Supplemental Security Income (SSI) payments for children with disabilities
SSI makes monthly payments to people with low income and limited resources who are 65 or older, or blind, or disabled. Your child, if younger than age 18, can qualify if he or she has a physical or mental condition, or combination of conditions, that meets Social Security’s definition of disability for children, and if his or her income and resources fall within the
Environment. In addition, it also provides tools and strategies to help Administrators better understand and examine their district’s system for providing services to preschool aged children with disabilities.
The guide is divided into several sections.
• Examining Where Services Are Provided to Preschool Children with Disabilities - In this first section we discuss the terminology, and provide clarification around the settings and environments related to serving preschool aged children with disabilities. This section includes a program self-assessment.
In addition to IDEA, there are other federal laws that support the inclusion of pre- k children with disabilities in typical early childhood programs.
Head Start program performance standards mandate that at least 10% of enrollment opportunities be available for children with disabilities. 65 Head Start agencies help states meet their IDEA inclusion obligation by contracting and/or collaborating with LEAs to provide an inclusive education program to pre-k children determined eligible for special education and related services. In addition, parents may choose to have their child served in a Head Start agency rather than using LEA services. In either instance, the LEA is responsible for the identification, evaluation and provision of a free appropriate public education for a child who meets IDEA eligibility criteria, although not necessarily for the actual delivery of the education and services. In situations in which the LEA contracts with a Head Start agency, the agency is responsible for providing the program and services in accordance with the child’s IEP.
In general, the causes of abuse and neglect of children with disabilities are the same as those for all children;
however, several elements may increase the risk of abuse for children with disabilities. Children with chronic illnesses or disabilities often place higher emo- tional, physical, economic, and social demands on their families. 21 For example, a physical disability that causes difficulty in ambulation can place a child at risk of acci- dental falls. Therefore, much closer supervision will be needed, which itself can be stressful. Parents with lim- ited social and community support may be at especially high risk of maltreating children with disabilities, be- cause they may feel more overwhelmed and unable to cope with the care and supervision responsibilities that are required. 17 Lack of respite or breaks in child care responsibilities can contribute to an increased risk of abuse and neglect. Finally, the added requirements of special health care and educational needs can result in failure of the child to receive needed medications, ade- quate medical care, and appropriate educational place- ments, resulting in child neglect. 17
Previous chapters have set the stage and established the rationale for the study. Chapter one focused on the context in which the research was conducted and explored the living experiences of mothers parenting children with disabilities. Chapter two discussed the theoretical frameworks that informed the study. Chapter three discussed the literature on parents of children with disabilities across both developed and developing countries. It was shown that parenting is not a gender-neutral activity and that it is both a gendered and unequal experience (Blum, 2015). In this chapter, therefore, I discuss the link between the theoretical underpinnings that informed this research project and the methodology and methods employed in addressing and exploring the research questions. The chapter will start by elucidating the crosscutting theory of methodology concepts that informed and provided a framework for this research design. An overarching research aim of my study was to explore and make sense of the experiences and desires of mothers parenting a child with disabilities in Zambia from their own perspectives. The study was conducted as a small scale qualitative inquiry undertaken in two geographical areas of Zambia with a diverse sample of mothers of children with disabilities using predominantly biographical methods and incorporating some participatory elements. Thereafter, in this chapter, I will show how the theoretical assumptions were employed and translated into the entire process of empirical research in order to adequately address the research questions.
Parents ‘perceptions of children with disabilities determine parents’ acceptance of children with disabilities and the quality of care provided. This study aims to describe parents ‘perceptions of children with disabilities, and to examine whether there are differences in parental perceptions of children with disabilities based on the child’s age at diagnosis, differences in parents’ age and differences in parental education levels. This research was conducted by giving a questionnaire to 83 parents, of which 75% were women. Data were analyzed descriptively with percentages and analysis of variance was also carried out. The research findings conclude that most parents accept the diagnosis of their children with disabilities, and consider that having a disability is God’s will. Most parents feel that their extended family and society can accept the existence of children with disabilities, they also understand the special needs of their children and are optimistic about the future of children with disabilities. On the other hand, most respondents felt that they were failures as parents, and most parents chose to place their children in dormitories. Based on the analysis of variance, it was concluded that parents
These photos were chosen by Participant 2. The photo on the left was described as "spending time exploring new places like parks to just hanging around on!" The photo on the right was described as "finding things to do by yourself that keep you occupied and entertained."
