Abstract: The establishment organization of standards for PSA (Pressure Sensitive Adhesive) tapes in China and abroad was introduced. International standardization organizations, government agencies or trade associations are engaged in the establishment and revision of PSA tape standards. ISO and IEC are international standardization organizations. CEN is European regional government standardization organizations. SAC, DIN, BSI, JISC are government national standardizations. GTF is an alliance organization in PSA tape field widely participated by the major adhesive tape industry associations. The standards in China were analyzed according to the classification of standards. The classification and distribution of standards in PSA tapes field in China and abroad were reviewed from different perspectives. The standards of PSA tape are classified into fundamental standards, method standards and product standards. At present, there are three fundamental standards in China, and there are no equivalent fundamental standards abroad. Finally, the development trend of standard establishment for PSA tapes in China was expected to speed up the standards development of PSA tape products related to strategic emerging industries. At the same time, actively participate in international standards work, and strive to promote the advanced standards of China to international standards, thus further improving the influence of the standard technology of PSA tape in the world.
Not knowing for sure if it would be possible to obtain a sufficient number of students who intended on taking part in a study abroad program in China from three different types of schools to participate in this study, the decision was made to instead employ a snowball sampling technique to recruit individuals to take part in the study. Shively (2011) points out that snowball sampling “is frequently employed when the target subjects for research are difficult to find, either because they represent a very small fraction of the underlying population or because they are largely hidden from view” (p. 61). Potential participants in this study were difficult to recruit because students intending to study abroad in China represent a very small number of all the students attending a college or university in America. Biernacki and Waldorf (1981) state that snowball sampling “yields a study sample through referrals made among people who share or know of others who possess some characteristics that are of research interest" (p. 141). Shively (2011) adds, “The premise is to begin with an initial contact, either someone who matches the selection criterion or an individual who can serve as a ‘key informant’ to develop a list of
221 Read more
The last three columns of Table 3 summarize the persistence of prices. Coefficients of autoregressive models are added to measure the degree of persistence. Aggregated PPI shows higher persistence (0.77) than disaggregated prices (0.29), including disaggregated PPI (0.35). However, the trends for CPI and RPI are different. Aggregated CPI and RPI are stickier than their corresponding disaggregated series. Monacelli and Sala  similarly reported that aggregated CPI and RPI were less volatile and less persistent than their disaggregated counterparts in Germany, France, the U.K., and the U.S. The inflation in global and domestic common components is generally more persistent than the sector-specific inflation for both aggregated and disaggregated prices. As a result, the long-term inflation in China is more likely to be affected by common factors from economic fundamentals at home or abroad. Inflation in aggregated prices driven by domestic components exhibits the greatest persistence, whereas inflation in disaggregated prices driven by global components lasts longest. The sectoral components are shown to be less persistent.
47 Read more
DOI: 10.4236/ce.2019.101013 164 Creative Education search on motivation often focuses on ESL/EFL (English as a SL/FL) learners, while motivations voiced by learners of not-so-important SLs/FLs vary from those of ESL/EFL learners in certain aspects (Humphreys & Spratt, 2008; Liu & Li, 2018). Although there is research on motivation targeting other languages as SLs/FLs (Csizér & Kormos, 2008; Humphreys & Spratt, 2008; Liu, 2017b), more research is needed considering the increasing number of learners of not-so-important SLs/FLs as a result of globalization. Also because of globalization, increasingly more students go abroad for education for varying durations. Nevertheless, re- search on motivation of these students is far from sufficient. Furthermore, study-abroad (SA) students’ motivation to study the target language might be different from those of their peers in their home countries (Hernández, 2010; Liu, 2017a). Surprisingly, such comparative studies are rare. Therefore, the present research aimed to examine Chinese college students’ motivation to learn German, a not-so-important FL, in in-China and SA contexts.
