like 1 litter petrol can run at almost 80 km but other vehicles not that much as motorbikes. Both peer-to-peer carsharing and business-to-consumer carsharing are gaining ground in urban areas. Worldwide, carsharing organizations operate in over 1100 cities across at least 27 countries. Earlier this year 2018, Lyft announced that all commuters’ rides would be carbon neutral. The plan is to reduce vehicles emission by investing in carbon-free cars into its fleet. There, it's not clear that Lyft- or Uber, or any ride-hailing company stacks up as an excellent environmental citizen in the border landscape of transportation, the sector that recently replaced power plants as the number one sources of U.S carbon dioxide emission. Ride-sharing as a Pathao operates his services in three cities of Bangladesh, which are the capital city in Dhaka, Business city in Chittagong and Tea, tourism city Sylhet. Besides Pathao has ventured in merchant, E-commerce, food delivery and courier services. Pathao started his journey in 2015 as delivery services in Dhaka city of Bangladesh with its fleet of motorcycles and cycles. After 2016, Pathao has begun a new era of ridesharing in Dhaka city. According to Bangladesh Road Transportation Authority (BRTA) (Table 2), due to the popularity of ridesharing in Dhaka city motorcycle has increased to almost fifty percent from 2016 to 2018.
This report will offer different aspects of value to different readers. The field research offers a close-up look at projects in progress and reflects the understanding of project workers of their communities’ situations and development; the ‘focus on six tools’ may provide descriptions that help workers to fruitfully apply the tools; while the analysis draws out elements and variables that can be used in a community building setting to determine which method would be most appropriate. The future web-based resource on information gathering tools, too, should be flexible and offer a range of material – both clear descriptions of methods and examples from practice – for workers to draw on. It will be useful in the same way that a recipe is useful: it will work best when it allows users to adapt the material to their setting.
Given the considerations above, a data sharing model specially customized for global research consortia could well have the following traits: a flexible, multilateral ar- rangement, endorsed by relevant data protection author- ities (such as BCRs or model contracts), and combined with an objective third-party assurance mechanism that regulates members’ entry and ongoing access (such as accountability agents in the APEC CBPR system). Until demonstrable evidence bears out the strengths and weak- nesses of this and various other models (as has been pro- posed in other settings ), it is useful to consider how these suggestions could apply to a real-world case study, namely the newly established Global Alliance for Genomics and Health (GA4GH).
Online Social networking focuses on reflecting and building of social networks or relations among people sharing same interests, activities or backgrounds. Social networking sites allow users to share ideas, pictures, posts, activities, events and interests with people in their network. Facebook, Twitter, My Space etc are the sites currently dominating the field of social networking. Social networking sites have been great boons in our lives helping people to remain connected. They allow users to share a lot of information among the people in their network. The increasing tendency of people to use online social networks has lead to collection huge amount of information being available . This gives rise to the concept of information overload. As the Internet is continuously growing; it becomes increasingly difficult to sift through all the information available. To organize such a vast and distributed data generated from OSNs, appropriate techniques are required to analyze and manage such massive, complex and frequently changing social network data. Filtering is used to organize and structure the large and complex data. Information filtering can help in obtaining the most appropriate information efficiently .
Next, the survey asked them about message content (i.e., entertainment and self-enhancement values). Finally, participants indicated their likelihood of sharing the viewed message with others. To test for possible confounding effects of previous familiarity with the ads, respondents indicated whether they had seen the ad before and if they had previously shared the ad. Among the 643 responses, we obtained 615 usable observations. The sample demographics were as follows: 27% Female students and 73% Male students. This across was divided regionally 56.7% North Indian Male and female Students, 13.7% East Indian students, 13.5% North-East students, and 4.6% west, with 1% declining to answer. Age target had been millenial generation along with the generation Z, but the sample generally consisted of graduate students between the ages of 20 and 24 years.Brand and Description Screen Capture Mineral Water.
In  a scheme known as secure provenance was proposed where group of people can access data securely. In this research each user is allowed to have two keys namely attribute key and signature key in dynamic group environment. Thus it was able to make use of attribute based encryption. In this paper a scenario with groups and members based on certain guidelines of a company are considered for building a system that mimics the multi-user data sharing in cloud computing environment in secure and scalable fashion.
When individuals identify with their organization and their co-workers, they also show a high level of affective commitment that further fosters their propensity to share knowledge (Matzler, Renzl, Mooradian, Krogh, & Mueller, 2011). Matzler et al. link this affective commitment, which refers to the emotional attachment and identification with an organization (Meyer & Allen, 1991), to individual characteristics and suggest corporations select employees based on favourable social traits. Other studies have linked certain job characteristics to the fostering of group identification and affective commitment (Bhatnagar, 2014; Cabrera & Cabrera, 2005). Camelo-Ordaz et al. (Camelo-Ordaz, García-Cruz, Sousa-Ginel, & Valle-Cabrera, 2011) see affective commitment as an intermediary that explains the effect of group-level rewards and incentives on the propensity for knowledge sharing. They found that practices leading to stronger knowledge sharing are those that focus on creating a lasting relationship between employer and employees as well as among fellow employees. These practices include team-based rewards that incentivize knowledge sharing, team-building and recruitment strategies that take into consideration the fit between the applicant’s and the organization’s values (Camelo-Ordaz et al., 2011, p. 1446).