Participant 2 also discussed play as a social activity, which becomes more accessible through peer-to-peer interactions with siblings and friends. Play is an essential facet for social development. This autistic child recognized the importance of socialization through play, yet other children with disabilities may have varying degrees of social competence and might neglect to think of play in this manner. The participant also noted the unstructured aspects of play, which require him to find new ways to entertain himself. He described how sometimes he needs to “play” while waiting for his parents, creating games as he goes. These are examples of how play does not always need to be structured or planned but can be altered or redefined for the situation and place, becoming less adult-directed and more self-directed. The participant also explained how play sometimes included “doing things that may be a little scary at first, but fun once you’ve tried it with friends” (Participant 2, 2019). This example shows the need for relationships while engaging in play activities, as discussed previously, and illustrates the ever- changing aspects of play.
physical activity (MVPA) per day (Bornstein, Beets, Byun, Wonwoo, & McIver, 2011), far less than the 60+ minutes per day as suggested by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE, 2009). Although approximately 53% of 3 to 5 year-old children in the United States attend preschools (Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2012), the scientific literature shows a limited number of studies on physical activity levels among preschool aged children in particular, with a growing literature base related to children with disabilities and physical activity intervention in general (Capio et al., 2014; Favazza et al., 2013). Much like the physical activity literature for typically developing preschool children, even less is known for young children identified with disabilities. Approximately 18% of children and adolescents in the United States have a chronic condition or disability (Murphy & Carbone, 2008), and among this population, very little is known about the percentage of children who actually engage in the recommended amount of physical activity. However, the scientific literature does demonstrate low participation rates of physical activity levels in adults with disabilities (USDHHS, 2000).
Child Support for Children with Disabilities Chapter 44
7 It is far better to address these issues during the divorce process, rather than being forced to address them after SSI has been reduced or lost do to child support payments. After the parents agree upon, or the court determines, the monthly contribution by the non- custodial parent for the child with special needs, the divorce attorneys involved should contact an attorney with experience drafting special needs trusts. This type of special needs trust differs greatly from any other type of estate planning trust. Among other features, this trust must provide that Medicaid is paid back at the death of the trust beneficiary from any amount remaining in the trust.
community resources to ensure the safety of all chil- dren.
Identification and Reporting
Pediatricians should always be alert to signs or symptoms that are suggestive of abuse, no less in children with disabilities than in others. However, recognizing the signs and symptoms of maltreatment among children with disabilities may be difficult, because children may not be able to verbalize that they were abused or they may not understand that what took place was wrong. 12 Children with motor and balance disabilities may experience increased injuries from accidents. However, children with neu- rosensory disabilities may be predisposed to frac- tures, and in the absence of pain, there may be a delay in seeking medical attention. Pediatricians and other professionals who work with children must be aware of injury patterns from inflicted versus nonin- flicted trauma. Signs and symptoms of maltreatment in children with disabilities are commonly ignored, misinterpreted, or misunderstood. Furthermore, many institutions may have a disincentive to recog- nize or report child maltreatment because of fear of negative publicity or loss of funding or licensure.
WHO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR PROVIDING ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY TO A CHILD?
Children with disabilities of school age are entitled to receive the AT they need from their school districts. Most preschoolers get AT and other services from their Intermediate Units (IUs), although school districts and private providers are responsible for Early Intervention for preschoolers in some parts of the state. The youngest children get AT and other Early Intervention services from their County Early Intervention program. The type of device needed to receive an appropriate special or regular education program, and any necessary training for the child, family, or staff must be listed on the child's IEP or, if under three, the IFSP. For preschoolers, all services on the IEP, including AT, must be provided within 14 calendar days. For children of school age, the services on the IEP must be provided within 10 school days.
engagement from their families. Their families play a number of supporting roles, including as their advocates and as people who can provide valuable insight into their specific needs to instructors, who may at times feel pressed by trying to meet the needs of diverse groups of students. There are rarely any simple answers to balancing the needs of each individual child with disabilities with others’ needs, with competing structural, bureaucratic, pedagogical, and emotional factors often adding extra layers of effort and complexity for everyone involved. But when families and educators work together as partners, it enhances the likelihood that children with disabilities will have positive and successful learning experiences.