15 Read more
This study suggests that the research ability of medical students in China is higher among those whose advisors studied abroad because the total IF for articles published by the clinical medicine PhD students of returning pro- fessionals was associated with their advisors ’ total IF for articles published while abroad. Furthermore, returning clinical professionals can improve their total IF while overseas by prolonging their study-abroad duration, which will, in turn, benefit their future students. We suggest that medical students consider potential advisors ’ overseas backgrounds when choosing a mentor. Finally, we identi- fied a strong need to upgrade research facilities and to increase investment in medical research in China.
In this study, PCA showed that there was no obvi- ous distinction among accessions from different grow- ing regions (Fig. 3). Chinese accessions and abroad accessions could not be clearly distinguished, even among Chinese accessions from different geographic regions. This was most likely due to the breeding his- tory of the cotton germplasm. Current Mexico- Guatemala region is considered the site of original domestication and the primary center of G. hirsutum diversity (Brubaker et al. 1999). Early Chinese acces- sions came from abroad and China breeders have since created distinct cotton cultivars from these imported accessions by using various breeding methods. Our results illuminated the complex inter- mingling of imported genetic stocks in modern Chin- ese accessions, indicating that distinct, region-specific cultivars have not emerged. For optimizing fibre qual- ity, the results indicate that elite and high-performing
Although criticized for being more an empirical model with questionable theoretical foundations 5 , the gravity model has been the workhorse of international trade literature, used to explain bilateral trade, trade diversion or creation affects of various policies and to analyse regional integration 6 . Its success in explaining various facets of trade has attracted economists working on multinational activities 7 , mainly FDI. Recent studies on determinants of FDI have focused on transition economies and emerging markets. Most of the gravity models used in those studies have employed additional explanatory variables to explain foreign investments. For example, Brenton, Di Mauro ve M. Lücke (1999) assess the relationship between trade and FDI vis-à-vis complementarity-substitutability and whether liberalisation in Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC) has any diversion effect on FDI to other European countries. They use economic freedom index 8 to account for attractiveness of destination CEE countries for FDI in addition to some country dummies. In a similar study on diversion of FDI from South to East European economies, Buch, Kokta and Piazolo (2003a) incorporate an index for FDI restrictions, and dummies for common language and common legal system. Following these examples, Bevan and Estrin (2004) inquire the FDI flows from West to CEECs using again a gravity model enriched with transition country variables, such as riskiness and a dummy capturing the possibility of joining EU for each CEEC, in addition to relative market size, distance and factor costs (productivity corrected unit labor cost and opportunity cost of capital). There are similar country studies for Singapur (Ellingsen, Likumahuwa and Nunnenkamp, 2006), India (Pradhan, 2007) and China (Cross et al., 2007), which employ the gravity model to examine FDI outflows.
18 Read more
i s l a n d s . L a te r, through the sgenoy o f European merchants with o r ie n t a l p o s s e s s io n s , i t extended to more remote le n d s . Modern m ig r a tio n , which was made p o s s ib le by the opening up o f China, pagan in the 'f o r t i e s of the n in e te e n th ce n tu ry , and helped much to d evelo p the young c o lo n i e s , which a t f i r s t welcomed Chinese labour but la t e r dieoouraged i t , e l le g i n g "u n ju s t i f i e d c o m p e titio n ’1. This a t t it u d e may perhaps be a ttr ib u te d to the X srg e , indeed e x c e s s iv e , numbers o f the em igrants, with which the Chinese Government were bound by tr e a ty not to I n t e r fe r e . Xt i s much to be r e g r e tte d that the modern exodue o f a teeming p o p u la tio n has r e s u lte d in f a i l u r e and d is g r a c e .
