from cassavaflour production enterprise. Results obtained showed that almost all cassava processors have low educational status with an average of 10 years of experience in cassavaflour processing. Most of the respondents (67.8%) engaged in cassavaflour production as their main occupation and all (100%) of them carried out fermentation of cassava tubers between 2-3 days, and sundry it within 3-4 days. The gross margin technique showed that in every one naira (₦) invested on cassavaflour production, 35 kobo is gained by each cassava processor. Hence, cassavaflour production in the study area is profitable. Age (5%), educational level (5%), involvement in associations (10%) and the cost of cassava tuber (1%) are the key variables influencing the amount of revenue earned from cassavaflour production. In conclusion, cassavaflour production has the potentials of reducing food insecurity problem in Nigeria due to its profitability and as well contribution to people livelihood sustainability.
Cassava flours are obtained from the roots of Manihot esculenta Crantz and daily fairly consumed by the Brazilian population considering it comes to hum food, and also inserted into food baskets, besides to present low cost and easy access, in addition to being plant easily cultivated by the pop- ulation. However, the food obtained with cassava may contain hydrocyanic acid, in the form of cya- nogenic glycoside when those meals are not cooked properly. The oral toxicity can range 30 - 210 mg/kg body, the average daily consumption per capita in larger rural areas than in urban areas for cassavaflour 19.1 g against 4.7 g, respectively. Brazil’s North and Northeast have higher con- sumption of cassavaflour, associated with family monthly monetary income, making this region more vulnerable to poisoning. The objective of this study was to quantify cyanogenic glycosides present in some types of Brazilian cassava foods by means of spectrophotometric technique (read- ing at a wavelength of 530 nm). For quantitative determination of cyanide content, linamarase hy- drolysis was used. The amount of cyanide was determined, and results were: artisan toasted cassavaflour: 15 mg/500g, sweet cassava starch: 32.5 mg/500g, artisan dried cassavaflour: 37.5 mg/500g, “bijuzada” cassavaflour: 60 mg/500g, industrialized, toasted cassavaflour: 115 mg/500g, indu- strialized, raw cassavaflour: 140 mg/500g, and wet cassavaflour: 225 mg/500g. Considering the chronic ingestion of cyanide present in these foods, they can cause public health problems.
However, these animal products are expensive, and most populations in developing countries cannot afford them. Thus, there is a need to look for locally available and cheap sources of food ingredients, particularly those that do not attract competition between humans and livestock, and one of such feed ingredients that can be used as protein supplement with little or no cost is Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (sorrel) seeds. Sorrel seeds are bi-products of calyxes which is cultivated in many countries such as Egypt, India, Mali, Malaysia, Nigeria, and Sudan, and have been found to contain high amount of protein, dietary fiber, lipids, and minerals. The usefulness of sorrel seeds as source of protein has been established by many authors (Hainida et al., 2008; Sanni et al., 2016). The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of the inclusion of high-quality cassavaflour and sorrel seeds protein isolate to wheat flour on the functional properties of the composite flour and the nutritional and sensorial attributes of bread, thus producing inexpensive and nutritionally balanced food.
Techniques of production of enthomopatogenic bacteria are developed aiming to increase the productivity and to reduce the costs of the fermentative process. Like this, it has been using agro- industrial wastes or by-products as nutrient sources in culture medium, having been used, in this study, the manipueira, a by-product of the processing of the cassavaflour. Fermentations were performed in flasks of Erlenmeyer of 500 mL containing 250 mL of culture media, conditioned in shaker at 180 r.p.m. and 28˚C, and the media were composed by manipueira, in concentrations that varied between 400 and 1000 mL/L. The time of the process varied between 48 and 120 hours. They appraised the following parameters: cellular growth, the production of spores, the reduction of organic matter (COD analysis) and the variation of reduction sugar. Although there was a proportional cellular growth to the manipueira concentration, the production of spores was similar in all the cases, at the end of the process, in spite of the smallest speed of production of the same ones in the highest concentrations. In relation to the variation of COD, it has, also, a percen- tile minor of reduction in the highest concentrations. In the analysis of variation of reduction su- gars, the higher concentrations are the ones that they present larger slowness in the reduction of this.
Abstract— The objective of this research was to determine the effect of the addition ratio of cassavaflour and carrots in making sweet potato analog rice. This research also used completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 3 replication. The treatment in this study was the addition of cassavaflour 90%, 80%, 70%, 60%, 50%, and the carrots 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% to the entire material. The results showed that the addition of cassavaflour and carrots give significantly different results on fat content, antioxidant activity and beta-carotene, no significant difference in moisture content, ash content, protein content, crude fiber content, carbohydrates, total polyphenol. The results of treatment E (50% cassavaflour : 50% carrot) obtained an average water content of 7.75%, 2.67% ash content, protein content of 2.56%, 0.41% fat, carbohydrate content of 86.59%, crude fibre content 18.74 %, 48.97% antioxidant activity, total polyphenols 0.61%, the determination of the energy value 3.58kcal, beta-carotene 5017.83μg / 100ml.