The following practices are guided by the principles previously
described. These practices are strategic methods and techniques used in supporting children with disabilities and their families. We agree to inform ourselves to understand each other’s practices, and to use all our knowledge, research, evidence-based practice, experience and available technology. We share responsibility for improving our practices as we work together to coordinate and/or provide early care, health and education services in order to promote success.
Another important issue which cannot be overlooked is the quality of general education being offered in Indian schools, which has come under scrutiny- flagging teacher morale, pedagogical inadequacies, rigid and irrelevant curriculum, high drop-out and repetition rates- highlight a pressing need which demands a critical engagement and re-examination of a general education system, which has failed to deliver its promise of greater equality. However, efforts towards addressing these issues cannot be seen in isolation from the socio- cultural context of education. Any attempt to develop a truly inclusive system (which extends beyond the narrow conceptions of education of children with disabilities as currently envisaged) ultimately requires a careful consideration of every aspect of schooling and societal context. It entails a need to address issues at macro, micro, and interpersonal levels. Here not only does society’s conception of difference become important, but it also brings into critical focus the need to reflect on the responsibilities of schools, the attitude and role of teachers and indeed the vision of education for a developing society. Evidence from Singal (2006b) and Jha (2002) suggests that awareness of a concept, such as ‘inclusive education’ is no guarantee for ensuring that the desired teaching-learning practices are in place. Changes in the classroom require simultaneous development of reforms in professional development, curriculum, alongside a change in attitudes and beliefs as reflected in the culture of the school. While it is essential that teachers are made aware of and assisted in developing innovative teaching strategies, such a skewed focus on knowledge underplays the need for focusing upon and changing values, beliefs and attitudes. There is a need for re-examining perceptions around the values and purposes of education for children with disabilities. The on-going debates around ‘inclusion’ in India might provide the impetus for a critical reflection on the current teaching practices and educational policies. Inclusion needs a different school culture, and this might be an opportunity for the Indian education system to
N early everyone agrees that children with disabilities need adequate health insurance. Recent debates surrounding the reau- thorization of the State Children’s Health Insurance Program in 2009 and the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in 2010, with its new provisions to pro- tect individuals with preexisting conditions, brought to national attention the central role of health insurance for Americans, including those with disabilities. 1 A substantial body of research has highlighted the large number of children who have disabilities, their many unmet health care needs, the suboptimal health care many of these children receive, and their poor outcomes. To the extent that it can attenuate some of these problems and facilitate access to needed health care, ade- quate health insurance is particularly critical for children with disabilities. But while most people agree with the importance of health insurance, there is little consensus on what an optimal health insurance policy might look like for children with disabilities.
89 and to get CWDs into mainstream schools. To this end the Government should strive to change attitudes and raise awareness towards children with disabilities through print and broadcast media and different forms of public mobilisation. For those CWDs who are already in school, it is crucial to make sure that both the physical accessibility of, quality of education, in those schools. Physical accessibility can be improved by ensuring that CWDs have access, on an equal basis with others, to the physical environment, to transportation, and to information and communications, by removing physical barriers posed by stairs, doorways, toilets, water taps, etc. Equally importantly, there is a need to ensure the adequate supply of qualified teachers and they should be encouraged to handle a higher range of diversity in their classrooms. To this end, teachers must be provided with more in depth training and support, in order to help them address CWDs unique learning needs. Simultaneously, comprehensive and timely disaggregated data on prevalence of disabilities need to be developed and made available to the stakeholders to provide indicators of need for this significantly marginalised group.
recreational activities also provide opportunities for these children that promote inclusion, minimize deconditioning, optimize physical functioning, and enhance overall well being4.
Unfortunately, children with sensory, intellectual and physical disabilities are three times more likely to have lower fitness levels and greater obesity than their typically developing peers 5,6 . This limited childhood participation puts them at greater risk for secondary health problems 7,8,9 in adulthood such as: dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, osteoporosis, and diabetes. Not only are opportunities to participate in fitness programs limited for children with disabilities; so is leisure, recreational and competitive sport pursuits 4,10,11 .
