Cold Around the Heart

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Effects of Cold Application on Chest Tube Removal Pain in Heart Surgery Patients

Effects of Cold Application on Chest Tube Removal Pain in Heart Surgery Patients

Materials and Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted on 90 hospitalized patients, undergoing heart bypass surgery at the intensive care units where at least a pleural chest tube was inserted. The patients were randomly divided into two groups (45 samples per group). In the cold application group, an ice bag was placed at the designated point for 20 minutes before chest tube removal, while only routine interventions were applied for chest tube removal in the control group. Pain severity was measured in the groups before, during, and 15 minutes after chest tube removal, using the visual analogue scale. Repeated measures ANOVA test was applied for data analysis. Results: There was no significant difference in the baseline pain score between the groups (P= 0.18). However, there was a significant difference in terms of pain severity score between the cold application (3.58±1.09) and control (4.73±0.86) groups during chest tube removal (P< 0.001). On the other hand, there was no significant difference between the groups regarding the score of pain severity at 15 minutes after chest tube removal (P= 0.38).

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Cold acclimation alters the connective tissue content of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) heart

Cold acclimation alters the connective tissue content of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) heart

Cold acclimation significantly affected the collagen fiber composition in both the compact and spongy myocardium. The color of collagen fibers stained with Picrosirius Red and viewed with polarized light depends upon thickness; as fiber thickness or density increases, the color changes from green to yellow to orange to red (Hiss et al., 1988; Junqueira et al., 1982). In the compact myocardium, when collagen fiber type was calculated as a percentage of the total, cold acclimation caused a 31% decrease in the relative proportion of red collagen fibers (P=0.07). The proportion of yellow collagen fibers and green collagen fibers increased by 145% (P<0.05) and 143% (P<0.05), respectively (Fig. 2A). In the spongy myocardium, cold acclimation caused the proportion of the thick red collagen fibers to decrease by 35% (P=0.06) and that of the yellow and green collagen fibers to increase by 96% (P<0.05) and 86% (P=0.08), respectively (Fig. 2A). There was no change in the proportion of the orange collagen fibers in either the spongy or compact myocardium. Finally, Junqueira et al. (Junqueira et al., 1978) suggested that collagen fibers that appear red, orange or yellow are composed of Type I collagen while fibers that appear green are composed of Type III collagen. Therefore, we calculated the ratio of red, orange and yellow fibers to green fibers to estimate the ratio of Type I:Type III collagen. We found that this ratio decreased by 85% (P<0.05) in the spongy myocardium and by 81% (P<0.05) in the compact myocardium (Table 2). Caution must be taken in interpreting these results as this method may identify an immature, thin Type I fiber as Type III (Rich and Whittaker, 2005); however, these results clearly demonstrate that the proportion of thick fibers are decreasing in the heart with cold acclimation.

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Impact of cold mud pack on abdomen and eyes on the autonomic control of heart rate

Impact of cold mud pack on abdomen and eyes on the autonomic control of heart rate

I, Dr. D.SATHYANATH solemnly declare that this dissertation entitled “THE IMPACT OF COLD MUD PACK ON ABDOMEN AND EYES ON THE AUTONOMIC CONTROL OF HEART RATE” is a bonafide and genuine research work carried out by me at Government Yoga and Naturopathy Medical College and Hospital, Chennai from April 2017 - May 2018 under the guidance and supervision of Dr. N. MANAVALAN, N.D. (OSM), M.A (G.T), M.Sc (Y&N), M. Phil, P.G.D.Y, P.G.D.H.M, P.G.D.H.H, Head of the Department - Department of Naturopathy. This dissertation is submitted to The Tamil Nadu Dr.M.G.R.Medical University, Chennai towards partial fulfillment of requirements for the award of M.D. Degree (Branch – I – Naturopathy) in Yoga and Naturopathy.