The research is an experiment that using double factorial design with threee variables, they are free variable, bound variable, and controlled variable. The substitutions of midified cassavaflour which is used are 40%, 60%, 80% and the carrot puree adding are 50%, 60%, 70%. These data are gotten by using observation technique through organoleptic test includes colour, aroma, pores, taste, and the interest level. The data of organoleptic test are analysed by using two way anova. If there is a significant influence, these data are continued observed by using Duncan technique. The best product of organoleptic test from panelists will be continue to proximate analyse to know the nutritions.
Produk makanan yang ditambahkan tepung mocaf menghasilkan tekstur yang lebih kenyal. Sifat kenyal tersebut dipengaruhi oleh kandungan kadar amilosa sebanyak 23,3% dan amilopektin 76,97% tetapi tidak menunjang kemampuan mengembang pada adonan pizza. Pada proses pembakaran justru akan memberikan efek liat (keras) maka diperlukan bahan makanan lain untuk meningkatkan mutu pizza agar hasil pizza jadi lebih lembut. Hal tersebut sudah terbukti dalam penelitian yang sudah dilakukan oleh Arimbi (2013) pengaruh substitusi tepung mocaf (modified cassavaflour) dan penambahan puree wortel (Daucus Carota L.) tehadap mutu organoleptik roti tawar dengan menggunakan enam perlakuan yang terdiri dari substitusi tepung mocaf 10% dan 15% serta menambahkan puree wortel 10%, 15% dan 20%. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa produk terbaik dari roti tawar adalah produk dengan substitusi tepung mocaf 10% dan penambahan puree wortel sebanyak 20% dengan kriteria sebagai berikut : 1. Warna roti tawar kuning keputihan, 2. Aroma roti tawar cukup beraroma mocaf dan wortel, 3. Rasa sedikit manis cukup berasa wortel, 4. Pori-pori roti tawar berongga cukup rapat dan merata, 5. Tingkat kesukaan pada panelis adalah cukup suka.
This diet is all the more onerous because it uses grains of cereals that usually are concurrently a part of the human diet. In Benin, one of the most utilised essential raw materials in broilers diets is maize, which can be used as whole kernels or maize meal in feed. For the produc- tion of a poultry diet, farmers generally mix 50 to 70 % of maize as an energy source into the diet (Salami & Odunsi, 2003; Teguia et al., 2004; Ukachukwu, 2008). However, maize is a staple food for the population in Benin. Therefore, the periodical unavailability and inac- cessibility of this diet ingredient limit its permanent use as raw material in the formulation of broiler diets. As a result, periodic feed restriction as a feeding strategy is necessary because of the increasing scarcity of food resources for humans and livestock. Indeed, climate change is becoming increasingly unfavourable for agri- cultural activities, especially for the production of food crops. According to Baudoin (2010), the Benin agricul- ture is mainly rain-fed, losses or yield reductions are a common risk exacerbated by climate change. The chal- lenge for local traditional breeders is to be able to ad- apt to this new situation. The strategy of periodic feed restriction in broiler chicken production o ﬀ ers the alter- native of a more e ﬃ cient management of feed resources at the village level. Moreover, it helps to avoid meta- bolic disorders, excessive fat deposition and therefore makes the production profitable (Sahraei, 2012). The objective of the study is to be able to partially replace maize with cassavaflour in the feed of genetically im- proved broiler chickens. The aim of this feeding strategy is to reduce the usual high production costs of tradi- tional local poultry farmers who do not have enough re- sources. Because cassava as a source of food energy is more available and more accessible, it is expected that the use of cassavaflour in poultry diets will lead these poultry producers to be less dependent on maize. Many studies have been carried out on the feeding of broilers
Abstract: Chicken diet cost represents up to 70 % of the production charges. Inputs, which are mostly imported products such as lysine, methionine, wheat bran are the cause of the expensive cost of foods. Wheat bran is not available in Côte d’Ivoire and could be efficiently substituted by cassava. Cassava is affordable and available all year round. The objective of this work was to determine the effects of the substitution of wheat bran by cassavaflour on the growth of chickens. After administering ad libitum during 8 weeks the different food categories (starting and growing food), results showed that protein, fat, ash and calcium contents improved more with the addition of cassava for both starting and growing periods. The energy value of cassava-based feed was higher than that of foods containing wheat bran: 12 155 kJ / kg against 11 428 kJ / kg for the starting food and 12 586 kJ / kg against 11 577 kJ / kg for growth, respectively. Throughout the rearing period, the growth of chicken fed with the cassava-based diet was much higher than that of the chicken fed with the control diet. In the growing food, palmitic acid was the dominant saturated fatty acids with the cassava-based diet exhibiting higher values of saturated fatty acids. The content of unsaturated fatty acids from cassava (48.6 %) was slightly higher than the control diet (47.6 %). Except magnesium, macro-element concentrations were higher in the cassava-based diet than those of food control. Micronutrients such as manganese and zinc had a high value in cassava-based diet than the control diet. Hydrogen cyanide which is in the fresh pulp at 100 mg / kg, decreased at 1.8 mg / kg of dry matter in the start food and at 1.9 mg / kg of dry matter in the growth food. The substitution of wheat by cassava improves feed nutritional profile, also reduces the production cost, food industry will benefit from this up to 13, 36 % in start-up period and up to 13, 25 % in growing period.
