However, the conventional community-based cross- sectional surveys, such as malaria indicator surveys or prospective cohort study designs, would not be an effi- cient way to identify malaria cases or to assess risk fac- tors because of the very large number of participants needed to be recruited. To study rare infections or dis- eases, the case–control methods are often used in iden- tifying risk factors, but have been less frequently applied in malaria research during the last decade. This matched case–control study was undertaken in a predominantly rural population in south-central Ethiopia to investigate individual and household factors associated with LLINs ownership and malaria infection.
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Abstract: Background: Diarrhea remains one of the principal causes of morbidity and mortality in children in developing countries. A major contributing factor is the treatment provided by the mother. The current study was carried out to assess the behavior of mothers in seeking modern health care and its impact on childhood diarrhea in the Central Ethiopia. Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in randomly selected mothers or care providers who had at least one child under five years who had experienced diarrhea within the previous two weeks. Descriptive statistics, bivariate, and multiple regression analyses were performed. P-values less than 0.05 and 95% confidence intervals were used to determine an association between independent and dependent variables. Results: Ninety-five percent (413/434) mothers or care-providers completed the survey. Seventy-seven percent of urban and 54.4% of rural women sought care at a health institution. Mothers who lived in urban areas were four and half times more likely to seek modern treatment than rural dwellers [OR (95%CIs)=4.49(2.07, 9.7)], while mothers with grade 9-12 levels of literacy were nine times more likely to seek modern treatment than illiterate mothers [8.88 (1.15, 68.6)]. Households using latrines and with income greater than 30USD per month were 4.6 and 3.3 times more likely to seek modern treatment than who used open fields and who earned less than 30USD per month, respectively [4.62 (1.84, 11.60) and 3.31(1.45, 7.54)]. Increased fluids were given to only 50.8% urban and 26% rural children with diarrhea. Notably, fluids were stopped in 3.8% and 11.4% of urban and rural children, respectively, while fluid intake was reduced in 6.8% urban and 19.2% rural children. Conclusion: Socioeconomic factors such as the educational status of the women, the distance of health care facilities, and the method of disposing of excreta were significantly associated with the behavior of the mother in seeking modern treatment. An urgent requirement for improved health education and infrastructure for women is needed.
Methods: Human-biting patterns of anophelines were monitored for 40 nights in three houses using human landing catches (HLC) both indoors and outdoors between July and November 2014, in Edo Kontola village, south-central Ethiopia. This time coincides with the major malaria transmission season in Ethiopia, which is usually between September and November. Adult mosquitoes were collected from 19:00 to 06:00 h and identified to species. Comparisons of HLC data were done using incidence rate ratio (IRR) calculated by negative binomial regression. The nocturnal biting activities of each Anopheles species was expressed as mean number of mosquitoes landing per person per hour. To assess malaria infections in Anopheles mosquitoes the presence of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax circumsporozoite proteins (CSP) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
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A survey was conducted by the ministry of Health of the Government of Ethiopia in collaboration with the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine between February and April 1986 in the two regions of Arsi and Shoa in Central Ethiopia which have a little less than a quarter of the total popula tion of the country. (The Central Statistical Office of Ethiopia, (C.S.O.), using the 1984 Census projected the population of the country as 44.65 million of which 10.32 million lived in Arsi and Shoa in 1986.) The Survey was financed by the World Bank and it was a part of a much wider Population, Health and Nutrition Project whose objective was the reduction of infant and maternal mortality and the im provement of access to family planning services among the populations of these regions (Blacker, 1986). The primary objectives of the survey were; (i) to identify priority needs in the fields of maternal and child health and family plann ing, and (ii) to provide bench-mark indicators which will help the measurement of future progress (Blacker, 1986).