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Lateral hypothalamic lesions and norepinephrine turnover in rats

Lateral hypothalamic lesions and norepinephrine turnover in rats

Animals with lateral hypothalamic lesions lost significantly more weight in the 18 h following this lesion than did sham-operated animals or rats with cerebral cortical lesions deprived of food for the same time period. In the acutely fasted sham-operated animals the turnover of norepinephrine in interscapular brown adipose tissue, heart, and pancreas was slowed but in fasted rats with lateral hypothalamic lesions norepinephrine turnover rates were three- to ninefold faster in all three organs. Exposure to the cold (4 degrees C) significantly increased norepinephrine turnover in the interscapular brown adipose tissue, heart, and pancreas of fasted sham-operated rats, but did not further increase the rate of turnover in lateral

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A Study of Cardiovascular Autonomic Function in Normotensive Hypertensive Subjects

A Study of Cardiovascular Autonomic Function in Normotensive Hypertensive Subjects

The normal response to immersion of a hand in ice water involves reflex arterial vasoconstriction producing increase in blood pressure and cardiac output by cutaneous pain receptors. Blood pressure is raised mainly through increased vascular resistance due to enhanced sympathetic activity. The initial increase in heart rate is blunted by β - adrenoreceptor blockers suggesting that sympathetic rather than parasympathetic outflow mediates this response. While the cold pressor test has been used to assess the efferent sympathetic outflow, the response involves a reflex arc that inclues afferent sensory nerve (pain), spinothalamic tracts, suprapontine and intrathalamic relays in addition to efferent sympathetic pathways, peripheral sympathetic receptors. Our study confirms the earlier works that there was a decrease in RPP in the study group which possibly due to reduced HRV immediately following the maneuver (ES Prakash et al 2004).

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The cardiovascular responses of the red eared slider (Trachemys scripta) acclimated to either 22 or 5 degrees C  II  Effects of anoxia on adrenergic and cholinergic control

The cardiovascular responses of the red eared slider (Trachemys scripta) acclimated to either 22 or 5 degrees C II Effects of anoxia on adrenergic and cholinergic control

Cholinergic and adrenergic regulation of the cardiovascular system has been studied in a variety of lower vertebrates, including turtles (Farrell, 1991; Hicks, 1994). The turtle heart, like that of most other ectothermic vertebrates, is under powerful inhibitory cholinergic control and much weaker stimulatory adrenergic control (White, 1976; Burggren, 1987). Apnoeic diving in turtles results in bradycardia (White and Ross, 1966) mediated through cholinergic mechanisms (Hicks and Wang, 1998). In addition, chronic exposure to anoxia in cold-acclimated turtles results in profound decreases in heart rate that dramatically reduce cardiovascular performance (Herbert and Jackson, 1985b) such that systemic cardiac power output can decrease by 330-fold compared with that of normoxic turtles at 22 °C (Hicks and Farrell, 2000). However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for the cardiovascular changes associated with chronic anoxia in cold-acclimated

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Suppression of reactive oxygen species generation in heart mitochondria from anoxic turtles: the role of complex I S nitrosation

Suppression of reactive oxygen species generation in heart mitochondria from anoxic turtles: the role of complex I S nitrosation

Mitochondria isolated from hearts from cold-acclimated normoxic and anoxic turtles were exposed to two different protocols run in parallel in the two chambers. In one chamber, ROS production from RET was induced by adding 5 mmol l −1 succinate. This reflects the maximal capacity for ROS production and respiration with succinate. Rotenone (8 µmol l −1 ), an inhibitor of complex I, was then added to measure non-complex I ROS production and respiration rate. Afterwards, 1 mmol l −1 ADP was added to induce maximal (complex II-dependent) respiration rate (i.e. state III respiration, under phosphorylating conditions). In the other chamber, malate (2.5 mmol l −1 ) and pyruvate (5 mmol l −1 ) were added and complex I-dependent state II respiration rate was recorded. ADP (1 mmol l −1 ) was then added to initiate complex I- dependent state III respiration rate, and succinate (5 mmol l −1 ) was added to measure state III respiration rate dependent on both complex I and II. An increase of less than 10% in respiration rate after addition of cytochrome c (10 µmol l −1 ) was taken as proof that the mitochondria were intact (Galli et al., 2013). The mitochondria were finally uncoupled with titrations of carbonyl cyanide-p-tri- fluoro-methoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP, dissolved in ethanol) to assess maximal respiration rate. Assuming identical temperature effects on mitochondrial function of normoxic and anoxic turtles, as determined in previous studies (Galli and Richards, 2012), respiration rate and ROS production were measured at 20°C instead of the acclimation temperature at 5°C, as the lower respiration rate would prolong the protocol duration.

