Part IV examines the ways in which international law and institutions can be utilized to advance the rights of children left behind by MDWs. The United Nations system often fails to achieve its proclaimed objectives because of the unwillingness of States to ratify relevant treaties or to imple- ment them when they have been ratified. Nevertheless, a number of States have adopted domestic practices that address concerns raised in this Arti- cle, and these form best practice models that are addressed in Part V. Among the noteworthy practices of receiving States, we consider those that promote reunification of migrant families through permanent resettlement (such as Canada’s Caregiver Program), and those that encourage circular migration as a means of balancing the labor demands of receiving States with the human needs of migrants and their families. Among the notewor- thy practices of sending States, we consider the leverage exerted by States such as the Philippines in bilateral negotiations with receiving States; and longer-term measures to convert low-skilled migration streams (such as domestic work) into skilled streams (such as nursing), where the risks of human rights violations are much reduced. Promising sites for future developments are the regional consultative processes that include labor sending and receiving States.
61 Read more
The mental health and stress caused by life events as experienced by those children left behind by overseas parents are in striking positive correlation, as verified in the find- ings made by Bifulco, Bernazzani, Moran, & Ball (2000) and Franko et al. (2004). The findings demonstrate that the mental health of these children is closely related to stresses from life events such as adaptability to change in environment, experience of loss, learning pressure, interpersonal communication and punishment etc. In other words, the stress of life events on these children is a direct and important external fac- tor that affects their mental health. Comparisons of survey results show that different life events correlate differently to the different aspects of mental health. Stress resulting from interpersonal relations correlates most closely to stubbornness ( r = 0.591), that can be observed in different aspects of interpersonal communication, such as percep- tion, judgment, comprehension and reaction. The stress of study correlates closest to a sense of learning pressure ( r = 0.591) and punishment and stress of loss correlate clos- est to obsession ( r = 0.427). Frequent and intense punishment of these left-behind children may lead to their propensity towards obsession; stress on ones health resulting from adapting to a changing environment correlates closest to mal-adaptation ( r = 0.427). Other stresses produce more hostility in the children left behind by of overseas Chinese ( r = 0.427). When we are considering the mental health of these children, spe- cial attention should be given to the striking impact of life events.
13 Read more
us to use children in non-migrant households as a comparison group. In phase 1, structured surveys were administered to several members of c.1,000 households in each country during 2008, including the primary school-aged children themselves. In phase 2, follow-up qualitative interviews with around 50 of the children’s principal caregivers in each country were undertaken in 2009, as well as semi-structured interviews with 16 of the older children in both Indonesia and the Philippines who were aged 10, 11 and 12 years at the time of interview. All interviews were conducted in local languages and all participants gave informed consent, or assent in the case of children. Interviewers were constantly mindful of ethical concerns 3 , especially those that entail working with children (see Skelton, 2008). In particular, interviewers were careful to protect and respect children’s rights and opinions, interviewing them within sight of an adult household member. An activity involving the ‘protection umbrella’ (adapted from Beasley, Bessell, Ennew and Waterson, 2005) was used to help put children at ease during the qualitative interview. Survey questions were translated and back- translated, and the meanings were tested in a pilot study to ensure comparability across language groups.
