Medicinal plants are sources of some well known anti- ulcer drugs such as: liquorice (dehydroglycerrizinic acid), Piper betel L. (piperine), Emblica officinalis (embline), Terminalia bellerica and Terminalia chebula mostly in the category of glycosides and flavonoids . Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside abundant in orange peel especially Citrussinensis and is an economical by-product of citrus. The present study was designed to investigate the anti- ulcer activity of Citrussinensis peel aqueous extract and hesperidin isolated from C. sinensis on oxidative damage- induced gastric ulcer models, looking into its potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
rats. ASA significantly inhibited collagen- and arachidonic acid-induced PA, whereas ADP- and epinephrine- induced aggregations were unaffected in vitro. Its ex vivo antiplatelet activity was demonstrated after a seven- day period of treatment to rats. The results of this study suggest that a hydro-alcohol extract of Citrussinensis L. fruit peels could be a candidate for the development of a natural antiplatelet product.
Surface tension is the force exerted along the plane of a surface per unit length . It is a direct measure of surface interfacial energy . The surface energy of a fluid relative to adjacent phases influences the transport and distribution of fluid, important parameter in the behavior of oil spreading rates . New lubricating oil has relatively high surface tension, about 35dynes/cm (0.035 N/m) which is close to an average of 31.3 dynes/cm obtained for five notable vegetable oils . The minimum standard value of surface tension for lubricant oil is 29.5 dynes/cm (0.0295 N/m) . The surface tension for Citrussinensis oil (0.028 N/m) is lower than the set standard for lubricating oil and that of SAE 40 oil. This might be as a result of the presence of high free fatty acid in the oil. It was also observed that the surface tensions of biodiesel ratios are lower than that of the fossil fuel. Biodiesel ration of B 6:1 has the surface tension that is closer
The orange (Citrussinensis) is a fruit-bearing plant originating from Asia. It provides edible fruits through the whole tropical and subtropical lands (Suryawanshi Jyotsna A. Saonere, 2011). Oranges are citrus fruits consisting in a pericarp or the peel, a thin white membrane and a pulp including some pits. The world production of oranges is stated 62 709 636 tons. In Côte d’Ivoire, 500 000 t of citrus fruits are produced each year (FAO, 2004).
CitrusSinensis peel extracts because flavonoids are rich in the treatment for evaluation of CNS activities in mice. Fresh and crushed peel of Citrus limon and CitrusSinensis peel were collected and then extracted with solvents such as water, and the doses of 20 mg/kg body weight is given for an mice. CNS activities were performed by using a Forced swim test, Tail Suspension test, Actophotometer test, Rota rod test and Muscle Grip strength in mice. Diazepam 5mg/kg was used as standard drug for these studies. In the present study, the aqueous peel extracts of Citrus limon, CitrusSinensis and its combination was demonstrated significant CNS activities in the tested models.
Mangifera indica, Hippophae rhamnoides, and Punica granatum, exhibit anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anti- oxidant, and antimicrobial activities due to the presence of rich flavonoid glycosides, coumarins, β- and ɤ -sitos- terols, vitamins, and volatile compounds (Chiba et al., 2003; Gao et al., 2006; Liu, Heying, & Tanumihardjo, 2012). The orange peel is a primary by-product produced by the fruit processing industries, and it accounts approximately 45% of the total bulk (Farhat et al., 2011). Citrussinensis showed several medicinal properties like anticancer, antidiuretic, immunity enhancer, and tonic to digestion (Grosso et al., 2014). However, to the best of our knowledge, the in- formation about the influence of dietary C. sinensis peel extract on fish is not yet reported so far. Thus, the present study was aimed to assess the effect of C. sinensis peel extract on the survival, growth, digestive enzyme activities, muscle biochemical compositions, profile of amino acids and fatty acids, and metabolic enzymes of the C. catla.
Findings: In this study, 15 potential microRNAs in Citrussinensis (csi-miRNAs) were identified and bioinformatically validated using miR-RACE, a newly developed method for determination of miRNAs prediction computationally. The expression of these fifteen C. sinensis miRNAs can be detected in leaves, stems, flowers and fruits of C. sinensis by QRT-PCR with some of them showed tissue-specific expression. Six potential target genes were identified for six csi-miRNAs and also experimentally verified by Poly (A) polymerase -mediated 3 ′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends (PPM-RACE) and RNA ligase-mediated 5 ′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RLM-RACE) which mapped the cleavage site of target mRNAs and detected expression patterns of cleaved fragments that indicate the regulatory function of the miRNAs on their target genes.