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Original Article Clusterin (apolipoprotein J) facilitates NF-κB and Bax degradation and prevents I/R injury in heart transplantation

Original Article Clusterin (apolipoprotein J) facilitates NF-κB and Bax degradation and prevents I/R injury in heart transplantation

Abstract: Background and Aim: Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is an unavoidable event occurring during heart transplantation and is a key factor in graft failure and long-term survival rate of recipients. Therefore, there is an ur- gent need for the development of new therapies to prevent I/R injury. Clusterin is a hetero-dimeric glycoprotein with an antiapoptotic function. In this study, we investigated whether clusterin was cardioprotective in heart transplanta- tion against I/R injury using an in vivo rat model and an in vitro cell culture system and we examined the underly- ing mechanisms of I/R injury. Methods: Heart grafts from wild-type C57BL/6 mice were preserved in UW solution (control) or UW solution containing recombinant human apolipoprotein J (hr clusterin) for 24 hours. The preserved hearts were implanted into recipient mice of the same strain as the donors for 72 hours. The heart grafts were then taken for histopathological and gene expression analyses. An in vitro ischemia reperfusion model using H9C2 cells or H9C2/clusterin cDNA cells was constructed. The expression of clusterin, p65, Bax, Bcl-xL, IL-1β, and TNF-α protein and mRNA in heart tissue and H9C2 cells was detected by Western blot, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and quantitative RT-PCR assays. IL-1β and TNF-α protein was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. NF-kB activity was detected by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay and cell apoptosis was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling and flow cytometric analy- ses. Results: Cold I/R caused severe morphologic myocardial injury to heart grafts from wild-type C57BL/6 mice whereas grafts from hr clusterin preservation showed less damage, as demonstrated by decreased cell apoptosis/ death, decreased neutrophil infiltration, and the preservation of the normal structure of the heart. Clusterin reduced expression of p65, pre-inflammatory IL-1β, TNF-α, and the pro-apoptotic gene Bax while it enhanced expression of the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-xL in vitro and in vivo. Clusterin inhibited cell apoptosis/death and reduced pre- inflammation. Conclusion: Clusterin is a promising target for preventing cold I/R injury in heart transplantation. This study also shows that the resultant protective effects of clusterin are mediated by NF-κB signaling and Bax/Bcl-xL expression.

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PLANT SPECIES USED BY LOCALS AS ETHNO MEDICINE IN KUMAUN REGION OF WESTERN HIMALAYA (INDIA)

PLANT SPECIES USED BY LOCALS AS ETHNO MEDICINE IN KUMAUN REGION OF WESTERN HIMALAYA (INDIA)

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: A total 47 plant species (31 cultivated and 16 wild) were used in traditional ethno-medicine belonging to 38 genera and 28 families which of 17 trees, 4 shrubs, 20 herbs and 6 climbers. Most of them were commonly cultivated in crop filed; some were found in village surrounding, forest area and wasteland. Among these plant species, the maximum plants were used for cough and cold, skin diseases, weakness, heart diseases followed by asthma, diabetes, blood pressure, boils and pimples, fever, gastric problems, burn, cuts and wounds, diarrhea, stomach syphilis, stone problems and teeth pain, while few species were used in diabetes, indignation, dysentery, sunburn, ulcer, enhancement of memory power, stress, sun and heat stroke, hair diseases, stomach disorder followed by antipyretic problem, bone fracture, weight loss, eye problems, pneumonia, measles, vomiting, urinary problems, dyspepsia, vesicle, antitoxic and internal wounds respectively. Plants used by locals of Almora district with the advice of Vaidhyas and other experienced persons were tabulated in alphabetical order of family, botanical name, uses and using procedure (Table 1).

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Cold impaired cardiac performance in rats is only partially overcome by cold acclimation

Cold impaired cardiac performance in rats is only partially overcome by cold acclimation

We document increased ventricular mass but preservation of capillary density, an observation not noted for pathological models of hypertrophy (Bishop et al., 1996; Rakusan et al., 1992). We cannot exclude angiogenesis as a contributing factor to the preservation of capillary density in the face of increased heart mass, but without data for capillary:fibre ratio or endothelial proliferation markers this cannot be proved, although the current data are consistent with an elongation of pre-existing muscle fibres with preservation of capillary perfusion distances (Bishop et al., 1996; Kayar and Weiss, 1992). This is also supported by increases in estimated EDV, suggesting elongation of ventricular myocytes rather than concentric hypertrophy, which is a proven stimulus for angiogenesis (Hudlicka et al., 1992). While there is little influence of remodelling on intracardiac diffusion distances, an increased coronary blood flow associated with a prolonged diastolic period may be sufficient to increase substrate delivery, consistent with a greater oxidative capacity.

