like 1 litter petrol can run at almost 80 km but other vehicles not that much as motorbikes. Both peer-to-peer carsharing and business-to-consumer carsharing are gaining ground in urban areas. Worldwide, carsharing organizations operate in over 1100 cities across at least 27 countries. Earlier this year 2018, Lyft announced that all commuters’ rides would be carbon neutral. The plan is to reduce vehicles emission by investing in carbon-free cars into its fleet. There, it's not clear that Lyft- or Uber, or any ride-hailing company stacks up as an excellent environmental citizen in the border landscape of transportation, the sector that recently replaced power plants as the number one sources of U.S carbon dioxide emission. Ride-sharing as a Pathao operates his services in three cities of Bangladesh, which are the capital city in Dhaka, Business city in Chittagong and Tea, tourism city Sylhet. Besides Pathao has ventured in merchant, E-commerce, food delivery and courier services. Pathao started his journey in 2015 as delivery services in Dhaka city of Bangladesh with its fleet of motorcycles and cycles. After 2016, Pathao has begun a new era of ridesharing in Dhaka city. According to Bangladesh Road Transportation Authority (BRTA) (Table 2), due to the popularity of ridesharing in Dhaka city motorcycle has increased to almost fifty percent from 2016 to 2018.
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The search for web-based resources was carried out by orthodox web-search techniques, based on searches for strings such as ‘Community Building’, as well as various specific qualitative research methods such as asset mapping and focus groups. We also made use of recommendations from various colleagues within the CBRS and within Victoria. In each case relevant links were followed. It was felt that this approach would allow us to locate, among others, those resources that are most readily accessible to any user. Obscure websites (for example, sites set up by individual academics, not well linked to larger sites) would probably be overlooked, but this was not a serious problem in the context of the research.
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Here, we review six international data sharing models established largely to improve data flows in global com- merce (summarized in Table 1). We then explain how useful insights can be drawn from each of the models to inform how genomic and clinical data sharing can be fa- cilitated. We use the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health (GA4GH) as a case study to illustrate how an organization could apply the best elements of these models to the genomic research context. Our approach is inspired by the guiding work conducted in the Public Population Project in Genomics and Society (P3G)  and the vision of a newly formed international group of ethical, legal and social implications (ELSI) scholars (called ‘ELSI 2.0’) that, together, develop innovative tools and frameworks for enabling global, interdisciplinary genomic research in the public interest .
There is evidently limited conceptual research in events and tourism (Xin, Tribe, & Chambers, 2013) that are dominated by positivist and inter- pretivist methodological approaches. However, a major advantage of conceptual research is that it can progress without the need for immediate data to support its knowledge claim, hence allowing for multiple mental constructions (Xin et al., 2013) that engender innovative, previously unsought, research possibilities and open new knowledge horizons. Specifically, Meredith (1993) suggested that the use of conceptual research methods, building primarily on description and explanation, may lead to a better balance between theory-building and theory-testing research. Most importantly, conceptual research may be used to develop new concepts and reinter- pret existing ones (Kothari, 2008). As portrayed in the field of psychoanalysis, conceptual research can add new insights to perennial problems and reveal new research possibilities (Leuzinger-Bohleber & Fischmann, 2006). Therefore, it is essential to the analytical process (Leuzinger-Bohleber, 2004) by attempting to formally and systematically reason about analytic statements regarding reality as well as the analytic practice and the practical ideas that have emerged from it (Xin et al., 2013).
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Online Social networking focuses on reflecting and building of social networks or relations among people sharing same interests, activities or backgrounds. Social networking sites allow users to share ideas, pictures, posts, activities, events and interests with people in their network. Facebook, Twitter, My Space etc are the sites currently dominating the field of social networking. Social networking sites have been great boons in our lives helping people to remain connected. They allow users to share a lot of information among the people in their network. The increasing tendency of people to use online social networks has lead to collection huge amount of information being available . This gives rise to the concept of information overload. As the Internet is continuously growing; it becomes increasingly difficult to sift through all the information available. To organize such a vast and distributed data generated from OSNs, appropriate techniques are required to analyze and manage such massive, complex and frequently changing social network data. Filtering is used to organize and structure the large and complex data. Information filtering can help in obtaining the most appropriate information efficiently .