Tropical tuber crops constitute one of the most important staple food commodities in the world. The major tuber crops include sweet potatoes, yam, Irish potato, cassava and cocoyam. These are usually high in moisture content which affects storage under ambient conditions. Cassava (Manihot esculenta crantze) is a crop belonging to the Euphersiocea family, classified into bitter and sweet cassava type (Onwueme, 1978, Purseglove 1991). About 34 million tonnels of the world cassava produce are from Nigeria (FAO, 2001), Cassava potential uses cut across human consumption, animal feed stock, industrial or medicinal products and valued market profit (Asonye 2001, Nweke et al; 2002, ).Traditional meal of retted dried cassava ball and chunks are processed by large segment of Nigeria population by peeling washing slicing, fermenting, draining or moudling and drying. Cassava chips flour have been reported to be a better quality food and of long shelf life than potato (Bokanga, 1990).The fleshy portion of cassava contain 62% moisture, 35% starch, 1% protein, 0.3% fat, 2% fiber and 1% ash. The fresh roots contain 35mg/100g of vitamin C, trace amount of niacin and fat soluble vitamins ( Purseglove, 1991). Cassava chips has a wide application for dough and paste, for composite flour making and starch as source of fermentable sugar required in the production of alcoholic beverages (Amutha and Gunasekaean, 2001; . Processed cassavaflour has been reported to be good weaning food, feed ingredient and bakery substitute ( Lekule and Sarwath, 1992). The most economic method of processing cassava is by drying.
Fresh cassava variety of Malang 4 had total cyanides of 346 ppm that comprised of 4.5 ppm HCN, 338 cyanogenic glycosides, and 3.5 ppm acetone cyanohydrins. Fermentation of grated cassava tuber by submerged and solid-state fermentation significantly reduced cyanogenic compounds in cassava. Modified cassavaflour had total cyanides of 10 ppm. Adepoju et al. (2010); Kobawila et al. (2005); Obilie et al. (2004); Padonou et al. (2009); Wahyuni et al. (2016) noted that reduction of cyanogenic compounds presumably related to microbial activity during both fermentation and dissolution of cyanogenic compounds into fermenting medium during submerged fermentation. Cyanogenic compounds decrease occurs during spontaneous fermentation. Therefore, mocap flour was safe to use as ingredient for food products.
Homemade bread produced from blends of wheat flour with cassavaflour (WCF), wheat flour with maize flour (WMF), and wheat flour with whole wheat flour (WWF) at varying proportions were compared. The bread samples were analysed for sensory evaluation, nutritional value and presence of microorganisms. Sensory evaluation assessment was based on bread’s appearance, taste, texture and odour. Proximate and mineral analyses were done using laboratory protocols described by AOAC. Pour plate technique was used to estimate the microbial population and isolates were identified using laboratory procedures. WCF, WMF and WWF blends at ratio 9:1 has the highest acceptability. The percentage of crude protein for the three flour-blends ranges from 12.61 to 27.41 %, 0.31 to 0.70 % for crude fibre, 11.91 to 16.91 % for fat, 0.10 to 0.13 % for ash, 22.25 to 24.91 % for moisture content, 32.85 to 52.82 % for carbohydrate, 115 to 121.68 mg/100g for K, 95.61 to 107.45 mg/100g for Ca, 92.50 to 96.50 mg/100g for P, 21.65 to 27.91 mg/100g for Mg, 3.75 to 5.20
Cassava leaves are abundant green leaves and affordable. This research uses cassava leaves of sleedlings type with white, pink stalk with light green leaf colour made into flour to be processed food products. The purpose of this research was to analyze the physical properties and chemical content of brownies steamed by the addition of cassava leaf flour based on a mineral test (Ca, P, Fe), water content, ash content, protein content, fat content, carbohydrate and crude fibre content. A panellist assessment of brownies steamed based on organoleptic test results and determining the formulation of good brownies cake products from the ratio of wheat flour and cassavaflour used. This research was designed using Completely Randomized Design (RAL) with three replications such as A0 (100% wheat flour: 0 (control)), A1 (85% wheat flour: 15% cassavaflour), A2 (70% wheat flour: 30% cassava
and gelation concentration (4.00% w/v) showed no significant difference between the samples. The result for sensory characteristics also showed significant differences at (P------< 0.05) in taste (6.27 – 7.73), flavor (6.20 – 7.80), colour (7.00 – 7.93) and general acceptability (6.47 – 7.80), while there was no significant difference in texture (6.67 – 7.13) between the samples. From the sensory scores, akpekpa produced from 80% Bambara nut, 20% cassavaflour and 80% Bambara nut , 20% soy flour were well accepted. The supplementation of bambara nut flour with 20% cassavaflour was most acceptable followed by that with 20% soyflour.