Changes in pulse rate during postoperative period

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Heart rate changes during electroconvulsive therapy

Heart rate changes during electroconvulsive therapy

The measurement of pulse rate and blood pressure once a minute appears to be inadequate for investigating such rapidly changing cardiac action. Besides, automated non- invasive blood pressure monitoring takes some time, often more than 30 s, and cardiac action may not remain con- stant during this period. In view of the rapid changes that take place, precise statements regarding intraictal blood pressure values require arterial catheterization [3] or a special beat-to-beat monitoring device [5]. The accurate measurement of heart rate is, in comparison, easy. Re- cording of electrocardiogram (ECG) and pulse oximeter curves is appropriate and well established in the setting of anesthesia and convulsive therapy. Despite that easy acces- sibility, studies on a beat-to-beat basis have rarely been conducted, and their results are conflicting with regard to the effects of age and stimulus dose.
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Cognitive function recovery rate in early postoperative period: comparison of propofol, sevoflurane and isoflurane anesthesia

Cognitive function recovery rate in early postoperative period: comparison of propofol, sevoflurane and isoflurane anesthesia

discrete neuronal loci (1). For a long time it has been believed that anesthetic eff ects do not outlast their pharmacological action, and that the target or- gan is restored to its pre-anesthetic state with the elimination of anesthetic agent (2). Brain function changes during and in the immediate period after general anesthesia, which is characterized with de- pressed consciousness, impaired attention, memory, and prolonged reaction time (1). Cognition is de- fi ned as the mental processes of perception, mem- ory, and information processing, which allows the individual to acquire knowledge, solve problems, and plan for the future (2). Postoperative distur- bance in cognition, or as often been referred to as postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a term used variably and it is useful to make a dis- tinction between three types of cognitive deteriora- tion after surgery. POCD needs to be distinguished from postoperative delirium, which is transitory and intermittent disturbance of consciousness that usually occurs shortly after surgery, and short-term cognitive disturbance that may be apparent in early postoperative course. Short-term cognitive impair- ment occurs relatively frequently and may be due to a combination of factors, including surgery and anesthetic agents and it lasts several days after sur- gery (1, 3). While POCD is deterioration of intel- lectual function presenting as impaired memory or concentration, long-term complication of surgery and anesthesia related with changes in cognitive performance, both are usually assessed trough vari- ous neuropsychological tests (3-5). Propofol is the most frequently used IV anesthetic today, it is short acting intravenous anesth etic used as an induction agent, for sedation and maintenance of anesthe- sia. Propofol hypnotic activity is mostly mediated through enhancing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) induced chloride current through its binding to the β-subunit of GABA A receptor (6). Propofol is rapid- ly metabolized mostly in the liver however since its clearance exceeds hepatic blood fl ow, extrahepatic metabolism is suggested, its metabolites are consid- ered inactive (1). Half-life of propofol after initial dose is 2 to 8 minutes (7), and even after prolonged infusions, propofol provides rapid recovery (1). Volatile anesthetics are relatively inexpensive drugs,
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Psychogenic and behavior risks in postoperative period in maxillofacial surgery

Psychogenic and behavior risks in postoperative period in maxillofacial surgery

D. M. Semenov Zaporizhzhye State Medical University, Ukraine Аbstract Introduction. Maxillofacial trauma is one of the most relevant surgical issues in modern urban society. The issues of correction of post-traumatic pain and functional disorders, as well as prevention of psychological and behavioral violations in maxillofacial surgery patients creates specific interdisciplinary surgical and psychological problem. Aim – to systematize psychological and behavioral violations caused by stress associated with maxillofacial trauma and to evaluate its impact on postoperative treatment. Materials and methods. The study conducted in a prospective design during 2016-2018. 120 patients with maxillofacial area fractures, undergoing reconstructive surgery at City Clinical Hospital of Emergency and Rapid Care (Zaporizhzhya, Ukraine) were examined. Results. Predictors, psychological manifestations and influence on the in- and outpatient stages of the postoperative period of mixed negative emotional reactions on TAS; psychomotor reactions on TAS; somato-functional reactions on TAS; dental response on TAS; behavioral reactions on TAS; psychosensory reactions on TAS, personality reactions to changes in self-perception;
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Changes in critical velocity and critical stroke rate during a 12 week swimming training period: A case study