Reading and mathematics test scores are strongly predictive of later exam performance and therefore later life chances. This research examines the extent to which parental expectations at primary level influence academic development at age 13. This analysis provides a valuable insight into whether parents underestimate the academic ability of children with disabilities at age 9, and the extent to which this impacts on academic skills at age 13. In doing this we examine the mechanisms through which school and family processes may affect students’ educational outcomes over time. It is worth noting that in examining the impact of expectations on the academic outcomes of children with disabilities, there is much debate around the use of standardised testing for this group of children. Much of this is focussed in the United States where there is still limited consensus among educators regarding appropriate achievement expectations for students with disabilities, particularly those with cognitive disabilities. Under the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 the expected educational outcomes for students with disabilities, or for any other subgroup, are the same high expectations for all students (McGrew and Evans, 2004). In contrast, other programmes for international student assessment such as TIMMS, PIRLS, and PISA are often criticised for excluding students with disabilities with some arguing that this means that students with disabilities are being entirely excluded from participation in the discourse on achievement (Schuelka, 2012).
One-way fixed effects model analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to analyze the effects of treatment condition on the number of correct and incorrect items recalled during free and cued recall. Results revealed that children who received NET recalled and verbally reported significantly more correct information when interviewed about a past event than children who did not receive the training. In fact, children in the experimental group recalled 49% more items of information about the past event (i.e. descriptions of the participants and the activities in which they engaged) than children in the control group. Moreover, this increase in the amount of information was obtained without generating an increase in the number of errors reported. Therefore, completeness of recall was enhanced without adversely affecting the accuracy of recall. This is important to note since the primary difference that emerges consistently in the literature when comparing the narrative accounts of children with and without learning disabilities is in the amount of information recalled; children with learning disabilities tend to recall significantly less information than their non-disabled peers. The results obtained in this study were similar to results obtained from previous studies utilizing NET with non-disabled children in the forensic context (Comparo et al., 2001; Dorado & Saywitz, 2001; Saywitz & Snyder, 1996; Saywitz et al., 1996). Specific questioning. To date, very little research exists examining the reliability and validity of responses to specific questions given by children with disabilities (Milne & Bull, 1999). However, the way in which a question is posed can influence the accuracy of the reports of child witnesses with disabilities (Bull, 1995; Bull & Cullen, 1992; Clare & Gudjonsson, 1993; Dent, 1986; Gordon, Jens, Hollings, & Watson, 1994; Gudjonsson & Gunn, 1982; Milne & Bull, 1999; Milne et al., 1999; Perlman et al., 1994). As suggested with children without disabilities, children’s responses tend to be most accurate when asked open-ended questions. The findings of a study conducted by Milne et al. concur with other research suggesting that specific, closed-ended questions, such as yes/no questions, resulted in the least reliable information. Similar results were obtained in a study conducted by Perlman et al. (1994) who found increased error rates in response to short answer questions (i.e. one or two word answers) in individuals with learning disabilities.
Terminološka šarolikost prisutna je, također, i u engleskom govornom području u kojem su u uporabi termini poput children with special needs, children with disabilities, children with special educational needs.
Prema Državnom pedagoškom standardu predškolskog odgoja i naobrazbe (2008) dijete s teškoćama je dijete s utvrđenim stupnjem i vrstom teškoće po propisima iz socijalne skrbi, koje je uključeno u redovitu i/ili posebnu odgojnu skupinu u dječjem vrtiću, ili posebnu odgojno- obrazovnu ustanovu. To su: djeca s oštećenjem vida, djeca s oštećenjem sluha, djeca s poremećajima glasovno-govorne komunikacije, djeca s promjenama u osobnosti uvjetovanim organskim čimbenicima ili psihozom, djeca s poremećajima u ponašanju, djeca s motoričkim oštećenjima, djeca sniženih intelektualnih sposobnosti, djeca s autizmom, djeca s višestrukim teškoćama i djeca sa zdravstvenim teškoćama i neurološkim oštećenjima kao što su dijabetes, astma, bolesti srca, alergije, epilepsija i slično.