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Reduction of cardiovascular hyper reactivity after 12 week practice of ujjayi pranayam and shavasan in adult human volunteers

Reduction of cardiovascular hyper reactivity after 12 week practice of ujjayi pranayam and shavasan in adult human volunteers

Our results showed that “Yoga” causes significant reduction in the cardiovascular hyper-reactivity. A total of 50 male volunteers were included in the study. Out of which 22 were hyper-reactor to cold pressor test. These hyper-reactors practiced yoga regularly for 12 weeks and after this period 16 volunteers became hypo-reactors. However, the hyper- reactivity did not change in 06 volunteers. The statistical analysis was carried out using student t test. It was observed that the basal blood pressure, rise in BP due to cold stress (Table-1) and, heart rate and Rate Pressure Product were statistically more significantly altered. (Table-2)

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Is cold acclimation of benefit to hibernating rodents?

Is cold acclimation of benefit to hibernating rodents?

For both euthermic and CA hamsters, diastolic performance was unchanged by acute cooling (n.s.; Fig.4), with diastolic stiffness (Δdiastolic pressure/unit volume change) in euthermic (Fig.4A) and CA hamsters (Fig.4B) unchanged by acute cooling. Estimates of LV end-diastolic volume (EDV) decreased in CA hamsters (euthermic=156±5μl versus CA=131±7μl; P<0.05), suggesting a concentric hypertrophy of the heart on cold acclimation. For euthermic hamster hearts, acute cooling had no effect on peak developed pressure (n.s.; Fig.5A), while CA decreased peak developed pressure at both 37 and 25°C (P<0.05 for both; Fig.3B). Interestingly, acute cooling altered ventricular dynamics, inducing a right shift in the performance characteristics (greatest pressure at increased balloon volume; Fig.5A) in euthermic hearts. By contrast, for CA hearts, acute cooling induced a left shift in the performance characteristics (greatest pressure at lower volume; Fig.5B). This was similarly shown in calculated rate-pressure products (RPP). For euthermic hearts, acute cooling decreased RPP (P<0.05; Fig.5C) and displaced the peak RPP towards a larger balloon volume. CA significantly decreased RPP in hearts (P<0.05 for both 25 and 37°C; Fig.5D), yet acute cooling induced a left shift in the relationship with peak RPP occurring at lower balloon volumes (Fig.5D).

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Donor liver quality after hypovolemic shock and venous systemic oxygen persufflation in an experimental animal model

Donor liver quality after hypovolemic shock and venous systemic oxygen persufflation in an experimental animal model

Heart-beating donors (HBD) were defined as positive control and non-heart-beating donors (NHBD) were regarded as negative control. General anesthesia was induced by inhalation of isoflurane (Abbott GmBH & Co. KG, Wiesbaden, Germany). Midline laparotomy with bilateral subcostal extensions was performed and the liver was sceletonized and freed from all ligamentous attachments. For bile collection, the common bile duct was cannulated with a 0.3 × 0.6 mm polytetrafluoroeth- ylene tube (Sigma-Aldrich Inc., St. Louis, USA). After hepatic artery ligation, the portal vein was cannulated with a 14-gauge polyethylene catheter (B. Braun Melsun- gen AG, Melsungen, Germany) for perfusion with 20 ml 0.9% saline solution (B-Braun Melsungen AG, Melsun- gen, Germany). To prevent hepatic outflow obstruc- tion, the inferior caval vein was incised. After final liver explantation perfusion with 60 ml histidine tryptophane ketoglutarate (HTK) solution with 20  mM N-acetyl- cysteine (NAC, Hexal AG, Holzkirchen, Germany) was performed at 4  °C and an additional 14-gauge catheter inserted into the supra hepatic caval vein for following reperfusion. Finally, livers were stored in 125 ml HTK at 4 °C with a cold water bath (Ministat 125, Peter Huber Kältemaschinenbau GmbH, Offenburg, Germany) for 17  h (N = 6 animals, HBD + VSOP) and, respectively, 18 h (N = 6 animals, HBD).