Changes in critical velocity and critical stroke rate during a 12 week swimming training period: A case study

Received: 14 October 2008; received in revised form: 15 November 2008; accepted: 20 November 2008 ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to analyse the evolution of critical velocity and critical stroke rate during 12 weeks of training in age group swimmers. Fourteen age group male swimmers took part in this investigation. The evaluation took place in two different trials. The first one was conducted at the beginning of the season and the second one after 12 weeks of training. For each subject the critical velocity and the critical stroke rate were determined in both trials. The main result was that critical velocity increased, whereas critical stroke rate decreased between the first and second trials. It seems that technical ability was improved during the 12 weeks of training. The swimmers were able to perform at the same physiological intensity at higher velocities and with less stroke rate. This information could help swimming coaches monitoring their training without expensive instruments.
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Pulse Oximetry and Cardiorespiratory Changes During Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy in Dogs

Pulse Oximetry and Cardiorespiratory Changes During Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy in Dogs

Design- Experimental study. Animals- 21 healthy and adults dog were randomly divided into three groups. Procedures- The IV combination of 6.5 mg/kg ketamine and 0.2 mg/kg diazepam was administered in group KD and 6.5 mg/kg ketamine and 0.3 mg/kg midazolam and 6.5 mg/kg ketamine and 0.4 mg/kg medetomidine were used in group KMi and KMed respectively. Respiratory rate/min, heart rate/min and SpO2 were recorded prior to induction of anesthesia and during endoscopy in esophagus, cardiac level, cardia and during exertion. In addition time to induction of anesthesia and duration of anesthesia were recorded in all dogs.
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Heart Rate Contribution in Soccer Players during the Competition Period

Heart Rate Contribution in Soccer Players during the Competition Period

Continuous recording of the components of the dynamic HR curve allows determining DS, T, DST and Lac after the test which are used as indicators of car- diorespiratory endurance and metabolic skeletal mus- cle adaptations during low and high-intensity train- ing. (29, 30) In addition, it also shows the variations of %HR max y HR max (that remains somewhat stable during the competition cycle) and allows calculating the changes in the heart rate reserve and a greater HR recovery as a physiological indicator of adapta- tion of cardiorespiratory endurance and, in conse- quence, a lower submaximum HR for an equal time, distance and speed displacement.
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Control of the heart rate of rat embryos during the organogenic period

Control of the heart rate of rat embryos during the organogenic period

The second aim of this study was to determine possible mechanisms underlying the decrease in HR induced by hypoxia. There are both direct and indirect ways by which cells detect the changes in oxygen status. As described earlier, HIF-1 transcription factors are stabilized only at lower concentrations of oxygen, setting off a cascade of events resulting in the upregulation of genes that have HIF- responsive elements. 21 These include genes involved in glycolysis, angiogenesis and other pathways which increase a cell’s chance of survival.

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LAND USE AND LANDSCAPE CHANGES IN CZECHIA DURING THE PERIOD OF TRANSITION

