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Hypoaneuploid Chromosome Substitution F1 Hybrids of Gossypium hirsutum L. x G. mustelinum Miers ex Watt

Hypoaneuploid Chromosome Substitution F1 Hybrids of Gossypium hirsutum L. x G. mustelinum Miers ex Watt

some substitution stocks in G. hirsutum for whole chromosomes and chromosome arms of G. musteli- num Miers ex Watt. These hypoaneuploid interspe- cific chromosome substitution stocks are an addi- tional genetic resource for localization of genomic sequences, marker development, definition of link- age groups, and validation of genome maps. Hy- poaneuploid plants that lack specific chromosomes or arms were detected by analysis of phenotypic syndromes and conventional meiotic metaphase- I configuration analysis of acetocarmine-stained microsporocytes (“pollen mother cells”), as well as by deletion analysis with chromosome specific SSR markers. Here, we report the development of 25 such hypoaneuploid hybrids, including 13 monosomic hybrids, each missing a different G. hirsutum chromosome (chromosome 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12, 16, 17, 18, 20, and 25, respectively), and 12 monotelodisomic (acrocentric) hybrids (Te05Lo, Te08Lo, Te11Lo, Te11sh, Te12Lo, Te14Lo, Te15Lo, Te20Lo, Te20sh, Te22Lo, Te22sh, and Te26sh) that are deficient for the respective distal segment of
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Upland Cotton (<em>Gossypium hirsutum</em> L.) x Hawaiian Cotton (<em>G. tomentosum</em> Nutt. Ex. Seem.) F<sub>1</sub> Hybrid Hypoaneuploid Chromosome Substitution Series

Upland Cotton (<em>Gossypium hirsutum</em> L.) x Hawaiian Cotton (<em>G. tomentosum</em> Nutt. Ex. Seem.) F<sub>1</sub> Hybrid Hypoaneuploid Chromosome Substitution Series

source for adult insects (Lukefahr and Rhyne, 1960). Scientists have introgressed the nectariless trait from G. tomentosum into germplasm of G. hirsutum to im- prove insect resistance in Upland cotton (Meyer and Meyer, 1961; Meyer and Meredith, 1978). Meredith et al. (1973) reported that nectariless cottons reduce tarnished plant bug numbers (50%), fleahoppers (50%), boll rot (20%) and bollworm damage (20%). They also observed that nectariless lines produced lint yield and fiber quality equal to their isogenic commercial parents. G. tomentosum also has strong fiber (Meyer and Meredith, 1978) and is the most heat-resistant species in Gossypium (Percival et al., 1999; Aktar et al., 1996). These aneuploid substitu- tion lines provided a stepping-stone toward backcross chromosome substitution line development, a key to successful wide-cross alien gene transfer for improved agronomic performance, fiber traits and yield, and bi- otic and abiotic resistance traits. Previous studies have indicated that these traits are genetically complex, and relatively difficult to improve through wide-cross in- trogression using conventional breeding methods (Van Esbroeck and Bowman, 1998). Their conclusions sug- gest that successful use of alien germplasm in cotton requires specialized breeding approaches that force the retention of alien chromosome germplasm, extensive recombination, and enable genetic dissection as part of the breeding process. Chromosome substitution is one such method. We expect to use the F 1 hypoaneuploids
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Complex Genetic Architecture Revealed by Analysis of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Chromosome Substitution Strains and F2 Crosses

Complex Genetic Architecture Revealed by Analysis of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Chromosome Substitution Strains and F2 Crosses