As in any effort of contributing to theory building, limitations need to be taken into account. For instance, reading the knowledge typology (Figure 1), it is clear that, in practice, most knowledge cannot be compartmentalized into discrete categories; it will span a number of dimensions. Thus, the interest is in the dominant characteristics of any piece of knowledge so as to allow investigation of the associated coordination and control aspects. The paper recognizes the limitations of suggesting such a rather fine granularity when it comes to developing practical implications. Similarly, the set of contingencies and the resulting large number of possible configurations (four of which are investigated here) necessarily lead to fine distinctions in management strategies, which are difficult to implement as such in practice. This should not constrain researchers from demonstrating the full spectrum and then applying themselves to the task of developing meaningful and implementable aggregations.
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In  a scheme known as secure provenance was proposed where group of people can access data securely. In this research each user is allowed to have two keys namely attribute key and signature key in dynamic group environment. Thus it was able to make use of attribute based encryption. In this paper a scenario with groups and members based on certain guidelines of a company are considered for building a system that mimics the multi-user data sharing in cloud computing environment in secure and scalable fashion.
This study suggests an additional motivation for sharing messages: toexpress a sense of identity. Marketers have long understoodthat consumers purchase products not just for their practicalor utilitarian benefits but also for their symbolic value. Drivinga Porsche, carrying a Coach bag, or using a Macintoshcomputer all express something about the consumer's own image which in turn motivates the consumer to purchasethem. This study proposes that a similar phenomenon existsfor electronic word of mouth (eWOM). Consumers should bemore likely to share advertising that is consistent with theirself-concept or how they see themselves. An online experiment examines whether consumers' likelihood to share an online addepends on the extent to which the ad expresses their own images, and the results suggest that consumers are indeedmore likely to share ads that express their self-concepts. Inaddition, the extent to which the ad expresses self-conceptsdepends on the similarity between the brand image and theself-image, the importance of the product category to theconsumer, and how entertaining the consumer finds the ad.Consumers believe that what they find says something about whothey are, which affects the likelihood that they share that entertaining content. Advertisers should consider the symbolicand self-expressive properties of their online ads and matchthem to targeted consumers' self-concepts.Internet-based social media and communication networkshave supercharged the power of word of mouth (WOM).Consumer-to-consumer WOM has long been recognized as apromotional technique with strong influences on purchasedecisions, primarily because WOM communications seemmore trustworthy and reliable (e.g., Arndt 1997; Bayus 1999;Dichter 1999; Engle, Kegerreis, and Blackwell 1999; Richins 2004). However, the speed and global reach of electronic word of mouth (eWOM) communications provide marketers with ameans to transcend
In view of the increasing pressure to use evidence- based public health promotion to counteract the current trends in chronic diseases and health care spending, the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport has initiated a programme to support local governments and their PHSs by establishing Academic Collaborative Centres for Public Health [7-9]. Academic Collaborative Centres (ACC) are charged with building a regional, sustainable knowledge-sharing network involving three different in- stitutional partners: (i) local government, which designs health policy and decides on evidence-based service sup- ply and resource allocation; (ii) PHSs, which initiate evidence-based community health promotion and social action projects, and organize service delivery; and (iii) research institutes, which evaluate processes and assess the effectiveness and cost-benefit ratios of practice-based interventions or policy-based measures . A need for more scientific rigour is recognized in the maxim: “if we want more evidence-based practice, we need more practice-based evidence” .