637 Read more
Is English fashion good or horrific in case of China? Is English language washing away the Chinese language? It is not like that, Chinese language (the native language) is the life for Chinese people, but English is the world's second language, which has become an important part of China's educational, political, and economic system. Chinese History of culture and its different philosophies of learning and teaching have definitely influenced the English teaching and learning in China. There is need to improve teaching English in colleges by doing scientific research and suggest to English teachers better teaching strategies. Different studies can be conducted in this regard for instance on instructional approaches, assessment methods, innovative course books and outstanding workbooks or manuals from abroad, English instructional methods and courses etc. English language will definitely contribute in China to become the giant of technologies and trade because only ELT is not adequate, but most importantly quality of ELT matters. Teaching English in China should not only develop the reading skill, rather it should develop the listening and speaking skills as well. This intention could be appropriate in classrooms students are taught about culture abroad as well. Currently, it is additionally imperative for learners to maneuver and advance their communication aptitude. This is the right stage we can alleviate the occurrence of “deaf English” and “dumb English” (mean learners may not correctly understand and speak but only read and write English). Teaching English should be extensively funded because it needs more resources to be used but with provision of very few funds in response. Weak Financial backing is a permanent fragile feature of teaching and a difficulty attached with specifically teaching English. This scientific study concluded that English language proficiency craze is increasing in China under the purpose of seriousness towards becoming vocal about global issues like, education, human rights, climate change, hunger, poverty, disease etc. China wants to share its culture and wants to adapt with other global instances. Currently, English is used to solve global issues because there lays an international pull for its usage. Consequently, English language represents an optimistic solution or approach for the recovering prospect, of the shared problems.
Based on the “higher education teaching method abroad research and Repair project” of China National Study Abroad Fund Committee, this paper takes the dozens of team of lecturers, associate professors and professors from more than 10 universities in Liaoning province to the Department of Education of Queen- sland University of Technology in Australia for 3 months of English teaching training, experience, harvest, opinions and suggestions as a sample, for Liaoning Province in The Education Development Plan provides cases during the “Thir- teen-Five” period, which provides reference for promoting the English teaching education system of colleges and universities in the new period of Liaoning Province, and provides teaching method system and empirical cases for pro- moting the reform and innovation of bilingual teaching in colleges and universi- ties in Liaoning province. The main research contents of this paper include: teaching methods of the Department of Education of Queensland University of Technology, Australia; the role of teaching methods in English teaching in col- leges and universities; and through the case of English teaching in Queensland University of Technology, this paper discusses the teaching methods of bilingual instruction adapted to the practice of colleges and universities in Liaoning.
In the study of the relationship between college students’ social intelligence and entrepreneurship in China and abroad, foreign scholars generally believe that there is a significant correlation between college students’ social intelligence level and entrepreneurial behavior. Because individuals with higher levels of so- cial intelligence are more inclined to rationalize and reasonably control their emotions. Good emotional management can enable them to develop effective and reasonable ways and behaviors in their university studies. These methods and behaviors will be an important factor in their active entrepreneurship  . In the domestic university student entrepreneurship research survey, one of the many factors that cause college students to fail in business is the lack of suf- ficient social intelligence, which is generally manifested in the absence of emo- tional management. Faced with various uncertainties and setbacks, college stu- dents have relatively weak psychological adjustment ability . According to an empirical analysis, the emotional intelligence of college students has a significant relationship with entrepreneurial ability. There are significant differences in the entrepreneurial ability of college students with different levels of emotional in- telligence, and the entrepreneurial ability of college students with high levels of emotional intelligence is stronger. Emotional intelligence has a strong predictive power for entrepreneurial ability .
