Several studies focused on the anatomic structures and systematic significance of roots and leaves of plants from the Zingiberaceae. The morphological characteristics of roots and leaves were studied for the theoretical basis for determining the phylogenetic and evolutionary rela- tionships among species and genera [6-8]. As seeds play a major role in providing continuity, as well as the po- tential for genetic variation, between successive genera- tions of seed plants , the morphological structures of seeds, especially the seed coat, also have unique and relatively stable characteristics [10,11]. This study aims to identify these seven species of Zingiberaceae family based on comparativeanatomy of microscopic charac- teristics of seeds in transverse section.
Introduction: In forensic sciences, reconstructive victim profile is a commonly used procedure to provide individual data in cases of complex human identifications. In forensic anthropology, valuable data are obtained from skeletal and dental analysis such as gender, age, ancestry, stature, and differentiation between human and non- human remains. Objective: To highlight the relevance of comparativeanatomy analysis to differentiate human and non-human remains. Case report: Four bone fragments and one tooth were found on a potential crime scene, and were submitted to forensic examinations. The examinations revealed non-human anthropological remains. Additionally, the analyzed bones and tooth were classified as animal remains, specifically from a domestic dog (Canis lupus familiares). Conclusion: In this context, it is relevant to be trained and aware of the usefulness of comparativeanatomy into the forensic anthropology routine in order to perform complete and accurate examinations. Keywords:
This is to certify that the dissertation work on MORPHOLOGY AND MORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF PLACENTA AND UMBILICAL CORD WITH ITS VASCULAR PATTERN AND COMPARATIVEANATOMY is the bonafide work done by Dr.R.SUDHA in the Institute of Anatomy, Madras Medical College, Chennai – 600 003 during the year 2006 – 2009 under my supervision and guidance in partial fulfillment of the regulation laid down by The Tamil Nadu Dr.M.G.R Medical University, for the M.S., Anatomy branch V examination to be held in March 2009.
In informatics, the problem of ontology alignment has been a promising research area for decades, yet the inherent complexity of comparing such different anatomical data at so many levels of resolution for so many species poses a challenge far greater than the domain of most ontology alignments, and carries the promise of developing techniques and tools that can be applied to genomics ontology alignment problems, taken as another level of anatomical complexity. As well, in comparativeanatomy, the structure and orga- nization of massive amounts of anatomical data in one resource will serve multiple purposes of making infor- mation accessible and visualizable in different views for different users with different information needs, as well as for identifying gaps and inconsistencies in the scientific literature to facilitate future research. We hy- pothesize that our system will prove to be an initial step toward meeting these needs.
Our approach to comparativeanatomy effectively defines a common space, the connectivity blue- print, for the brains of different species based on connections with white matter tracts. This approach was chosen because the body of these tracts can be reliably identified, ensuring that the common space is based on properties that are homologous. The tracts were established using rec- ipes developed by the authors. Although in agreement with the published literature, this inevitably requires some judgment calls. An alternative would be to describe the tracts based on observer- independent approaches (O’Muircheartaigh and Jbabdi, 2018), an approach that we aim to investi- gate in the future. However, if there is doubt regarding a particular tract, the current approach can also be used to test hypotheses regarding its course by testing the effect of various configurations on the similarity of the two brains. For example, one could search for a set of white matter tracts, a blueprint, that minimizes differences between cortical organization, under a parsimonious assump- tion of no connectional reorganization.
C h a p te r 2: Many new climatiid and diplacanthid acanthodians, primarily jfrom the Lower Devonian MOTH locality in Canada have been recently described (e.g. see Gagnier and Wilson 1996a/b for Brochoadmones, Cassidiceps and Kathemacanthus', Gagnier et al. 1999 for Tetanopsyrus lindoei; and Hanke et al. 2001 for Tetanopsyrus breviacanthus). However, the LORS/MORS taxa to which these MOTH taxa are compared have not been properly described or actual specimens observed to make accurate comparative judgments about characters. This lack o f detailed morphological ORS taxa information has lead some papers to discuss the need for this review while postponing any rigorous studies o f climatiid and diplacanthid relationships until such morphological information becomes available. The most recent paper to follow this trend was Hanke et al. 2001. Because of this need for new and accurate morphological information on the LORS/MORS fishes as well as the MOTH
Ratzeburg, 1833 and American paddlefish Polyodon spathula Walbaum, 1792. The research material — skeletons of the pectoral girdle and muscles that act on the pectoral fin — were provided by the Museum of Animal Anatomy, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine. Specimens were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin with further conducting of anatomical dissection. After skin re- moval, the muscles that act on the pectoral fin were identified. Then the pectoral girdles with correspond- ing muscles were removed for further macroscopic investigation of their skeletal elements.