LAND USE AND LANDSCAPE CHANGES IN CZECHIA DURING THE PERIOD OF TRANSITION

privatisation and massive large-scale restitution of land property (nowadays there are 3.5 million land owners, but less than 1 % of them has begun to farm again). The reorganization of socialist cooperatives (some 65 % of agricultural land) could start with owner cooperatives when all the restitution requests were realized. It is interesting that all of these demands had to be approved by a meeting with all of a cooperative’s members (some of them were totally without any land or real estate) as well as owners (or their ancestors, i.e. chil- dren/grandchildren etc.) who owned land, stables, machines, cattle etc. before the creation of socialist cooperatives. The second most important producer in socialist agriculture – state farms (they used some 35 % of agricultural land, the majority being located in border regions) – were privatized on the basis of privatization projects. These projects were mostly prepared by the managers of state farms for tenders directed by the Ministry of Agriculture. Managers had the best information about big state farms and it was one of the main reasons for their high success rate in winning in tenders. But it was also a way how to support the “traditional structure” created during the socialist period. It was one (but not the most important) reason why farmers, who had restituted land, faced much worse conditions when they started farming anew. These quick processes influenced also the decrease in the number of employees in agriculture, forestry and the fish industry (from some 600,000 to 200,000 in 2006) and the division from socialist farms, construction, industrial and assembling workshops without any agricultural functions. These newly cre- ated parts (enterprises, facilities) were privatized and lost a good chance for earning extra profit from non-agricultural activities.
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Synchronous timing of abrupt climate changes during the last glacial period

Synchronous timing of abrupt climate changes during the last glacial period

slightly different depth-age relationships and thus chronologies, although such differences are generally small in the more densely dated speleothems (65). Linear interpolation or regression was the most commonly reported technique used for the records considered herein, despite their inability to model realistic growth-rate changes or account for interpolation uncertainty between age determinations. To overcome modelling inconsistencies, all depth-age relationships were 40

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Importance of hormonal changes during the periparturition period in black Bengal goats

Importance of hormonal changes during the periparturition period in black Bengal goats

International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology| Jan-Mar 2014 | Vol 1 | Issue 1 25 International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology| Jan-Mar 2014 | Vol 1 | Issue 1 24 reduced the rate of oxidation and the rate of continuous breakdown and formation of protein and fat in mammary tissue. This will also tend to reduce the adverse effects of nutrient deficiency at the onset of lactation. The decrease in the concentration of plasma T 3 on the day of kidding and its subsequent elevation indicates enhanced utilization as a result of increased metabolism due to stress of parturition during which the concentration of cortisol increases rather than being utilized by mammary tissue alone. Decrease in the concentration of plasma T 3 and T 4 on the day of kidding is in agreement with Riis and Madsen [35] who showed a sudden drop in T 4 at the onset of lactation and reported that low plasma T 4 and high plasma growth hormone concentration favor the mammary gland in the partitioning of nutrients between mammary and non‑mammary tissue. In the present study, estradiol was positively correlated with cortisol and T 4 levels during most part of the experimental period. The alteration in thyroid hormone and cortisol levels possibly contribute to increase in estradiol prior to delivery; and therefore, T 4 and cortisol may directly influence the process of parturition.
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Effects of stroke on changes in heart rate variability during hemodialysis

Effects of stroke on changes in heart rate variability during hemodialysis

There were several limitations in the current study. First, the study was a cross-sectional design with inher- ent weaknesses including unclear causal relationships and a lack of long-term observation of outcomes. Sub- jects of controls should be sex, age, and comorbidity- matched to compare with study patients. Second, a 24-h Holter ECG for HRV measurements would provide sub- stantially more data. A previous report, however, indi- cated that 5 min is sufficient for short-term HRV analysis [43]. Third, the number of study patients was relatively small. The FFT method for HRV analysis might not be perfectly accurate, and using a robust period detection may have better performance [44]. Moreover, participants in this study are survivors of stroke, and thus at risk for survivor bias. These results might not be generalizable to all hemodialysis patients who experienced stroke. Changes in serum glucose during hemodialysis, markers of fluid overload as well as cardiac function may affect HRV, and should be considered in the further studies. A future large-scale prospective in- vestigation including non-linear parameters of HRV and assessing baroreflex using heart rate and blood pressure variability is necessary.
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Changes in pulse pressure variability during cardiac resynchronization therapy in mechanically ventilated patients

Changes in pulse pressure variability during cardiac resynchronization therapy in mechanically ventilated patients

However, preload is only one determinant of cardiac perform- ance (besides ventricular contractility and afterload proper- ties). Whereas the influence of changes in preload on the variation of stroke volume, PP, or systolic blood pressure (SBP) has been investigated in detail, the extent to which these dynamic measures are modified by changes in ventricu- lar performance is not yet clear. This might be due to the fact that the treatment with inotropic drugs also modifies heart rate and vascular tone, thus making it impossible to study the iso- lated effect of changes in cardiac performance on dynamic cardiovascular measures.
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Changes in the optimal tax rate in South Africa prior and subsequent to the global recession period