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Ten anopheline species were identified in Butajira. The predominant species was An. Arabiensis, which is the main vector of malaria in the country [5,6]. Its density decreased from Hobe at the lowest elevation (about 1800 m.a.s.l.) to Wurib at 2200 m.a.s.l. Two of these spe- cies (An. gambiae s.l, presumably An. arabiensis and An. chrysti) have been reported from neighbouring villages at about the same altitude . This shows that malaria transmission in the area [30,31] decreases with increasing altitude. Malaria-related mortality in the area was reported previously to follow a similar altitudinal trend . Table 3 Characteristics of streams during anopheline larvae occurrence, south-central Ethiopia, July 2008-June 2010
The increase in vivax malaria in highland-fringe areas could be explained by the high transmissibility of P. vivax, which is related to its typical biological features, including the immediate appearance of gametocytes, the presence of hypnozoites, and shorter sporogony [24,25,35]. A more than two-fold increase in the rate of drug resistance has been reported in south-central Ethiopia, close to the study area . Thus chloroquine- resistant vivax malaria may have accounted for the dominance of vivax observed in this study. Some authors also speculate that the intensive malaria control efforts in Ethiopia, which have been implemented since 2005 , could explain the dominance of Plasmodium vivax .
Similar to this study, SIT54 was dominantly isolated by earlier studies conducted in the Addis Ababa City (17), central Ethiopia (18) and in eastern central Ethiopia (19). This strain has been mainly reported to the SITVIT2 and SpolDB4 databasefrom South and East Asia, Middle East including Egypt and USA [10, 18]. Another interesting finding in the study was, similar to other studies con- ducted in Ethiopia earlier [11, 13] the ancestor strain SIT 523 was found consisting of good numbers of isolates. SIT 523 is characterized by the presence of all 43 spacers and is the ancestor strain of M. tuberculosis. It is less likely that strains keep all the 43 spacers intact for a long duration of time since they have to adapt to different pressures through changing their genetic makeup, and hence it is likely that the presence of 43 spacers intact could also be due to mixed infection, which needs further investigation using more powerful molecular techniques.
Patients were followed-up for 42 days and asked to return on days 1-3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 post-AL therapy initiation, as well as any other interim day, if ill. The study site facilities were open from 8:00 AM to 6:00 PM, and after hours care was also available. Stan- dardized follow-up included documentation of history- taking to elicit symptoms, adverse events, and any con- comitant therapy, and physical examination including axillary temperature measurement. Finger pricks for fol- low-up blood films were taken on scheduled days 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, and at any unscheduled visit. Hae- moglobin was measured weekly and filter papers were collected on day 7 for drug level testing and on any day of failure for molecular testing. All filter papers were dried and stored in plastic storage bags with desiccant and humidity indicators. At the conclusion of the study, all day 0 slides were submitted to the national labora- tory for quality control purposes. The filter papers for drug level testing were sent to the U.S. Centers for Dis- ease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, USA, while the filter papers collected for molecular testing were sent to the Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute (EHNRI) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
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The studied forest located in Ambo district, West Shewa Zone of Oromia Regional State, Western lowlands of Ethiopia (Figure 1). Ambo district (longitude 37° 32' to 38° 3′ E and latitude 8° 47′ to 9° 20′ N) is located in Western Shewa zone of the Oromia Regional State. The altitude within the district ranges from 1400 to 3045 masl. The annual rainfall and temperature range from 800 – 1000 mm and 15°C – 29°C, respectively. The mean temperature is 18.6°C. Kara is covered with desert and semi-desert vegetations including Acacia-Commiphora and Combretum- Terminalia woodland. It is a mixture of Acacia, Boswellia, Commiphora, Balanites and various other woody species and short grasses at varying density. It also hosts various species of wild animals including mammals, birds, and reptiles. According to the elderly people, 30 years ago, land was almost all owned common. Currently, however, pastoralists own small plots of rangeland within enclosures near their croplands and around their homesteads.
Data were collected using instruments that measure depression, perceived stigma, Medication Adherence Scale, and social support-related questionnaires. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9 is the nine-item depression scale which is a powerful tool for clinicians to screen depression and monitor treatment response. The tool is based directly on the nine diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder among epilepsy patients . PHQ-9 is validated and extensively used in Ethiopia [21, 22]. The score of greater than or equal to 5 was consid- ered to indicate probable depression in patients in this study. Patient medication adherence was measured using self-reported questions.