37 Read more
In this study the target participant were junior high school students (aged 12–15 years). The participants were recruited by multi-stage sampling method as followed: 1) In order to obtain a proper sample size of eligible participants, cluster sampling approach was used for selecting areas with more rural-to-urban migrants. Six cities or autonomous prefectures were chosen in this stage, including Dazhou city, Bazhong city and Nan- chong city in North- Eastern Sichuan, Neijiang city and Yibin city in Southern Sichuan, and Liangshan Autono- mous prefectures in North-Western Sichuan; 2) The main selection criteria of the sampling counties are counties with large population of migrants and so left-behind children. Also, the selected counties should be geographically representative for Sichuan Province. As a result, four counties (Tongjiang County, Zizhong County, Gao County, Yuexi County), one district (Dachuan District) and one city (Liangzhong city) were purposively selected based on the mentioned criteria mentioned above; 3) Based on the population size of the selected area, the sample size were 800, 1000 and 1200 participants for areas with small (Yuexi County), middle (Tongjiang County) and large (Gao County, Zizhong County, Liangzhong city and Dachuan District) popula- tion scales respectively; 4) For left-behind children re- lated research, National Health and Family Planning Commission of PRC has determined the ratio of left-behind children and non-left-behind children as 2:1. Therefore, participants were recruited through quota sampling with the stated ratio. For example, apart from
11 Read more
Sadly, many non-hearing children are taught no language from birth, due to either parental ignorance or negligence. Many of these parents are not sure what they should do with their child, especially a non-hearing child born into a hearing family. Often the only true language that these children learn is introduced upon commencement of Kindergarten. By this time, children may learn ASL and English, but most will never be fully fluent in either. Most non-hearing students graduate with no higher than a fourth grade reading level, and only seven percent of non- hearing students obtain a seventh grade or higher reading level (Strong, 1997).
family. The balance sheet of international labor migration typically involves a trade-off between economic well-being and family proximity. Families divided across national borders may reap economic benefits, but they also make sacrifices in terms of geographical and emo- tional closeness (Ehrenreich & Hochschild, 2002; Orellana, Thorne, Chee, & Lam, 2001). Such costs may be especially high for mothers separated from their children. The continu- ing feminization of transnational migration has prompted studies of how gender identities are reworked when women migrate (Elmhirst, 2007; Hondagneu-Sotelo, 1994) and provoked popular anxieties about a care crisis and the future of the family in sending countries such as the Philip- pines (Asis, Huang, & Yeoh, 2004; Parre˜nas, 2003). A small but growing body of quali- tative work has started to explore emotions, belonging, and intimate relations within transna- tional families (McKay, 2007; Parre˜nas, 2001; Svasek, 2008), but with a focus on adults rather than children. The few studies that have exam- ined emotional responses to parental migration among children left behind suggest that chil- dren of migrant mothers may be especially prone to anger, feelings of being abandoned or unloved, confusion, and worries (Episcopal Commission for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People – CBCP/Apostleship of the Sea – Manila, Scalabrini Migration Cen- tre & Overseas Workers Welfare Adminis- tration [ECMI-CBCP/AOS – Manila, SMC, & OWWA], 2004; Parre˜nas, 2005). Yet these stud- ies have either relied on qualitative evidence or have been based on limited analysis of quanti- tative data, and have paid scant attention to the psychological literature on parent – child sepa- ration and child mental health.
25 Read more
Results from previous research have suggested that guardianship is an important factor to consider when examining the risk of stunting in left-behind children. Yu et al. including nearly 8,000 children under 5 years old obtained from surveillance data of rural areas of China found that there was a slightly increased risk of stunting in children not cared by their parents compared with those cared by parents (OR = 1.19, 95 % CI 1.02–1.39) (Yu et al. 2011). Another study using similar data with about 16,000 children aged under 5 years from 1990 to 2010 found that the prevalence of stunting in children left behind by migrant mothers was 20–30 % higher than in non-left- behind children in rural areas of China (Chen et al. 2011). Similar results of increased risks of stunting in very young children not primarily cared by mothers were also observed in other Chinese studies (He et al. 2007; Cui et al. 2008). Although in China it is quite common for children cared by their grandparents while one or both parents are absent, these studies have not examined the children’s dietary Table 4 Adjusted odds ratios with 95 % CI for the association of socio-demographic characteristics, stunting and feeding practices with guardianship (N = 6043, China, 2010–2011)
The LBC issue has several negative impacts on China‘s development. Firstly, it may extend the economic gap between rural and urban areas. The LBC usually follow their parents to the city as the new generation of immigrants. One third of 15-17 year old rural LBC began to go to work in urban areas after graduating from secondary school (ACWF, 2008). Therefore, lesser farmers work on the land in rural areas. One of the results is that many villages in China have become deserted, with only elderly people and younger children left behind. Secondly, growth of LBC increases the economic gap between east and west China. For the eastern part of China, being on the receiving end of immigrants has allowed economy development with cheaper labour. On the other hand, for the western part of China, difficulty in finding labourers has contributed to its slower economic growth leading to another problem that most families in western China live on lower incomes with only some basic needs fulfilled. As a result, this is widening the gap between the east and west of China. The second and third generation immigrants to the city are more willing to live permanently in the city rather than returning to the rural area. Due to the fact that most LBC who work in the city have low educational background, they are unable to earn a higher income, a problem which increases the gap between the rich and the poor in cities, aggravating China‘s inequality problem.