There is evidently limited conceptual research in events and tourism (Xin, Tribe, & Chambers, 2013) that are dominated by positivist and inter- pretivist methodological approaches. However, a major advantage of conceptual research is that it can progress without the need for immediate data to support its knowledge claim, hence allowing for multiple mental constructions (Xin et al., 2013) that engender innovative, previously unsought, research possibilities and open new knowledge horizons. Specifically, Meredith (1993) suggested that the use of conceptual research methods, building primarily on description and explanation, may lead to a better balance between theory-building and theory-testing research. Most importantly, conceptual research may be used to develop new concepts and reinter- pret existing ones (Kothari, 2008). As portrayed in the field of psychoanalysis, conceptual research can add new insights to perennial problems and reveal new research possibilities (Leuzinger-Bohleber & Fischmann, 2006). Therefore, it is essential to the analytical process (Leuzinger-Bohleber, 2004) by attempting to formally and systematically reason about analytic statements regarding reality as well as the analytic practice and the practical ideas that have emerged from it (Xin et al., 2013).
As in any effort of contributing to theory building, limitations need to be taken into account. For instance, reading the knowledge typology (Figure 1), it is clear that, in practice, most knowledge cannot be compartmentalized into discrete categories; it will span a number of dimensions. Thus, the interest is in the dominant characteristics of any piece of knowledge so as to allow investigation of the associated coordination and control aspects. The paper recognizes the limitations of suggesting such a rather fine granularity when it comes to developing practical implications. Similarly, the set of contingencies and the resulting large number of possible configurations (four of which are investigated here) necessarily lead to fine distinctions in management strategies, which are difficult to implement as such in practice. This should not constrain researchers from demonstrating the full spectrum and then applying themselves to the task of developing meaningful and implementable aggregations.
In this model a group of participating libraries take the initiative to co-ordinate their acquisition. Their objective is to eliminate duplication in acquisitions to the extent that is possible. Further, the member libraries undertake to give services such as information access and document delivery. This model leads to the concept of decentralised development of collection at the level of participating libraries and also to decentralised system of giving services. The individual libraries, participating in the programme determine their level of support to the programme for building the shared resources. The higher their budget, the higher is their support. User libraries are required to pay for the services they avail of. The geographical area of co-operation could be confined to a city, region or country. This model is in operation in most of the resource sharing programmes started by various library networks such as DELNET, BONET etc.
More specifically, relationships in the relational ethic consistently combine some degree of two kinds of exchange: material and affective (Yan, 1996, p. 143). This point is made forcefully by Kipnis, (1997) in his 1988-90 study of the village of Fengjia, in Shandong province. He was struck by the amount of time spent by villagers on visits, banquets, sharing of tea and cigarettes, visiting ill acquaintances, and other activities apparently directed at maintaining relationships. He claims that what mattered in the exchange appeared to be whether they had carried out certain behaviours, like visiting each other when ill, rather than a question of the presence of some underlying mental state (Ibid.: 27-28). But Kipnis rejects an argument put forward by Potter and Potter (1990, p. 183; Potter, 1988), who claim that, although their Chinese informants appear to experience emotions, their speech indicates that they consider their inner feelings to be unimportant and to have little effect on relationships. Instead, he draws on the pragmatic view put forward by Lutz and Rosaldo (Kipnis, 2002) to argue that affect is something that exists when ‘embodied’ in behaviour, and does not represent a secret inner emotional life; it is no less ‘moving’ or important in relationships as a result (1997, p. 107). This is echoed by Walder’s claim that, for his informants, to have an affective tie ‘is to be concerned about the other person, and to be concerned is to be willing to help someone out’ (Walder, 1983, p. 70). Correspondingly, sincerity in feelings is a matter not of expressing one’s true inner feelings, but rather of acting in accordance with expectations created by displays of feelings (Kipnis, 1997, p. 108); thus, such a display is a claim on the future of a relationship, rather than only an echo of its past. Like Lutz (1990), Kipnis (1997, p. 115) claims that Western discourse about affect presupposes that sincerity is a matter of the expression of inner feelings; the difference in China is that this ‘ideology’ is not present, not that affect has no relevance. In this way, Kipnis explains the concern among the Fengjia villagers for continually embodying good feelings: such displays are necessary to ensure the continuation of relationships, and talk of feelings is accordingly licensed, like all mental talk, by behaviour, rather than by inner states.
the horizontal convergence of two companies. The merged firm’s commitment is to take advantage of such horizontal integration, accentuate the desirable goals and benefits by sharing the resources. The merger between HP and Compaq, for instance, has led to the creation of a global brand. HP uses single brand name for the firm’s image but some products with a dual name such as HP Compaq Presario series of laptop/desktop. Another example is the merger of Miller and Coors. The new co-brand “MillerCoors” positions in existing market and keeping the original brands. The new company will combine Coors' two breweries with Miller's seven plants. Under the deal, a Coors product can be brewed at a Miller plant and vice versa. Thus, the combined firm will bring its production closer to end markets, creating huge savings on shipping. However, focusing on existing market and brand names might not cause the synergy to make the merged firm stronger and more efficient (e.g., HP was not superior to IBM much after merging Compaq). Finally, for a Market Penetration strategy to succeed, it is critical that the heterogeneous of customer segments and the reputation of two firms should be sufficiently high.