The bony labyrinth can also be examined microscopically by microdissections and serial sections from tissue-embedding techniques. Here, the cochlea is dissected away from the temporal bone and immersed in the fixative. The dehydrated cochlea is then infiltrated with the embedding materials, generally paraffin or celloidin for light microscopy and plastic resin for advanced microscopic examinations (e.g., Hashimoto et al., 1990; Sato et al., 1999). Sections are serially cut and then photographed to perform 2D or 3D image reconstruction. The microscopic techniques give the opportunity to study tiny structures at the tissue and cellular levels. However, these techniques are time-consuming and require considerable skill for their preparation (Spoor and Zonneveld, 1995; Hardie et al. 2004). The delicate labyrinthine structures may be damaged or shrink during tissue processing and sectioning (Hashimoto et al., 1990; Spoor and Zonneveld, 1995). In addition, the co- registration of sections to create 3D volumes is cumbersome and time consuming (Hardie et al., 2004; Hashimoto et al., 1990; Sato et al., 1999). Recent advances in episcopic and micro-grinding microscopy (e.g., Rau et al., 2013; Shen et al., 2013) may bring considerable improvements and insights at the microscopic level but will remain prohibitive for large comparative studies due to their destructive nature. A potential solution to this problem is to employ non-invasive imaging techniques.
In animals, one of the anatomical structures around the duodenojejunal flexure is the PDC. The fold is present in domestic animals, such as pig, cow, horse, and dog [7, 11], and it demarcates the border between the duodenum and the jejunum. However, the anatomical counterparts of the SDF, the IDF, and the superior and inferior duodenal fossae, are not clarified, and, to our knowledge, differences in the anatomy around the duodenojejunal flexure between human and other animals have not been analysed. Anatomical information about the duodenojejunal
Four dogs (beagle, adult, male) were anesthetized with an intravenous injection of sodium pentobarbital (25 mg/kg) and bled through the carotid artery to use for ex- ercise of veterinary anatomy at Azabu University. Sixteen legs from the cadavers were collected when the exercise finished two hours later. Three domestic cats (hybrid, adult, male and female) were euthanized by injecting overdose sodium pentobarbital at private veterinary hos- pitals. Twelve legs from 3 domestic cat cadavers were amputated.
Systematic application of anatomical features returns to about a century ago. One of the oldest information about systematic-anatomy is relevant to Solererder (1908) (Nejadhabibvash and Hosseini, 2009). Some anatomical features were already utilized for separation of taxonomical unites of a few woody species. Epidermal characters such as epidermal surface, structure of stomata and trichome frequency were utilized by Uzunova (1999) to separate Corylus L., Carpinus
My supervisor Leslie C. Aiello, for her support, advice and encouragement. Simon Strickland, my second supervisor, for general advice and encouragement. The Anatomy Department UCL for allowing me to use their material, and store my specimens in their laboratory. Wendy Birch and Derek Dudley o f the Anatomy Department UCL for preparing specimens and arranging space for working, without their help and advice the dissections would not have been possible. Louise Humphrey and Theya MoUeson at the Natural History Museum, for access to the Spitalfields Collection and much discussion and advice. Andrew Kitchener at the Royal Museum o f Scotland for providing the primate specimens for dissection. John Hartman at the Powell-Cotton Museum, not only for access to the African ape material but for his many kindness’ to me. John Rubin, David Howard and Annette Kelly at the Royal National Throat Nose and Ear Hospital London, not only for allowing access to X-ray material but, answering so many o f my questions and letting me sit in on clinic sessions. In addition, the staff in the X-ray department at this hospital for help in interpreting the X-rays. Helen Chatterjee at The Grant Zoology Museum UCL for access to the Negus sagittal heads. Louise Scheuer, for access to St. Brides and St. Bamabus and for giving me so much support and encouragement.
The anatomy of the leaf blade, petiole, stem and root of the genus Sarcocaulon (DC.) Sweet is discussed. On the basis of the leaf anatomy, the four sections recognized by Moffett (1979) can be identified: section Denticulati (dorsiventral leaves), section Multifidi (isobilateral leaves and adaxial and abaxial palisade continuous at midvein), section Crenati (isobilateral leaves, short curved trichomes and glandular hairs), section Sarcocaulon (isobilateral leaves and glandular hairs only). The anatomy of the stem is typically that of a herbaceous dicotyledon with a thick periderm. The root structure shows that the function of the root is not food storage.
in southwest Asia’s Fertile Crescent” ( Diamond 1997). Darwin ’s comparison of the tip of the stem to the “brain This first tsunami, which occurred in 9000 bc , was fol- of the lower animals” focuses squarely on the issue, but lowed by another wave that occurred early in this cen- his metaphor is inappropriate. Plants have no single tury: the engineering of domesticated plants by the ap- organ, like the brain, that can be construed as directing plication of Mendelian genetics in the ’20s and ’30s (see movement. Moreover, movement in animals can be as- Figure 1). The third wave is building now, with the cribed to the position and connectivity of the underlying application of new DNA technologies. Already, intro- anatomical structures—muscles innervated by axons ductory botanical texts instruct today’s college students linked to the central nervous system. But plant anatomy that genetic engineering will yield plants that make vita- has not revealed the equivalent of a neural network that mins and drugs; resist drought, disease, and insects; could account for the concerted behavior of some cells and “make better tasting food, clean the environment,