20 Read more
functioning (increased responsibilities at home, lack of affordability, motivation and parental support) . It is in- teresting that the left-behind children were less likely to have emotional disorders compared to their counterparts in Philippines, and the reasons for that might be that the civil society has taken actions to protect the left-behind group due to its long-established labor migration. In south Asia, children of Indonesia, Vietnam and Thailand who have migrant father show emotional disorders or conduct disor- ders , which may be the result of patriarchal gender ideologies in these countries just like China. There are a substantial number of children who have been left behind as a result of parental migration in Mexico, thus the Mexican Institute of Family and Population Re- search developed a model to help the left-behind chil- dren and their caregivers. Not only life skill training but also method to overcome psychosocial barriers (such as shame, fears, guilt) are included in the knowledge- acquisition program, which may improve the physical and psycho-social well-beings of the children left behind and serve as an example for other countries .
10 Read more
The differences in paternal and maternal parenting may moderate the relationships between negative life events and depressive symptoms: fathers incline to play a role in setting discipline  and offering material support , while mothers play a prominent role in providing affection and caring [55, 56]. Main and Weston found that the security of infant-mother attach- ment is more strongly associated with the infants’ responses to an unfamiliar person than the security of infant-father attachment . Cole and MecPherson found that father-child conflict but not mother-child conflict is positively related to depressive symptoms of adolescents . A 6-year longitudinal study by Brody et al. shows that only paternal warmth has a significant long-term effect on shaping adolescents’ attitudes toward social issues such as sex roles, child support, welfare, marriage, divorce and teenage childbearing . Finally, because of the general maltreatment from non-parent caregivers [6, 9 – 11], children left by both parents might experience more depressive symptoms and stress than other types of LBC. Hence, it is important to examine the effects of the type of parental migration on LBC ’ s psych- ology separately for their potentially varied outcomes.
16 Read more
http://www.ijmr.net.in email id- email@example.com Page 7 children left behind. Also, the children who migrate with the family are at the risk of family labour, risk on street and social exclusion. In Moldova, the absence of the father has little negative consequences on a child’s development (Vladicescu et al., 2008). School performance of children left behind is often compromised by increased household responsibilities and obligations to care for their younger siblings. Adolescents from left behind households may become labour migrants as part of their transition to adulthood. In a Mexican context where remittance from the USA lowers the likelihood of children labour- force participation and increases resources for consumption of education-related goods (Kandel & Kao, 2001), 61% of children left behind still suffered from psychological problems and felt abandoned (UNICEF-UNDP Survey, 2006 cf. UNICEF, n.d.). Similarly, a study on the Caribbean migration and its impact on children by Bakker et al., (2009) find that children who have been left behind as well as taken along are placed in a vulnerable situation thereby, affecting their psycho-social well-being and exposing them to increased risk of poor academic performance as well as interruption of schooling.