Citrussinensis (C. sinensis) is a plant of the Rutaceae family native to Asia and India (1- 3), which is widely cultivated all over the world. Its fruit, rich in vitamin C, is consumed fresh or industrialized as juice and is of great economical importance. Citrus fruits are commonly consumed because they contain a high amount of vitamins, minerals and antioxidant compounds, such as flavonoids. Flavonoids are a family of phenolic compounds that have many biological properties, including hepatoprotective, antithrombotic, antibacterial, antiviral and anticancer activity. These physiological benefits of flavonoids are generally thought to be due to their antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties (4).
The health concern associate d with the us e of chemica l disinfectant in water purification ha s necessitate d the search o f safe an d effectiv e water treatme nt agen ts from natural sour ces. The lea f, stem, se ed an d bark o f Citrus limon, Citrus aurantifolia an d Citrussinensis were investig ated f or phytochemica ls an d disinfectant properties on contaminat ed pond water at concentrations o f 0.1 , 0.2 , 0 .3, 0.4 and 0.5 g/L. Microbia l qual ity of the water sample was investigate d a t 12 hrs inter val. The lea f a nd ba rk o f C. aurantifolia an d the bark of C. limon contain s all the phytochemical s teste d. Ster oids a nd alkaloid s wer e present in al l parts of the plant . Cardia c glycosides an d terpen es were present in all parts of Citrussinensis. A tota l o f 10 differe nt bacter ia isolat es were identifie d from p onds water sample . The st em o f Citrus aurantifolia completel y eliminate d the tota l viabl e cou nt, tota l colifo rm count , fecal colif orm cou nt after 12 h. The lea f, ba rk a nd see d of C. aurantifolia at 0.3 , 0.4 a nd 0.5 g/ L, l eaf a nd ba rk of C. limon an d C. sinensis at 0.1-0.5 g /L eliminat ed th e various bacter ia after 24 hours. Howeve r, the st em a nd see d of C. limon were le ss active; only concentrat ions of 0.4 an d 0.5g/L eliminat ed th e organis m after 24 h of treatment . The plant materia ls had minim um inhibitory concentratio n in t he range d of 16 and 128 mg/g and minimu m bactericidal concentratio ns in the rang ed 16 and 256 mg/g again st all the isolates. It i s conclude d th at the lea f, st em bark and seed of citru s speci es contain s vari ous phytochemica ls and have the potentials to se rve as a disinfectant for w ater t reatment .
Organic acids, marketed as acidifiers have a long history in the food and feed industry. Acidomix ® AFG which is a blend of organic acids (formic acid, propionic acid, ammonium formate and ammonium propionate) improves feed hygiene due to strong antimicrobial effects. The inclusion of Acidomix ® AFG in feed for rearing animals results in the stabilization of the gastrointestinal microflora. Organic acids and salts exert their growth inhibiting effects on stomach and gut microbes through pH reduction and anion and proton effects in the microbial cell. Studies have demonstrated a reduction in the bacterial count in the duodenum [11,12]. Low pH also provides a barrier against microbes ascending from the ileum and large intestine. The use of Acidomix ® AFG is a preventive measure to control salmonella . The aim of the study was to determine the effect of sweet orange (Citrussinensis) fruit waste (SOFW) with Acidomix ® AFG on the coliform count in the small intestine of weaner rabbits.
About 5 grams of each plant leaves powders (Citrus maxima and Citrussinensis) were taken and mixed in 50 ml of distilled water. The mixtures were taken into 250 ml sterile conical flasks, plugged with sterile cotton and kept in shaking Incubator with the 200 rpm for 24 h. The solutions were filtered through muslin cloth followed by what man filter paper 10 . This process was repeated three times after which a clear aqueous extracts of the both plant leaves.