11 Read more
travels to Geneva where they encounter a Russian-French émigré, who was once the love of the head of the delegation. In the film there is very little engagement with non- Russians apart from the staff of the hotel in which the delegation and the émigré stay. 24 Despite the cross-cultural outlook of the film, it is in fact a straightforward Russian drama set in a European context. This is also the reason for the participation of the co- producing companies. Because the location for the film lies outside Russia, the foreign companies are sought for their local expertise, foreign subsidies 25 and desirable foreign locations. While these may be the prime reasons for a Russian film production to co- operate with foreign producers, the non-Russian investors in the film would in return hope to gain access to the Russian market and at the same time have reason to believe that the film would be marketable in their own respective countries. The latter is suggested in the casting of a French star, André Dussollier, in the role of the Russian émigré, which points towards their desire to make the film accessible to non-Russian viewers. Added to this is the curiosity about the feared Soviet Other who has turned into a recognisable human being exhibiting confusion at his/her newly formed national identity. In this regard, the representation of Russians abroad is comparable to other films in which Russians appear as fallen from grace (Iordanova 2000).
299 Read more
Alongside direct support actions for prisoners, much of the work was undertaken directly with the aim of supporting the families of those who are incarcerated. It should never be underestimated the hurdles and difficulties experienced by family members of those who are detained in a country other than theirs. Not to mention both the emotional and physical impact that being incarcerated in a foreign penal institution can have on inmates. Being physically removed from close emotional and family links is difficult for all prisoners: in particular, those detained abroad face the daunting situation of often being unable to communicate in a language that is alien to them. Language barriers for foreign inmates can be understood both in literal terms and as the inability to express cultural and social needs.
According to Zhang (2010), public opinion shows that corruption is considered as the most hated social problem in China, yet almost all are guilty of committing it in one form or another. For instance, any case that occur to someone, he said that when her father became seriously ill, they took him to a hospital and when they were told that all the hospital beds were already occupied, they turned to their guanxi to ask for help. Fortunately, one of their relatives who is a well-connected official managed to secure a private hospital room for her father. In return, the hospital director and their relative agreed to get the director’s son into the top school in Nanjing (Zhang, 2010). This is just a manifestation of how it becomes very difficult, if not impossible, to distinguish guanxi and corruption. In fact, both guanxi and corruption have become intertwined with Chinese social norms.
universities to report the data, the Open Doors Report is usually released a year late. Therefore this number of 289,408 students is from the year 2012/13. IIE is one of three national organizations that can be viewed as authorities within education abroad. There is also a national organization called NAFSA: Association of International Educators. Originally founded in 1948 in order to support foreign students within the United States, the scope and size of NAFSA have changed dramatically throughout the years. It includes today the fields of international student services, admissions, education abroad, and teaching English as a second language. As an organization, NAFSA is made up of members from academic institutions, governmental agencies, and private organizations. Finally, another organization in study abroad is known as the Forum. Its official name is The Forum on Education Abroad. It was incorporated in 2001 and was recognized in 2005 by the U.S. Department of Justice and Federal Trade Commission to serve as the Standards Development Organization for the field of education abroad (About Us, Forum). The Forum is considered the national authority on standards of good practice for providers and institutions in the field. It is the only organization that serves this purpose. There are currently nine standards of good practice listed on the Forum’s website
58 Read more
Contrary to conclusions in much of the existing litera- ture on medical travel, most of the socio demographic indicators, and costs of treatment abroad among these Maldivian medical travelers, were similar across different household income levels [14–16]. Medical expenditure abroad and OOP expenditures on health were consistent among the poor and the rich irrespective of government subsidy. This suggests that the Maldivian health finan- cing structure supports equality rather than being equity-sensitive. Study results pointed towards disease specific inequalities and impoverishment among medical travelers, where the expenditure share of the poorest percentile was pointedly lower across all the top five dis- eases. Although patients suffering from neoplasms bear the highest cost of treatment abroad, the level of impov- erishment was low. Disease groups which had the high- est levels of impoverishment had only half of the patients covered by the public subsidy. Yet, the disease group with the lowest impoverishment level had only one third of its patients covered by the public subsidy. This indication of an association between the govern- ment subsidy and impoverishment needs to be further explored. Overall, the type of disease for which the patient travelled seemed a greater predictor of impover- ishment than the government subsidy. Study findings also showed that more of the subsidized patients fell into poverty compared to the non-subsidized which offers important directions for the revision of the current benefit package and to implement appropriate targeting mechanisms. Taken together, these findings suggest that the current government subsidy has little effect and does not offer protection from impoverishment.