“foster” child may feel less access to the guardian’s concern. Even those cared for by a single mother or father, can neither get enough care and supervision nor communica- tion with each other often  because of not having enough time and energy to take care of them. LBC are more sensitive to the views and perspectives of people in their environment , but they cannot learn from their parents how to handle the interpersonal relationships suc- cessfully as their parents are not living with them and com- municate with them infrequently . Studies also found that they had more risks of injury . Moreover, the absen- tee parents felt compelled to work in cities to provide better financial support for their children’s education and living conditions and hoped that their children would get a better job in the future through better education. They have more anxiety about their children’s school achieve- ment, which imposes more study pressure on LBC. In this study, we found that the LBC had the most problems on study pressure, followed by emotional instability, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive.
12 Read more
Older parents with only some of their children migrated may not experience all the negative consequences compared to those with all their children migrated. These circumstances allow financial support from the migrant child and local support from the child(ren) at home which may have positive outcomes for their mental health and well-being. In addition, technological developments, especially in communication, have enabled continuous communication between the left behind parents and migrant children, potentially decreasing the negative impact of adult child migration [95, 96]. According to White and Edwards  empty nest sta- tus improved marital happiness; termed the ‘post-launch honeymoon’. The departure of the last child from the household can have a positive impact for parents . The impact of left behind on the mental health of the elderly also depends on the socio-cultural context of the families. Mitchell and Lovegreen  reported higher levels of empty nest syndrome among the Indo/East Indian parents compared to British parents. Indian parents found more difficul- ties due to their expectations that sons stay with the parents and daughters remain until mar- riage. Gao et al.  found that that “living resources” and “availability of medical treatment” have an important mediating role in urban areas while engagement in “social activities” showed significant mediators among the rural sample.
30 Read more
Japan, India and Egypt for being non-Convention partners that are also among the top ten countries to which children abducted from the United States are taken. 184 While the Resolution does urge those Convention partners identified by the State Department as noncompliant or showing patterns of noncompliance to fulfill their commitments under the treaty, its two main focuses are: (1) to encourage non-partners of the Convention to accede and develop mechanisms for returning abducted children expediently; and (2) to increase the services and resources available to help left-behind parents secure the return of their child. 185 While these objectives are important, they should not subordinate specific efforts to enforce Convention compliance. Otherwise, the efforts to encourage a country to become a partner of a treaty would seem in vain if there is no continued pressure to comply with it.
29 Read more
A number of researchers have theorized that migration of a parent for extended periods may transform family relationships and functioning [42,43]. For left-behind children, the main concerns centre on how separation from parents affects their social, behavioural and psy- chological development. In our study, two in every five left-behind children were shown to have clinically rele- vant child psychiatric disorders. These results suggest that socio-emotional maladjustment and behavioural problems may occur among left-behind children in the absence of a parent. Findings from this nationally repre- sentative study corroborates with findings from smaller scale studies conducted in Sri Lanka that showed ad- verse behavioural outcomes, emotional and conduct dis- orders in school aged children of female migrant workers [22-24]. The crucial finding was that the psy- chological impact on families was also observed in fam- ilies where the father is the overseas migrant worker. Qualitative studies have suggested that it is more chal- lenging to achieve intimacy with children for migrant fa- thers than mothers [19,44]. Our results also revealed that male left-behind children were more vulnerable to psychopathology. This finding may need further explor- ation to specifically ascertain gender dimensions of transnational parenting, and measure child resiliency. In the adjusted analyses, significant associations were observed between child psychopathological outcomes and the gender of the child, parental education and their mental health status.