Intercrosses between inbred lines provide a traditional approach to analysis of polygenic inheritance in model organisms. Chromosome substitution strains (CSSs) have been developed as an alternative to ac- celerate the pace of gene identification in quantitative trait mapping. We compared a classical intercross and three CSS intercrosses to examine the genetic architecture underlying plasma high-density lipo- protein cholesterol (HDL) levels in the C57BL/6J (B) and A/J (A) mouse strains. The B 3 A intercross revealed significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) for HDL on chromosomes 1, 4, 8, 15, 17, 18, and 19. A CSS survey revealed that many have significantly different HDL levels compared to the background strain B, including chromosomes with no significant QTL in the intercross and, in some cases (CSS-1, CSS-17), effects that are opposite to those observed in the B 3 A intercross population. Intercrosses between B and three CSSs (CSS-3, CSS-11, and CSS-8) revealed significant QTL but with some unexpected differences from the B 3 A intercross. Our inability to predict the results of CSS intercrosses suggests that additional complexity will be revealed by further crosses and that the CSS mapping strategy should be viewed as a complement to, rather than a replacement for, classical intercross mapping.
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Morphological and genetic characterisation of the root system architecture of selected barley recombinant chromosome substitution lines using an integrated phenotyping approach

Morphological and genetic characterisation of the root system architecture of selected barley recombinant chromosome substitution lines using an integrated phenotyping approach

Five barley genotypes were chosen from a set of Recombinant 69 Chromosome Substitution Lines (RCSLs, Fig. 1 ). The RCSLs were de- 70 rived from an initial cross between a cultivated parent (cv. Harring- 71 ton) and a naturally drought tolerant wild donor from the Fertile 72 Crescent as described previously ( Matus et al., 2003 ). Selection of 73 the sub-set of genotypes was based on a previous assessment of 74 the impact of drought on yield across two growing seasons dur- 75 ing field trials (De La Fuente Canto et al, unpublished). Contrast- 76 Q4 ing lines were selected: OSU044 and OSU048 showed a poor to 77 moderate but stable yield across water treatments (stable RCSLs); 78 OSU144 and OSU052 produced large yield potential in favourable 79 conditions, but under drought their yield was significantly reduced 80 (sensitive RCSLs); and finally, cv Harrington was chosen as con- 81 trol elite variety for the RCSLs and OSU060 as a line whose per- 82 formance was intermediate and similar to the performance of cv. 83
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Characterization of inter varietal chromosome substitution lines of wheat using molecular markers

Characterization of inter varietal chromosome substitution lines of wheat using molecular markers

One disadvantage of using aneuploid techniques for the development of precise genetic stocks was the difficulties in verifying the correctness of sub- stitution lines, although phenotypic and cytological observations could help. However, the era of mo- lecular methods has brought a new level of knowl- edge to genetics and breeding and methodologies for verification using molecular markers. During the last four decades hundreds of genetic precise stocks including intervarietal substitution lines, al- loplasmic lines and single chromosome recombinant lines have been developed, and now we have the opportunities to use molecular techniques for the verifications of these lines and for their utilization in detailed molecular analysis of plant processes (Börner et al. 2006; Landjeva et al. 2007). This paper reports on the use of molecular markers for the verification of the sets of single chromosome substitution lines developed at CRI.
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Two Quantitative Trait Loci for Prepulse Inhibition of Startle Identified on Mouse Chromosome 16 Using Chromosome Substitution Strains

Two Quantitative Trait Loci for Prepulse Inhibition of Startle Identified on Mouse Chromosome 16 Using Chromosome Substitution Strains

In this study, we sought to identify a QTL for PPI using mouse chromosome substitution strains. In comparison to the host B6 strain, we detected significantly elevated PPI in the chromosome 16-substitution (CSS-16) strain. This observation indicates that mouse chromosome 16 harbors one or more PPI genes. We performed genetic intercross mapping and identified two significant PPI regions on chromosome 16, one of which overlaps a previously reported QTL region. These results were ob- tained using vastly fewer mice and chromosomal markers than traditional genetic mapping, thereby supporting the use of mouse CSSs as a powerful and rapid approach to map QTL for complex behavioral traits. We refined the list of most probable candidate genes in the QTL re- gions by identifying genes that have sequence variation between the B6 and CSS-16 strains.
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Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci for Anxiety in Chromosome Substitution Strains of Mice

Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci for Anxiety in Chromosome Substitution Strains of Mice

Figure 1.—Mapping quantitative trait loci with chromosome substitution strains. A phenotype was tested in the various CSSs as well as in the C57BL/6J background strain. If a significant dif- ference was found between a particular CSS (here, CSS-2) and the background strain, the sub- stituted chromosome carried at least one locus affecting that phenotype. For simplicity, single chromosomes are shown; the actual CSSs are ho- mozygous for both the substituted and the back- ground chromosomes.

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INHERITANCE IN NICOTIANA TABACUM. XXI. THE MECHANISM OF CHROMOSOME SUBSTITUTION

INHERITANCE IN NICOTIANA TABACUM. XXI. THE MECHANISM OF CHROMOSOME SUBSTITUTION

The data of HOLMES (1938) indicate that his mosaic resistant race was ob- tained through a mechanism similar to that described above for pink Cuba- that is, by substitu[r]

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THE EFFECTS OF CHROMOSOME SUBSTITUTION ON MALE BODY WEIGHT OF  DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

THE EFFECTS OF CHROMOSOME SUBSTITUTION ON MALE BODY WEIGHT OF DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

The second chromosome of the Canton-S strain substituted for the second chromosome of PI I Oregon-R resulted in flies having an increased body weight while the substitution of the[r]

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Identification of drought stress related proteins from 1Sl(1B) chromosome substitution line of wheat variety Chinese Spring

Identification of drought stress related proteins from 1Sl(1B) chromosome substitution line of wheat variety Chinese Spring

Wheat serpins belong to the superfamily of serine pro- tease inhibitors, they have been identified in almost all organisms (Silverman et  al. 2001). Serpins usually have a reaction center loop (RCL), which protrudes out of its struc- ture to recognize a particular target protease (Whisstock et  al. 2007). Serpin family functions through irreversible inhibition of proteinases and play important roles in stress response (Roberts et  al. 2008). In this work, the serpin- Z2B encoded by 1S l chromosome showed an upregulated

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Hybrid Dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster: Evidence from Sterility and Southern Hybridization Tests that P Cytotype Is Not Maintained in the Absence of Chromosomal P Factors

Hybrid Dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster: Evidence from Sterility and Southern Hybridization Tests that P Cytotype Is Not Maintained in the Absence of Chromosomal P Factors

However, the reverse chromosome substitution, replacing all chromosomes of an M strain with P chromosomes, did not usually lead to immediate change of cytotype properties,[r]

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Y chromosome of the inbred mouse KK/Ta strain is associated with reduced body size in Y consomic strains

Y chromosome of the inbred mouse KK/Ta strain is associated with reduced body size in Y consomic strains

Figure 1 shows the distributions of body weight in 472 DH-Chr Y-+/+ (A) and 366 DH-Chr Y- Dh /+ (B) strains. As expected, average body weight was significantly higher in +/+ strains (mean ± SE, 28.48 ± 0.10 g) than in Dh /+ strains (25.29 ± 0.12 g). Body weight showed bell- shaped distribution curves in both mice. Strictly, the dis- tribution of body weight in DH-Chr Y- Dh /+ strains followed a normal distribution but that of DH-Chr Y-+/+ strains did not. Therefore, Box–Cox transformation was applied to the DH-Chr Y-+/+ strains before subsequent analyses. Figure 2 shows the effect of the Y chromosome substitution on body weight in DH-Chr Y-+/+ and DH- Chr Y- Dh /+ strains. In the DH-Chr Y-+/+ background, Y chromosome substitution significantly decreased body weight in DH-Chr Y SJL -+/+ and DH-Chr Y KK -+/+ strains. The DH-Chr Y KK -+/+ strain was the lightest among the DH-Chr Y-+/+ strains. In the DH-Chr Y- Dh /+ back- ground, although Y chromosome substitution did not
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Genetic and environmental effects on the expression of peptidases and larval viability in Drosophila melanogaster.