I will describe in a nutshell some personal experiences during executing this Master thesis. For me it was a great opportunity to go abroad and to gain knowledge and experience in another country. The research started in The Netherlands with the preliminary research of the topic. This topic was to investigate the expectations and the perceptions of the services that they had at that point. I did not know a lot about the company yet, but stated the research on that topics. When I arrived in Australia the company asked me to do a different research. Because of this I had to start my preliminary research again but on the topic ‘new service development’ and they wanted to know what the motivation where for student to do an international internship. Therefore the preparations were done in Australia. This preparations was to find suitable theoretical models for the basis of my Master topic.
78 Read more
Rica among younger people. Even when she came across things she could not understand, however, she seemed confident in her language skills and seemed to have adopted a way of communicating that suited her and that she felt aligned with her pragmatic performance as a language user. For example, she explained that although she understood the norms surrounding the use of usted in Costa Rica, she often opted to use tú at times, going back to the pronoun of address she had learned to work more comfortably with in previous study abroad experiences. Therefore, she was quite aware of her abilities as a Spanish user and of the language variation that is often seen in different contexts. Further, within her reflections she demonstrated the ability to use a variety of Spanish language forms including idiomatic expressions, showcasing her experience as an advanced learner. As far as her involvement within the host community and her contact with native speakers is concerned, Claire shared about her experiences working with vulnerable populations of alcohol and drug addicts, including migrants to the area, as part of her university program at UCR, and the value that had for her in deepening her in situ cultural understanding. She observed some simple, more superficial tendencies, such as tardiness as a cultural norm, but she also noted examples of discrimination she had seen towards some but not all of the refugees she had worked with. In sum Claire’s contributions as a participant were significant and interesting, as she represented a very advanced language learner. She seemed poised to take advantage of her time in Costa Rica not necessarily to advance her grammar skills, as she noted in the final questionnaire, but rather to take the opportunity to advance her university studies and gain valuable lexical resources associated with her Psychology major. Her language skills also allowed her to gain valuable cultural experience, and gain access to members of the host community in a meaningful way. In this way, she brought interesting insights to this study and the spectrum of Spanish users in the experimental group.
192 Read more
Earthquake predictions in China have had rare successes but suffered more tragic setbacks since the Xintai earthquake in 1966. They have developed with twists and turns under the influence of the viewpoint that earthquakes are unpre- dictable etc. Though the Wenchuan earthquake of M8.0 in 2008 in China and the 2011 Tohoku earthquake of M9.0 in Japan were failed to predict, the GPS observations before and after these 2 events have shown that there were precur- sors to these events and large earthquakes were predictable. Features of different observation techniques, data process- ing methods are compared and some recent studies on precursory crustal deformations are summarized, so various ad- vantages of GPS technique in monitoring crustal deformation are emphasized. The facts show that anomalies or pre- cursors detected from GPS observations before the great Wenchuan earthquake have been the most remarkable results of explorations on crustal movements and earthquake precursors in China. GPS is in deed an excellent observation tech- nique for earthquake prediction.
Regarding Brazil, Russia, India and China (29) (BRICs), no particular pattern emerges. At 39%, the services sector came top in Brazil, only slightly ahead of manufacturing at 36 %. With reference to China and Hong Kong it should be noted that, on the one hand, the Mainland attracted the highest shares of extra-EU outflows in manufacturing with 48 %, thus confirming the pattern of EU companies outsourcing manufacturing activities in China to reduce their production costs and remain competitive in their marketplace. On the other hand, the largest shares of EU FDI outflows in Hong Kong are in services, with 66 %, attesting to Hong Kong's status as a major financial centre.
127 Read more