The recent uncontrolled expansion of Eucalyptus could have significant effects on various ecosystem pro- cesses (Kebebew and Ayele 2010; Jenbere et al. 2012; Chanie et al. 2013; Tadele and Teketay 2014; Jaleta et al. 2016b). Eucalyptus expansion has been a contentious matter due to its argued ecological effects (Dessie and Erkossa 2011; Tadele and Teketay 2014; Yitaferu et al. 2013; Jaleta et al. 2016a). Various studies have assessed its effects on soil (Jenbere et al. 2012; Chanie et al. 2013; Yitaferu et al. 2013), water efficiency, allelophatic effect (Nigatu and Michelsen 1993; Fikreyesus et al. 2011) and socio-economy (Mekonnen et al. 2007; Adimassu et al. 2010; Kebebew and Ayele 2010). However, there are few studies that assessed its effect on surface runoff. More- over, runoff-rainfall effects are site specific, due to vari- ous local effects such as climate and biophysical characteristics (Critchley et al. 1991; Girmay et al. 2009). Therefore, it is important to understand how Eucalyptus alters surface runoff patterns compared to other land use system so as to make decision on ecosystem man- agement. The objective of this study was to evaluate sur- face runoff from three LULC in Meja River watershed, Oromia Regional State, central Ethiopia.
The higher prevalence of lice on calves in this study might be due to the indoor and outdoor keeping nature of calves in different areas, poor grooming behavior, lack of awareness about the effect of lice on calves, and other health problems. It was also found that Ambyloma species (3.8%), Flea species (5.1%), Boophilus species (5.7%) and mixed infestations (8.9%) were the most identified ectoparasites at the study areas. This result was comparable with the reports of  who reported that Ambyloma species accounted for (7.6%) and Boophilus species accounted for (5.2%) as well as . Boophilus decoloratus and Ambyloma species were dominant in this animal in Benchi maji zone south west and central Ethiopia respectively . Furthermore, the study revealed that the prevalence of ectoparasites was relatively higher in cross breed calves (48.9%) than in local breed (35.1%). similarly, the prevalence in male and female calves was (54.5%) and (33.3%) respectively. however, the difference in the prevalence was not statistically significant (p>0.05) between the breed but significant between the sex of calves.
Methods: A cohort of 5309 residents from four kebeles (the lowest government administrative unit) in 996 house‑ holds was followed from August to December 2013 in south‑central Ethiopia. Blood samples were collected by a fin‑ ger prick for a microscopic examination of malaria infections. A multilevel mixed effect model was applied to measure the predictors of malaria episode. Adult mosquitoes were collected using light traps set indoors close to a sleeping person, pyrethrum spray sheet catches and artificial outdoor pit shelters. Enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assays were used to detect the sources of mosquito blood meals, while mosquito longevity was estimated based on parity. The World Health Organization’s tube bioassay test was used to assess the insecticide susceptibility status of malaria vec‑ tors to pyrethroids and carbamates.
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The entire sample size was 825, which was determined using the single population proportion formula. During computing the sample size, 95% confidence level, the proportions of willing to donate eyes from a similar study conducted in central Ethiopia (57.9%) , 5% margin of error and 10% for non-response rate were assumed. Then the computed sample size was multiplied by the design ef- fect of two for ensuring its representativeness. The study participants were selected using a multistage random sam- pling method.
observed in the solely rain-fed agro-ecosystem. The agro- ecosystems under discussion contain villages of 1,500 to 2,500 inhabitants with many cultivations within the bor- ders of the villages, as well as being surrounded by a larger agricultural landscape. Several investigations have found that malaria prevalence is higher in such agro-ecosystems when traditional and/or more large-scale irrigation tech- niques are employed [12,21,38]. This higher annual malaria prevalence in irrigated areas can be attributed to differ- ences during two of the three seasons. First, malaria preva- lence is higher during, and in some cases throughout, the dry season in irrigated areas  whereas it is lower or ab- sent in the rain-fed regions [12,21, this study]. For example, in western [this study] and central Ethiopia , remark- ably higher malaria prevalence was found to extend into the dry season in villages practising irrigation compared to villages without irrigation. Second, during the short rains there is a substantially higher malaria prevalence in villages using irrigation, compared to those which are not [this study]. In this study, the malaria prevalence more than doubled during the short rains in irrigated compared to rain-fed agro-ecosystems. The persistence of increased levels of malaria during the dry season and the short rains means that in the villages with irrigation schemes in prac- tice, the burden of malaria is maintained throughout the year. This is in stark contrast to the non-irrigated villages in which the burden is substantially lower during the dry (this study, [12,21]) and short rainy seasons (this study, ). This shift from season-based to year-round malaria transmission in newly developed irrigated areas has been reported in Ethiopia (this study, [21–22]) and throughout much of the tropics and sub-tropics [9,10,12,38-44].