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When individuals identify with their organization and their co-workers, they also show a high level of affective commitment that further fosters their propensity to share knowledge (Matzler, Renzl, Mooradian, Krogh, & Mueller, 2011). Matzler et al. link this affective commitment, which refers to the emotional attachment and identification with an organization (Meyer & Allen, 1991), to individual characteristics and suggest corporations select employees based on favourable social traits. Other studies have linked certain job characteristics to the fostering of group identification and affective commitment (Bhatnagar, 2014; Cabrera & Cabrera, 2005). Camelo-Ordaz et al. (Camelo-Ordaz, García-Cruz, Sousa-Ginel, & Valle-Cabrera, 2011) see affective commitment as an intermediary that explains the effect of group-level rewards and incentives on the propensity for knowledge sharing. They found that practices leading to stronger knowledge sharing are those that focus on creating a lasting relationship between employer and employees as well as among fellow employees. These practices include team-based rewards that incentivize knowledge sharing, team-building and recruitment strategies that take into consideration the fit between the applicant’s and the organization’s values (Camelo-Ordaz et al., 2011, p. 1446).
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More specifically, relationships in the relational ethic consistently combine some degree of two kinds of exchange: material and affective (Yan, 1996, p. 143). This point is made forcefully by Kipnis, (1997) in his 1988-90 study of the village of Fengjia, in Shandong province. He was struck by the amount of time spent by villagers on visits, banquets, sharing of tea and cigarettes, visiting ill acquaintances, and other activities apparently directed at maintaining relationships. He claims that what mattered in the exchange appeared to be whether they had carried out certain behaviours, like visiting each other when ill, rather than a question of the presence of some underlying mental state (Ibid.: 27-28). But Kipnis rejects an argument put forward by Potter and Potter (1990, p. 183; Potter, 1988), who claim that, although their Chinese informants appear to experience emotions, their speech indicates that they consider their inner feelings to be unimportant and to have little effect on relationships. Instead, he draws on the pragmatic view put forward by Lutz and Rosaldo (Kipnis, 2002) to argue that affect is something that exists when ‘embodied’ in behaviour, and does not represent a secret inner emotional life; it is no less ‘moving’ or important in relationships as a result (1997, p. 107). This is echoed by Walder’s claim that, for his informants, to have an affective tie ‘is to be concerned about the other person, and to be concerned is to be willing to help someone out’ (Walder, 1983, p. 70). Correspondingly, sincerity in feelings is a matter not of expressing one’s true inner feelings, but rather of acting in accordance with expectations created by displays of feelings (Kipnis, 1997, p. 108); thus, such a display is a claim on the future of a relationship, rather than only an echo of its past. Like Lutz (1990), Kipnis (1997, p. 115) claims that Western discourse about affect presupposes that sincerity is a matter of the expression of inner feelings; the difference in China is that this ‘ideology’ is not present, not that affect has no relevance. In this way, Kipnis explains the concern among the Fengjia villagers for continually embodying good feelings: such displays are necessary to ensure the continuation of relationships, and talk of feelings is accordingly licensed, like all mental talk, by behaviour, rather than by inner states.
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the horizontal convergence of two companies. The merged firm’s commitment is to take advantage of such horizontal integration, accentuate the desirable goals and benefits by sharing the resources. The merger between HP and Compaq, for instance, has led to the creation of a global brand. HP uses single brand name for the firm’s image but some products with a dual name such as HP Compaq Presario series of laptop/desktop. Another example is the merger of Miller and Coors. The new co-brand “MillerCoors” positions in existing market and keeping the original brands. The new company will combine Coors' two breweries with Miller's seven plants. Under the deal, a Coors product can be brewed at a Miller plant and vice versa. Thus, the combined firm will bring its production closer to end markets, creating huge savings on shipping. However, focusing on existing market and brand names might not cause the synergy to make the merged firm stronger and more efficient (e.g., HP was not superior to IBM much after merging Compaq). Finally, for a Market Penetration strategy to succeed, it is critical that the heterogeneous of customer segments and the reputation of two firms should be sufficiently high.
In this model a group of participating libraries take the initiative to co-ordinate their acquisition. Their objective is to eliminate duplication in acquisitions to the extent that is possible. Further, the member libraries undertake to give services such as information access and document delivery. This model leads to the concept of decentralised development of collection at the level of participating libraries and also to decentralised system of giving services. The individual libraries, participating in the programme determine their level of support to the programme for building the shared resources. The higher their budget, the higher is their support. User libraries are required to pay for the services they avail of. The geographical area of co-operation could be confined to a city, region or country. This model is in operation in most of the resource sharing programmes started by various library networks such as DELNET, BONET etc.