Genetic and environmental effects on the expression of peptidases and larval viability in Drosophila melanogaster.

However, environmental con- centration of NaCl had a significant effect upon LAP activity among the third chromosome substitution isogenic lines, and the significant [r]

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WHEAT LEAF RUST (PUCCINIA TRITICINA) REACTIONS OF HOBBIT ‘‘SIB’’/BEZOSTAJA SUBSTITUTION LINES

WHEAT LEAF RUST (PUCCINIA TRITICINA) REACTIONS OF HOBBIT ‘‘SIB’’/BEZOSTAJA SUBSTITUTION LINES

Seedlings of all the chromosome substitution lines were resistant to isolate WBRP 85-31 in the glasshouse with the exception of those of 7A which had IT 3-. The high temperature seedling gene, Lr17 located on chromosome 2A must have contributed to the IT 1-; on Hobbit `sib', since the substitution of this chromosome with its homologue from Bezostaja gave IT 2+. This reaction was either due to a resistance gene that is present on the 2A homologue of Bezostaja or another gene located on the remaining Hobbit `sib' chromosomes. The genetic background in which the Lr17 gene is present is known to affect its expression (Abdul, 1994). Therefore the higher ITs 2+ and 3- recorded on substitution lines 2B, 5A and 7A in spite of the Lr17 may be due to modifier gene(s) present on these chromosomes.
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The Genetic Architecture of Startle Response in Drosophila melanogaster.

The Genetic Architecture of Startle Response in Drosophila melanogaster.

The panel of second chromosome substitution lines, together with a similar collection of third chromosome substitution lines, will provide a valuable resource for high resolution QTL mapping. We derived this population from an advanced intercross from 40 of the DGRP lines, for which whole genome sequences, transcriptome data (Ayroles et al., 2009), SNPs, markers and association analysis are available (Mackay et al., 2012). This will enable narrowing QTL intervals with the identification of candidate genes, some of which may have human orthologs. These lines will facilitate the detection of genomic regions significantly associated with startle response. We will ultimately use the population of chromosome substitution lines with or without P-element insertions to map QTLs that modify the effects of the P-element mutations in order to identify the naturally occurring modifiers affecting startle response. This will enable us to determine whether the same QTLs that affect startle response directly also affect epistasis for startle response, or whether loci that modify the effects of mutations on startle response do not themselves directly affect this trait. We do not know how many QTLs contribute to variation in startle response.
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Substitution of adeno associated virus Rep protein binding and nicking sites with human Chromosome 19 sequences

Substitution of adeno associated virus Rep protein binding and nicking sites with human Chromosome 19 sequences

Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are mammalian parvo- viruses that typically require a helper virus, such as an adenovirus or herpesvirus for productive replication [1]. Multiple AAV serotypes have been described. The most detailed information is available for AAV serotype 2 (AAV2), the first human isolate. In the absence of helper virus, AAV2 preferentially integrates into a region of human chromosome 19 (19q13.4ter) referred to as Adeno-Associated Virus Site 1, or AAVS1 [2-5]. In cultured cells infected with a high multiplicity of virus, approximately 70% of integration events have been reported to occur at AAVS1 [6-9]. Site-specific integra- tion would be useful for many gene therapy applications, but most recombinant AAV vectors do not utilize the ability of AAV2 to integrate site-specifically [10].
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Review of polytene chromosome