In view of the increasing pressure to use evidence- based public health promotion to counteract the current trends in chronic diseases and health care spending, the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport has initiated a programme to support local governments and their PHSs by establishing Academic Collaborative Centres for Public Health [7-9]. Academic Collaborative Centres (ACC) are charged with building a regional, sustainable knowledge-sharing network involving three different in- stitutional partners: (i) local government, which designs health policy and decides on evidence-based service sup- ply and resource allocation; (ii) PHSs, which initiate evidence-based community health promotion and social action projects, and organize service delivery; and (iii) research institutes, which evaluate processes and assess the effectiveness and cost-benefit ratios of practice-based interventions or policy-based measures . A need for more scientific rigour is recognized in the maxim: “if we want more evidence-based practice, we need more practice-based evidence” .
The pilot data revealed that 92.5% (n = 478/517) of participant respondents agreed or strongly agreed that the workshop materials were well-prepared and 82.6% (n = 427/517) of participant respondents agreed or strongly agreed that the course activities were valuable. After six months had elapsed from the time of the train- ing, 84.6% (n = 44/52) of patient respondents reported that they went on to engage in POR in a variety of ways, including in governance, priority-setting, peer review, and in research teams. Both pilot facilitators and partici- pants noted that a key strength of the curriculum was the co-learning format and the interactivity of the course. Clear feedback on how to improve the curricu- lum was also received for key areas of the content and its delivery, such as including more examples and prac- tical information. Following the pilot, the developers formed ‘revision teams’ with interested pilot facilitators and used the evaluation data to make improvements to the materials. The end product of this process was a co-developed and tested national curriculum which continues to be delivered across Canada in different settings.
Paper structure. Our paper is organized into seven sections. The rest of this section fixes the basic concepts and notation used through our paper. The second section is dedicated to the Asmuth-Bloom secret sharing scheme with public shares. Then, in the third section, we propose CRT-based secret sharing schemes for disjunctive and conjunctive multilevel, and compartmented, access structures. We also study their security. The fourth section discusses the possi- bility of changing the Asmuth-Bloom threshold secret sharing scheme with other threshold secret sharing schemes. The efficiency of implementing our schemes is the topic of the fifth section. An extensive discussion on related work is taken in Section 6. We conclude the paper in the last section.
Abstract. Loads from explosions differ from seismic and wind loads due to their greater severity, continuity, rapidity, and thermal extremity. That is, explosions cause massive structural damage by exposing surrounding structures to extremely high pressure and temperature. Thus, structures at risk of explosive damage must be stronger than typical buildings in withstanding both ordinary loads and the additional pressure and temperature loads caused. Explosion-resistant structures are required in the petrochemical industry, explosive armories, power stations, and gas storage facilities, among others. This study aims to examine the structural performance of a building subject to three types of loads: (1) the pressure of 300 bars, (2) the temperature of 300 C, and (3) the pressure of 300 bars combined with the temperature of 300 C. The research analyzes three primary reinforced structures, namely columns, beams, and slabs, in terms of the parameters resulting from each scenario to determine a set of criteria for designing the structural components of explosion-resistant buildings.
Mezzanine finance is a hybrid of debt and equity financing, usually used to fund the scaling of an organisation. Although it is similar to debt capital, it is normally treated like equity on the organisation’s balance sheet. Mezzanine finance involves the provision of a high-risk loan, repayment of which depends on the financial success of the SPO. This hybrid financial instrument bridges the gap between debt and equity/grant through some form of revenue participation. Examples include a loan that is only repayable through royalties based on the future sales of a product or service; or a royalty-sharing agreement that can be activated once an agreed profitability threshold has been reached. These hybrid financial instruments can offer an appropriate balance of risk and return. (Source: Balbo, L., Boiardi, P., Hehenberger, L., Mortell, D., Oostlander, P., and Vittone, E., (2016), “A Practical Guide to Venture Philanthropy and Social Impact Investment ”. Brussels: EVPA).
In general, the BMS statement includes all control components such as hardware, controller, link networks and central controllers. The control system consists of three fundamental components: sensor, controller, and controlled instruments. Organization of different components for comprehensive BMS is in the system design. Each component in this design connects to each other and to the communication system [8-10]. BMS includes the level of the field layer, the level of the automation layer and the management level [11- 13]. For working with BMS, the central system is the automation layer and it requires the implementation of systems and communications. There are the field controllers to control the transfer of data from one section to another. Moreover, field sensors have signals and simulators and they respond to this sensors in separate modes. Eventually, system interfaces (Web Search Engine) is a program which controls the display for users and it shows system response. Building applications programs are specified to turn off a light automatically and HVAC for users. The fundamental structure of building management system is presented in Fig.1.