These two flagship platforms for crowdsourcing data for atmospheric sciences have attracted much attention, particularly in relation to their technically excellent web-based platforms which enable data collection, and their close connection with the Met Office and other scientific institutions. Undoubtedly, the functionality and interface of the technical systems affects the engagement of potential contributors and/or citizens scientists. However, such a technologically deterministic perspective overlooks how citizen scientists operate and why they participate. Without empirical evidence of how the public, who are the target users of these platforms, perceive the call for their involvement in 'citizen science', and how they engage in these projects and interact with one another and with other stakeholders, it is difficult to develop robust strategies for building an infrastructure for crowdsourced weather data. In turn, this has implications for innovation, knowledge production, and public engagement in science.
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As shown in Fig. 3.2, four rooms were used to test the temperature load of 300 C. Their dimensions were 8.00 m x 6.00 m x 4.00 m. The temperature was controlled at a constant level throughout the building. The temperature load not only affected all the rooms and caused a temperature rise throughout the building, as shown in Fig. 3.3, but also caused the maximum reaction force and moment to the columns, as shown in Table 3.1.
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The design of secret sharing schemes for multilevel and compartmented ac- cess structures attracted the researchers’ attention for quite many years [24, 13, 16, 17, 25, 3, 4, 15, 12]. The techniques used so far falls in one of the two classed: polynomial interpolation techniques and CRT-based techniques. The first class of techniques usually lead to ideal schemes, while the second class may produce at most asymptotically ideal schemes. The CRT-based schemes (for multilevel and compartmented access structure) proposed miss a consistent security analysis or simply they are neither efficient nor secure (see our Section 6 for a detailed discussion).
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centralized ethical approach for dealing with fair drug redistribution in order to minimize overstocking and either prevent or cope with drug shortages. The ﬁ ndings in this paper include the proactive identi ﬁ cation and development of a framework to collect data about national drug shortages so as to facilitate medication exchange and sharing between organizations by aiming to prevent, mitigate drug wastages and shortages toward a better patient care. Our intention is to provide a plat- form for tackling drug shortages which is an important public health and practice quality issue, as well as the creation of a national uniform policy for the sharing and exchange of medications to be overseen by a drug regulation authority to control overstocking, offer real- location, prevent shortages, minimize medication expira- tion and wastages, and eventually to help minimize risks and improve patient safety.
Many organizations promote knowledge sharing behavior among their employees by engaging information technology in their daily activities. Information technology is the bedrock of knowledge management. It facilitates the process of capturing, discovering, sharing and applying knowledge. According to Daft and Lengel (1986) information technology has four characteristics, which are reach, depth, richness and aggregation of the information. The reach of the information may be considered as the extent of which the information can be distributed geographically i.e., the network and the location it covered. The depth denotes the detail and amount of information that can be communicated. The depth may depend on the bandwidth used. When the bandwidth is high, then the depth and detail of the information communicated increases. The richness of information technology is referred to its ability to provide multiple types of communication at a time, rapid response, personalized messages and transfer messages in the right language. The aggregation is the ability to draw a large volume of information from different sources.
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This qualitative study is limited by the number of partic- ipants. However, the participants, in sharing their world view of clinical scholarship will assist the profession of nursing to think about a construct which is often seen as unimportant in the clinical arena and is shuffled to the academy. As Lincoln and Guba  have challenged the research world in their pursuit of naturalistic inquiry in research (constructivism), each of us sees the world differently but our combined perceptions, even that of a few, often share similarities and differences which en- hance our understanding of phenomena. This study has been worthwhile in exploring and extending our under- standing of clinical scholarship with the busy contem- porary world of nursing practice.
The theatre REST API abstracts the underlying web and database tech- nologies required to actually implement a robust data storage and retrieval platform, and given that these features come straight out of the box for those using a standard DNAP instance, developing and utilizing data apps becomes so simple, even for non-technical users or those with no experience building client- server, web-based or database-powered software. This later point is one of the original key motivations for the Dynamic Nuchwezi Architecture Platform.
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