12 Read more
The LS scores (mean ± SE) in different groups of demo- graphic and living/health conditions factors were tested by the independent samples t-test or one-way ANOVA. Pear- son’s correlation analysis was used to assess correlations among continuous variables. Confirmatory factor analysis was applied to test the validity of the scales. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to explore the mediating effect of resilience in the association between stress and LS. All variables related to LS in univariate analysis (P< 0.05) were entered into the hierarchical regression analysis. In block 1, demographic variables (age, monthly income, left-behind status, presence of chronic diseases, and sense of marriage security) were added as covariates. In block 2, stress was added as an independent variable. In block 3, resilience was added as a mediating variable. Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) was used to estimate whether regression coefficient increased because of collinearity. In present study, VIF values <10, which was considered that multicollinearity was not an issue in the estimate. Standardized estimates ( β ), F, adjusted R 2 , and R 2 -change (R 2 ) for each block
The research of Zhou Zongkui, et al. also shows that the level of anxiety of boys is the same with that of girls; the research of Zhang Shun and Wang Liangfeng, et al. shows that, the gender of the left-behind children is also not significant in the main effect of social anxiety. No matter primary school boys or girls, they put their main vigor on school work. However, this era puts an increasing emphasis on the importance of social intercourse; social skills of pupils are not yet mature; without companion of their parents, the left- behind children look forward to interacting with others to gradually meet the needs of social intercourse. Therefore, the level of social anxiety of boy and girls does not have significant differences.
If individuals often use or active in cognitive assimilation the positive coping style such as problem solve, ask for help and rationalization etc., it will be great beneficial to moderate social anxiety, so as to dissolve the lone- liness. It can be concluded that the positive coping style and the positive psychological trait can bring positive effect to left-behind children’s mental health. But, if someone take negative coping style more frequently, such as fantasy, retreat or remorse, it would be easier to make him or her in a vicious cycle of anxiety and loneliness and cannot extricate oneself. So, when the left-behind children appeared social anxiety, on different levels to take positive or negative coping styles, it will be significant mediate effect on loneliness. And this tell the teach- ers and parents that if anyone want to help reduce the loneliness of left-behind children, carry out rational edu- cation of coping style is necessary and feasible.
11 Read more
According to the results of our correlation analy- sis, there are positive correlations between social anxiety and Internet addiction, between loneli- ness and Internet addiction, and between social anxiety and loneliness. In terms of the definition of Internet addiction, previous research pointed out that excessive enthusiasm to establish inter- personal relationships through the Internet or to get interpersonal support from the Internet is one of the important manifestations of Internet addiction (25). The relationship between social anxiety and Internet addiction can be seen indi- rectly from this definition. Our findings are simi- lar to those of Li et al. (26). The probable reasons for the correlation between social anxiety and Internet addiction include the lack of parents’ companionship with and guidance over left- behind middle school students, inappropriate ed- ucation by the custodians whose cultural and teaching quality level is relatively low, the low level of rural education, and other factors which result in the tendency of left-behind middle school students to suffer from social anxiety. When the level of social anxiety increases and left-behind middle school students cannot find a reasonable outlet, the Internet naturally becomes
10 Read more
Return migration can be considered part of a lifetime utility maximisation plan with a given budget (and liquidity) constraints (Borjas and Bratsberg, 1996). In the inter- national migration literature, the return motives notably include location preferences with a higher marginal utility of consumption in the area of origin (Djajic and Milbourne, 1988), a higher purchasing power of the destination area currency at home (Djajic, 1989; Stark et al., 1997), and higher returns to human capital accumulated in the destination area at home (Dustmann, 2001; Dustmann et al., 2011). However, as highlighted by Dustmann (2003) and Djajic (2008), the decision to return and the opti- mal time of return can also be influenced by altruistic motives of parents towards their offspring in the household. Hence, the migration behaviour, and the decision to return, may be driven not only by individual life-cycle considerations but also by dynastic motives such as offspring ’ s welfare in the future 13 . Emphasising the family unit rather than the individual migrant makes sense in rural China, where family ties are strong and may be important components in explaining individual decisions. Moreover, such an approach seems the most relevant in a context where migration patterns are shaped by the household registration system (hukou), which does not entitle rural migrants to urban benefits and leaves most children behind. In their study of a sample of migrants living in Beijing, Fan et al. (2011) argue that the desire to be near left-behind children is an important reason for a migrant’s return.
21 Read more