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Temperature regulates hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF 1) in a
poikilothermic vertebrate, crucian carp (Carassius carassius)

Temperature regulates hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF 1) in a poikilothermic vertebrate, crucian carp (Carassius carassius)

1 (Gracey et al., 2001). Moreover, a recent cDNA microarray study on the responses of common carp to reduced temperature indicates similarities to the observed HIF-1 responses in crucian carp tissues (Gracey et al., 2004). Although induction of genes coding for proteins of the electron transport chain was common to all tissues in the cold acclimated phenotype, transcriptional changes of other energetic pathways showed tissue specificity. While expression of most glycolytic genes was increased in the gills, kidney and, to a lesser extent, in the heart of cold acclimated fish, transcript profiles of liver showed cold-induced transition to lipid metabolism and activation of the pentose phosphate pathway (Gracey et al., 2004). Thus, it is possible that the lack of HIF-1 response in the liver of crucian carp indicates different metabolic responses both to hypoxia and to cold between liver and other tissues.

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Atmospheric pressure-wave bands around a cold front resulted in a meteotsunami in the East China Sea in February 2009

Atmospheric pressure-wave bands around a cold front resulted in a meteotsunami in the East China Sea in February 2009

The surface pressure over the middle of the East China Sea (Domain 3) is shown in Fig. 13, which also shows the di- vergence of the surface wind. The centre of the surface low pressure appeared near Cheju Island at 21:00 JST on 24 February 2009 and the disturbance in the sea-level pressure can be seen near the coastal area of Shanghai, China. The band of pressure disturbance propagated to Kyushu Island, moving the cold front with the low surface surface, corre- sponding to the region of the mid-troposphere unstable layer shown in Fig. 11. The wavelength of the pressure distur- bance ranged from 30–100 km, as seen in the coupling of the updraft and downdraft in Fig. 12. Although the horizontal convergence and divergence of surface wind were strong in- side the pressure-wave band, the wind speed itself was not high. The mean wind speed ranged from 5–10 m s −1 in the NNW direction. The wave band began to split from the cold front at approximately 06:00 JST on 25 February, and the dis- turbance gradually decreased.

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HATS-59b,c: a transiting hot Jupiter and a cold massive giant planet around a sun-like star

HATS-59b,c: a transiting hot Jupiter and a cold massive giant planet around a sun-like star

In this work, we report the discovery of HATS-59b,c, the fi rst multi-planet system detected by the HATSouth survey ( Bakos et al. 2013 ) . The star hosts an inner hot Jupiter detected via its transits and an outer cold massive giant planet detected via the radial velocity variations of the host star. The possibility of additional outer planetary companions to transiting hot Jupiter has been proposed by, e.g., Rabus et al. ( 2009 ) and in fact, there have been only a few transiting planets with an outer planetary companion for which a full orbit was detected via radial velocity, such as HAT-P-13b,c ( Bakos et al. 2009 ) , HAT-P-17b,c ( Howard et al. 2012 ) , Kepler-424b,c ( Endl et al. 2014 ) , WASP-41b,c ( Neveu-VanMalle et al. 2016 ) , WASP-47b,c ( Hellier et al. 2012; Becker et al. 2015; Neveu- VanMalle et al. 2016 ) , and WASP-53b,c ( Triaud et al. 2017 ) . Among all the systems with a transiting hot Jupiter known to have outer companions, HAT-P-13 c and WASP-53b,c are the only massive planetary companions with a minimum mass greater than HATS-59 c. The few detections of companions around transiting planets is due, to some extent, by the lack of radial velocity follow-up observations. Hot Jupiters in multi- planet systems provide a unique opportunity to place observa- tional constraints on migration models and also could be used to probe the tidal love number of the hot Jupiter ( Buhler et al. 2016; Hardy et al. 2017 ) , which in turn constrains the planetary interior structure ( Batygin et al. 2009 ) . Therefore, monitoring these systems is very interesting for planet formation and interior structure models.