Review of polytene chromosome

Vatolina T.Y. et al. 1967 Salivary gland polytene chromosomes demonstrate banding pattern, genetic meaning of which is an enigma for decades. Till now it is not known how to mark the band/interband borders on physical map of DNA and structures of polytene chromosomes are not characterized in molecular and genetic terms. It is not known either similar banding pattern exists in chromosomes of regular diploid mitotically dividing nonpolytene cells. Using the newly developed approach permitting to identify the interband material and localization data of interband-specific proteins from modencode and other genome-wide projects, we identify physical limits of bands and interbands in small cytological region 9F13-10B3 of the X chromosome in D. melanogaster, as well as characterize their general molecular features. Our results suggests that the polytene and interphase cell line chromosomes have practically the same patterns of bands and interbands reflecting, probably, the basic principle of interphase chromosome organization. Two types of bands have been described in chromosomes, early and late-replicating, which differ in many aspects of their protein and genetic content. As appeared, origin recognition complexes are located almost totally in the interbands of chromosomes.
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Development of Three Sets of High-Throughput Genotyped Rice Chromosome Segment Substitution Lines and QTL Mapping for Eleven Traits

Development of Three Sets of High-Throughput Genotyped Rice Chromosome Segment Substitution Lines and QTL Mapping for Eleven Traits

the genetic basis of QTL during early studies (Ahn et al. 1993; Li et al. 1995; Redona and Mackill 1996). However, these types of genetic populations can only detect a few major QTLs with large genetic effects due to complex and unstable genetic backgrounds (Yamamoto et al. 2000). To further explore the genetic basis of complex traits, some permanent mapping populations, such as re- combinant inbred lines (RILs) and doubled haploid (DH) have been developed. QTLs with minor effects can also be detected by using these permanent populations, but they are still inadequate for fine mapping and clon- ing of QTLs (Yano 2001). As a permanent population, chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) can im- prove the precise detection of QTL regulation of com- plex traits and make it much easier for QTL fine mapping and cloning (Mei et al. 2006; Takai et al. 2007). Each line of CSSLs has the same genetic background as its recurrent parent, except for a few substituted seg- ments from a donor parent. CSSLs are ideal for mapping genetic population for the elimination of most genetic background noise and dissection of QTLs into the single Mendelian factor (Xu et al. 2010). Although develop- ment of CSSLs is laborious and time-consuming, more and more CSSLs have been developed for their signifi- cant advantages (Bessho-Uehara et al. 2017; Furuta et al. 2014; Hao et al. 2006; Kubo et al. 2002; Qiao et al. 2016; Shim et al. 2010; Yoshimura 1997).
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Microstructures, Magnetic Properties and Microwave Absorption Characteristics of Ti2+ -Mn4+Substituted Barium Hexaferrite

Microstructures, Magnetic Properties and Microwave Absorption Characteristics of Ti2+ -Mn4+Substituted Barium Hexaferrite

This study has demonstrated that the substitution of Ti 2+ and Mn 4+ ions makes considerable change in extrinsic properties in terms of grain size, porosity and intergranular network. The substitution pronouncedly decreases coercivity for whole range of substitution, while increasing magnetization until x = 0.4 and decrease at high substitution. This phenomenon can be understood by the preferential occupation mechanism of Ti 2+ -Mn 4+ ions when replacing Fe 3+ ions at certain level of substitution.

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Comparative mapping and targeted capture sequencing of the gametocidal loci in Aegilops sharonensis

Comparative mapping and targeted capture sequencing of the gametocidal loci in Aegilops sharonensis

Mayer, K.F.X., Rogers, J., Doležel, J., Pozniak, C., Eversole, K., Feuillet, C., Gill, B., Friebe, B., Lukaszewski, A.J., Sourdille, P., Endo, T.R., Kubaláková, M., Číhalíková, J., Dubská, Z., Vrána, J., Šperková, R., Šimková, H., Febrer, M., Clissold, L., et al. (2014). A chromosome- based draft sequence of the hexaploid bread wheat Triticum aestivum genome. Science 345:1251788. doi: 10.1126/science.1251788 McIntyre, C.L., Pereira, S., Moran, L.B., and Appels, R. (1990). New Secale

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