In this study aqueous extract of CitrusSinensis fruit peel was investigated with different antioxidant assays and cytoprotective action on xenobiotic induced oxidative stress in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae (yeast cells) was examined. The results showed that the aqueous extract showed protective effect in scavenging free radicals that were generated with different in vitro models with IC 50 of 0.2 mg/ml on DPPH, 0.36 mg/ml on lipid peroxidation, 0.41
The milled peels size were determined in a vertical vibrator with six series tyler sieve shaker Tyler series system (Model 1868 Bertel, Caieiras, BR) with sequential openings of 10, 14, 20, 28, 35, 48, and 65 mesh with retained percentage mass of 2.62, 30.73, 32.53, 7.21, 18.59, 5.50 and 2.82 % respectively. The calculated average particle diameter is 0.84 mm using equation (7). 3.3 Nutrient composition of sweet orange (CitrusSinensis) rinds
Molecular fingerprints, phylogenetic relationships and physicochemical characteristics of 15 orange (Citrussinensis L.) cultivars were studied. The inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) technique with seven primers was used. The dendrogram constructed based on 66 amplification products generated by the ISSR classified the cultivars into two major clusters. The first cluster included the Blood orange cultivar only, whereas the second comprised the rest of the cultivars with different degrees of genetic similarities. The highest phylogenetic relationship was noted between the two citrus accessions, Mouzambique and Roja, with 96% similarity. On the other hand, a genetic similarity of 53% was noted between the Balady orange and the Blood orange. Based on these findings, it could be concluded that the seven ISSR primers were effective to differentiate the orange cultivars under investigation. The physicochemical parameters of fruit juice included vitamin C concentration, pH, percentages of total soluble solids, and titratable acidity. The Hamlin, Centrial and Roja orange cultivars had the highest concentration of vitamin C (60.67, 58.33 and 57.14 mg/100 ml -1 , respectively). On the contrary, Tanneriffe cultivar showed the lowest vitamin C concentration (26.55 mg/100 ml -1 ). The Tunisi cultivar had the highest pH of 6.443 in contrast to Mafred, Roja and Valencia accessions with pH vales of 3.317, 3.32 and 3.29. Tunisi and Balady orange cultivars exhibited the highest percentage of total soluble solids (T.S.S) of 12.3 and 12.07%, respectively. Whereas Valencia and Mafred showed the least T.S.S expressed by 8.83 and 8.27%, respectively. Roja cultivar recorded the highest (1.397%) titratable acidity. In contrast, the Succari, Tunisi and Khalili red accessions demonstrated the least titratable acidity of 0.05, 0.09 and 0.093 %, respectively.
This work was carried out to optimize the conditions for highly effective embryogenic callus induction from mature seeds, plantlet regeneration and genetic transformation of Citrussinensis L. by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 (pCAMBIA 1305.1). Embryogenic calli could be successfully induced from mature seeds employing the MT medium supplemented with 500 mg/l malt extract. The percentage of embryogenic callus induction was 85. With the same medium, the high proliferation rate of embryogenic callus was achieved. The liquid MT medium containing 500 mg/l malt extract in combination with 50 mg/l lactose could be used as the embryoid development medium. Somatic embryos, however, could be regenerated with normal shoots and roots in the MS medium, with the regeneration per- centage of 60. The delivery of an antisense ACC oxidase gene into the species C. sinensis mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 105 was successful by co-cultivating explants with the strain EHA 105 for 10 min, following that by eliminating the bacterium with 200 mg/l cefotaxime, and subsequently selecting transformed embryoid with 20 mg/l hygromycin. Verified histochemically by GUS assay, putative transformants showed the percentage of gus gene expression of 100. Molecular analysis using PCR confirmed the integration of the antisense ACC oxidase gene into plant genome.
Physicichemical and proximate analysis of extracts from residues of Citrussinensis from Dutsinma Local Gov- ernment Area of Katsina State in Nigeria shows great nutritional attributes and makes Citrussinensis a potential raw material for cosmetic, construction and livestock food industries. The use of these seeds will greatly abate global warming by mitigating environmental pollution caused by their decomposition to a minimal level. How- ever, further research is recommended on Citrussinensis seeds employing specific enzymes (Victor Markus et al., 2014)  to determine their phytochemical composition.
In the present study, an attempt was made to evaluate the anti-psoriatic activity of sweet oranges peel extract (both ethanolic and aqueous) from the fruits of citrussinensis, on rat tail model. Which is listed in indigenous medicine as having high therapeutic value and is even now being used in various diseases.  It is also called as “The fountain of youth”.
The peel components and juice quality of two tangor scions were investigated in this study. Peel components were extracted using the cold-press and eluted using n-hexane. Then all analyzed using GC-FID and GC-MS. Total soluble solids, total acid, pH value, ascorbic acid as well as density were determined in juice obtained from two tangor scions. Twenty and twenty-eight peel components were identified in Murcott and Temple scions respectively including: aldehydes, alcohols, esters, ketones, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. The major components were limonene, linalool, β-myrcene, (E)- β-ocimene, α-Pinene and sabinene. Between two scions examined, Murcott showed the highest content of aldehydes and TSS/TA. Since the aldehyde and TSS/TA content of Citrus are considered as two of the most important indicators of high quality, scion apparently has a profound influence on these factors.