Changes in the optimal tax rate in South Africa prior and subsequent to the global recession period

al., 2005). In face of these economic challenges, the Margo Commission was appointed to restructure the tax system by particularly broadening the base on both direct and indirect taxes. Between 1987 and 1994 the commission implemented a number of key reforms on direct and indirect taxes. Reforms on direct taxes included i) the enhancement of neutrality in personal income tax by allowing equal treatment of both genders, ii) the reduction in company tax to a 35 percent, and iii) the introduction of a secondary tax on companies as a tax on distributed profits. On the other hand, reforms on indirect taxes included i) the replacement of the GST in favour of the invoice-based value-added tax (VAT) and ii) the introduction of the capital transfer tax as a replacement of the estate duty and donations tax. Despite these reforms, the share of individual taxation as a share of tax revenue increased from 32 to 40 percent between 1987 and 1994 whereas the share of company tax in total revenue had reduced from 22 to 13 percent over the same period of time. This was accompanied with negative economic growth rate averages of -0.7 percent experienced during the 1989 to 1993 period.
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Financial integration and structural changes in Spanish banks during the pre-crisis period

Financial integration and structural changes in Spanish banks during the pre-crisis period

securitization, risk transfer and tranching and markets are eager to absorb large volumes of these instruments issued by banks around the globe. Part of this interest is justified by the low-risk perception that investors have towards securitization bonds because they are backed by an a priori diversified loan portfolio and credit agencies rate the main part of the issuance with top grades. During the period analyzed, Spanish banks realize that securitization represents an opportunity to obtain funds at costs at least as low as other alternatives, since some tranches could have even better ratings than the senior debt of the issuer.
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CHANGES IN TAXATION SYSTEM AND THE FINANCIAL SITUATION OF LOCAL AUTHORITIES IN POLAND DURING THE PERIOD

CHANGES IN TAXATION SYSTEM AND THE FINANCIAL SITUATION OF LOCAL AUTHORITIES IN POLAND DURING THE PERIOD

brackets into one. The tax bracket limit of PLN 85,528 remained unchanged in the years 2009-2013. Incomes below the limit were taxed at the rate of 18% and all the higher incomes at 32%. The depth and nature of changes that took place during the period in question in the structure of personal income tax collected on general principles makes it necessary to estimate the financial consequences of these changes for the local authorities.

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Original Article Role of operating room clinical nursing during postoperative anesthetic period in the treatment of laryngeal cancer

Original Article Role of operating room clinical nursing during postoperative anesthetic period in the treatment of laryngeal cancer

pathway nursing can make the nursing process standardized and routinized. So omissions can be avoided, and rehabilitation nursing is target- ed and purposeful. Clinical pathway nursing can effectively reduce the workload of medical staff, and it also changes the role of patients from passive acceptance to active participation in rehabilitation. The doctor-patient relation- ship was improved, so patients’ evaluation on nursing satisfaction was increased significant- ly. In the control group, SDS and SAS scores after the operation were higher than scores after being hospitalized, this is possibly because the wound pain made patient’s psy- chological burden greater. In the study group, SDS and SAS scores decreased steadily after being hospitalized, and it further proved that clinical pathway nursing can effectively regu- late the psychological state of LC patients.
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The Term Structure of Interest Rates and Monetary Policy during a Zero Interest Rate Period

The Term Structure of Interest Rates and Monetary Policy during a Zero Interest Rate Period