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in soil fertility due to long-term cultivation with little or no fertilizer additions is the major form of land degrada- tion in most of sub-Saharan Africa. Declining soil fertility has also been stressed to be the fundamental impediment to agricultural development and the major reason for the slow growth in food production in Ethiopia . The loss of soil nutrients in Ethiopia is related to cultural practices such as low fertilizer use, removal of vegetative cover (such as straw or stubble) and burning plant residues or the annual burning of vegetation on grazing land . An average quantity of di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) and urea of 57 kg ha −1 was consumed over the period of 1995
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As been mentioned by Haileab  and other researchers, Eucalyptus trees are known to provide a wide array of goods and services namely, provision of fuelwood, charcoal, construction materials, household and farm implements, pulp, eucalyptus oil, timber and poles. As a result of the quick growth habit, the tree is turned out to be very benefi- cial for the production paper. The tree also has indigenous and modern medicinal val- ues. In Ethiopia for instance, the steam from water boiled Eucalyptus globulus tree leaves are known to cure flue. Countries like Australia, Brazil, Chile, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, and Swaziland are also known for the production of Eucalyptus oil.
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Many small- and large-scale farmers in the main onion-producing areas of central rift valley of Ethiopia grow onion ( Allium cepa L.). In total, 31,673 ha of land were covered by onion with 293,887.6 tonnes of production, CSA . Nowadays, the area under onion production is increasing. However, its produc- tion and/or productivity is affected by many biotic (diseases, and insects pests) and abiotic like imbalanced fertilizer, uneven irrigation and inappropriate agro- How to cite this paper: Gedefaw, Y., Ge-
The study was approved by the institutional research review board of Aksum University College of health science (AKU-CHS, IRB). An official permission was also secured to Tigray regional health bureau. Then a permission and support letter was written to the health office of the central zone of Tigray. The central zone of Tigray has only governmental hospitals and these hospitals were gov- erns by Tigray regional health bureau. The official number from the regional health bureau was 216/1418/2010 which is used for all three hospitals. This was written in the Ethiopian calendar in 19/04/2010 E.C. Respondents have informed the purpose of the study then information was collected after obtaining written parental informed consent in each participant. Written con- sent was wanted from all the informed respondents before the start of each interview. Respondents were allowed to refuse or discontinue or participation at any time they want. Information was recorded anonymously and confiden- tiality and beneficence were assured throughout the study period.
respectively, while tree and climbers was least reported, 23 and 6.5%, respectively. Similar observation was reported in other countries [105, 106]. This trend may be attributed to the abundance and easy access of these growth forms in the country. Others have suggested that shrubs may hold higher content of potential anti-malarial phytochemicals, such as alkaloids and flavonoids . One possible mechanism for the link between shrubs and content of potential anti-malarial phytochemicals could be the diversity and abundance of these plants in different habitats. Secondary metabolites are thought to be required in the adaptation of plants with their envi- ronment. In light of this, abundance of shrubs in vari- ous habitats could offer a great chance to interact with diverse of biotic and abiotic factors, such as temperature, light intensity, soil nutrients, water supply, herbivore and microbial attack, which might trigger many complex bio- chemical processes pertaining to synthesize structurally and chemically diverse metabolites with significant anti- malarial activities, including alkaloids and flavonoids. Table 1 Characteristics of studies on medicinal plants used for the treatment of malaria in Ethiopia
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