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Impact of ritual pollution on lactation and breastfeeding practices in rural West Bengal, India

Impact of ritual pollution on lactation and breastfeeding practices in rural West Bengal, India

Ethnographic tools and techniques (participant observa- tion, interviews, field notes, and case-studies) were employed in gathering data. The in-depth interview guide- line was developed by reviewing the humoral medical the- ory and the concept of hot and cold; concept of ritual pollution; and critically reviewing the framework devel- oped by McCarthy and Maine [24] for analysing the deter- minants of maternal mortality and morbidity. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 women (data satura- tion achieved) in the reproductive age group of 13–49 years on reproductive health; maternal health and nutri- tional status; child health care practices, including breast- feeding and weaning practices. Twelve case studies were documented with women belonging to different caste, religious, and tribal groups. Both qualitative and quanti- tative methods were employed for data collection [25]. Data analyses

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Cardiac tamponade as the initial manifestation of severe hypothyroidism: A case report

Cardiac tamponade as the initial manifestation of severe hypothyroidism: A case report

Background: Hypothyroidism is a commonly seen con- dition. The presence of pericardial effusion with car- diac tamponade as initial manifestation of this endoc- rinological condition is very unusual. Objectives: In hypothyroidism pericardial fluid accumulates slowly, allowing adaptation and stretching of the pericardial sac, sometimes accommodating a large volume. Case Report: A 39 year-old female presented with chest pain, dyspnea and lower extremity edema for 1 day. Brady- cardia, muffled heart sounds and severe hyper- tension were noticed. Chest radiograph showed an enlarged cardiac silhouette. A bedside echocardiogram revealed a cardiac tamponade, later she developed sudden hypotension and bradycardia that resolved after pericardiocentesis of 1 liter of pericardial fluid. The further laboratory evaluation revealed a TSH value of 69.3 miU/L and low T3 and free T4. The patient later developed re-accumulation of pericardial fluid with the need for creation of pericardial window. Conclu- sion: When the classic Beck’s triad is not present and bradycardia accompanies a cardiac tamponade, hy- pothyroidism should be strongly suspected. The re- quirement for thyroid hormone supplement is critical and is well reported. There is a chance of recurrence even after starting levothyroxine supplementation; and the associated hypertension usually requires treatment with more than one drug.

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Numerical investigation of an active TPS for a wing leading edge exposed to high temperature air behind a strong bow shock wave

Numerical investigation of an active TPS for a wing leading edge exposed to high temperature air behind a strong bow shock wave

corresponding to the Euler equations is computed as a convex combination of three parts, namely F A , F D and F C , in the original scheme. The F A is dissipative and F D and F C are less dissipative. The arguments of F A and F D are computed by MUSCL (the van-Leer slope limiter) and those of F C are done by fifth order accur- ate Lagrange’s polynomial approximation. The weights of the convex combination vary smoothly according to physical situations such that F A , F D and F C , respect- ively, become dominant around shock waves, around contact discontinuities and in smooth regions. The Euler flux of the simplified scheme comprises F A and F D ; the former takes charge of regions around shocks and the latter does of those around contact discontinuities and smooth regions. The diffusive numerical flux is com- mon for both of the schemes and is computed by the standard second order accur- ate central finite difference approximation; second order accuracy is considered to suffice even in the original scheme in view of the smallness of the diffusive terms, which are multiplied by the inverse of the Reynolds number. The standard RK-4 and RK-2 are employed in the original scheme and the simplified one, respectively.

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Multi-Spectral Ship Detection using Optical, Hyperspectral, and Microwave SAR Remote Sensing for Sustainability of the Coastal Region

Multi-Spectral Ship Detection using Optical, Hyperspectral, and Microwave SAR Remote Sensing for Sustainability of the Coastal Region

The seas around the Korean Peninsula are some of the marginal seas of the Northwest Pacific— consisting of the East Sea (called Sea of Japan), Yellow Sea, and East China Sea—and they border East Asian countries with some of the largest populations in the world [1]. Over the past few decades, the economic activities of the countries in East Asia have expanded the most significantly in the world [2-4]. As a result, port facilities have been continuously constructed along the coasts of each of these countries, and maritime trades have been rapidly increasing as well. The seas around the Korean Peninsula possess great strategic value owing to the increasing economic activities and volume of marine trade. Therefore, an efficient marine monitoring system is crucial for achieving the sustainable development of coastal and marine areas as well as to protect coastal resources for ensuring public safety against frequent marine accidents.

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