This figure shows that ex post return data are at less than zero percent at the beginning of the implementation of the monetary policies, and thus the zero interest rate and quantitative easing policies were initially perceived as credible and were expected to last for some considerable time. However, this phenomenon changes over time. Apparently, there is usually an increasing trend in the ex post short-term rates during low interest rate periods, but this trend was absent during the quantitative easing policy. This indicates that, while it is statistically insignificant, some investors anticipated a change in the zero interest rate policy. This finding is consistent with Marumo et al. (2003), who calculate the probability of the zero interest rate policy being removed, and conclude that after August 2000 a shift occurred in the distribu- tion of expectations; investors indeed had anticipated a policy change. In contrast, the relatively constant ex post rate during the quantitative easing policy would suggest that this measure was expected to last some time. This latter observation is generally consistent with previous research (Okina and Shiratsuka [2004]).
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HORMONAL AND IMMUNOLOGICAL CHANGES DURING PREGNANCY  PERIOD OF  COWS

HORMONAL AND IMMUNOLOGICAL CHANGES DURING PREGNANCY  PERIOD OF  COWS

(1995) and Al-Anbaky (2009). According to these researchers this gradually augmentation in the level of testosterone at advance stage of gestation may be attributed to the biosynthesis and excretion of testosterone hormone by several sources such as placental tissues, ovary, mammary gland and fetal males. As shown in tables 1 and figure 3, serum IgG levels showed insignificant fluctuation from the 1 st month of the 6.5 th months of gestation. Thereafter, IgG increased sharply in the subsequent months and it reached to the peak in the 8.5 th months, followed by the depression in IgG levels in the 9 th and 9.3 th months of gestation. General trend of IgG levels throughout pregnancy period are in agreement with the findings of Carolina et al. (2014) in domestic animals and by Malek et al. (1996) in woman; these researchers reported that fetal IgG begins to increase from 13 to 18 weeks of gestation and this impr ovement continuously increases till the end of final trimester and typically exceed the maternal IgG concentrations. This increases in globulin level with the advance of gestation might be due to change in their endocrine profile, since an animal's transit ion occurs from non-gravid to gravid state and their transformation might have influenced more production of globulin by B- lymphocytes (Harichandan et al., 2014).
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Family and Fertility in Poland: Changes during the Transition Period

Family and Fertility in Poland: Changes during the Transition Period

period of early transformation 7 . Figures 9 and 10 present sample estimation results of the family status life table model 8 . Figure 9 displays information on basic changes in female marital status, which were characterized by increased share of women in single marital status, decrease in female shares in married, widowed and divorced statuses. Significant changes are observed in female distributions by the number of children born at the end of procreative career of a woman (at 50). For the distribution of years 1988-1989, which is a unimodal parity-specific distribution, two children have the dominant share. The corresponding distribution for years 1994-1995 has two dominant centres, with the highest shares of zero-parity (36%), to be followed by two-parity (27%). Data included in the tables show that on average in years 1988-1989 there were two children per a woman at 50, while in the period 1994-1995 – 1.5 children, respectively. The results are unequivocal and prove the enormous range and significance of the changes in life cycle over such a short period of time. They inform of fundamental changes in family size and composition over its life cycle that have been observed. The number of single, never married people is growing, the number of children is falling, distribution and sequence of events in family life cycle are changing. Signs of destandardization of family life cycle become visible; however pace of process is very slow. This is a serious warning, which informs of the range of changes occurring in intergeneration relations as well. Another estimation of family status life tables will be possible after the results from the National Census 2002 have been processed and beyond all doubt it will deliver information on further change in family life cycle in Poland.
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Changes in agricultural holdings structure during the transition period in Slovenia

Changes in agricultural holdings structure during the transition period in Slovenia

Later in 1953 the 10-hectare agrarian maximum of arable land was introduced. All these actions have resulted in compulsory expropriation for certain proportion of farmers as well as all landowners and Roman Catholic Church. As already over 80% of agricultural land was always in private hands, the privatization of agricultural land wasn’t an issue in Slovenia during the transition. The only important transition process regarding the land ownership was restitution of nationalized land used by the state farms to its original owners or their legal ancestors. The denationalisation and privatisation, which started in 1991, comprised only 17% of all agricultural land and forests of the country where forests represented approx. 70%. So those processes could not significantly influence the restructuring of Slovene agricultural holdings, but it definitely brought some important dynamics into the process.
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