Complementarity determining region

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Homologous regions of autoantibody heavy chain complementarity determining region 3 (H CDR3) in patients with pemphigus cause pathogenicity

Homologous regions of autoantibody heavy chain complementarity determining region 3 (H CDR3) in patients with pemphigus cause pathogenicity

Pemphigus is a life-threatening autoimmune disease in which antibodies specific for desmogleins (Dsgs) cause loss of keratinocyte cell adhesion and blisters. In order to understand how antibodies cause pathogenicity and whether there are commonalities among antibodies in different patients that could ultimately be used to target specific therapy against these antibodies, we characterized Dsg-specific mAbs cloned by phage display from 3 patients with pemphigus vulgaris and 2 with pemphigus foliaceus. Variable heavy chain gene usage was restricted, but similar genes were used for both pathogenic and nonpathogenic mAbs. However, the heavy chain complementarity-determining region 3 (H-CDR3) of most pathogenic, but not nonpathogenic, mAbs shared an amino acid consensus sequence. Randomization of the H- CDR3 and site-directed mutagenesis indicated that changes in this sequence could block pathogenicity but not
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Characterization of the immunoglobulin heavy chain complementarity determining region (CDR) III sequences from human B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells

Characterization of the immunoglobulin heavy chain complementarity determining region (CDR) III sequences from human B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells

Sequence analysis of the immunoglobulin heavy chain complementarity determining region (CDR)-III of B-lineage cells at various stages has provided important insights concerning B cell maturation and selection. Knowledge of human CDR-III sequences has been relatively limited compared with that of the murine system. We analyzed the CDR-III sequences of B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pre-B ALL) cells in 23 newly diagnosed and 10 relapsed patients, in order to elucidate the organization of CDR-III in B cell precursors. We found a very low frequency of somatic mutations in D and JH regions, preferential use of DLR, DXP, DHQ52, and DN elements, and of 3' side JH segments, and no predominant usage of D coding frames. Unusual joinings such as VH-D-D-JH and VH-JH were observed in three, and one sequences, respectively. We compared the CDR-III sequences derived from 10 patients between diagnosis and relapse. Two of them had three spots of mutated nucleotides at relapse, all of which were found in the N region near the D segments. Our data showed the possibility of somatic mutation at relapse, in addition to developmentally regulated rearrangement of the immunoglobulin gene at the stage of B cell precursors.
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Relationship between Antibody 2F5 Neutralization of HIV-1 and Hydrophobicity of Its Heavy Chain Third Complementarity-Determining Region

Relationship between Antibody 2F5 Neutralization of HIV-1 and Hydrophobicity of Its Heavy Chain Third Complementarity-Determining Region

The membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of the HIV-1 gp41 transmembrane glycoprotein is the target of the broadly neutralizing antibody 2F5. Prior studies have suggested a two-component mechanism for 2F5-mediated neutralization involving both structure-specific recognition of a gp41 protein epitope and non- specific interaction with the viral lipid membrane. Here, we mutationally alter a hydrophobic patch on the third complementarity-determining region of the heavy chain (CDR H3) of the 2F5 antibody and assess the abilities of altered 2F5 variants to bind gp41 and to neutralize diverse strains of HIV-1. CDR H3 alterations had little effect on the affinity of 2F5 variants for a peptide corresponding to its gp41 epitope. In contrast, strong effects and a high degree of correlation (P < 0.0001) were found between virus neutralization and CDR H3 hydro- phobicity, as defined by predicted free energies of transfer from water to a lipid bilayer interface or to octanol. The effect of CDR H3 hydrophobicity on neutralization was independent of isolate sensitivity to 2F5, and CDR H3 variants with tryptophan substitutions were able to neutralize HIV-1 ⬃ 10-fold more potently than unmod- ified 2F5. A threshold was observed for increased hydrophobicity of the 2F5 CDR H3 loop beyond which effects on 2F5-mediated neutralization leveled off. Together, the results provide a more complete understanding of the 2F5 mechanism of HIV-1 neutralization and indicate ways to enhance the potency of MPER-directed antibodies.
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Ablation of the Complementarity-Determining Region H3 Apex of the Anti-HIV-1 Broadly Neutralizing Antibody 2F5 Abrogates Neutralizing Capacity without Affecting Core Epitope Binding

Ablation of the Complementarity-Determining Region H3 Apex of the Anti-HIV-1 Broadly Neutralizing Antibody 2F5 Abrogates Neutralizing Capacity without Affecting Core Epitope Binding

Interestingly, no contacts have been identified between the core gp41 epitope and the central seven amino acids of the 22-residue-long 2F5 CDR H3 loop. The importance of these CDR H3 residues for neutralization has been documented previously (60). Many publications have hypothesized that this region of 2F5 might be involved in a secondary role other than core epitope binding (2, 18, 24, 28, 37, 41, 42). Indeed, it has been reported that antibodies elicited during the course of HIV-1 infection might display elevated polyreactivity com- pared to the reactivity of antibodies elicited during the course of other infections (33). It has also been suggested that the length of the CDR H3 loop, which plays a distinct role in determining antigen specificity, is related to the type of antigen recognized: antibodies raised against large antigens, such as viruses, have a tendency to have longer CDR H3 loops than antibodies responsive to smaller antigens, such as peptides (11, 23, 47). It is hypothesized that antibodies with longer CDR H3 loops have an extended binding site that allows them to insert into cavities within an antigen (47). The 2F5 CDR H3 might indeed play a crucial role in recognizing a recessed conserved epitope, stemming both from its location at the membrane- partitioning interface of the virus and from the potential oligo- merization of the gp41 MPER.
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Molecular features of the complementarity determining region 3 motif of the T cell population and subsets in the blood of patients with chronic severe hepatitis B

Molecular features of the complementarity determining region 3 motif of the T cell population and subsets in the blood of patients with chronic severe hepatitis B

Recently, quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) has become a widely accepted method for rapid and reproducible quantification of gene expres- sion. Most previous attempts to quantify TCRBV expression using qRT-PCR have utilized one primer directed at the gene encoding the TCR constant region of the beta chain (BC) and another primer or fluoro- genic probe directed towards the gene encoding the beta chain variable region (BV) [20-22]. In the current study, we examined the molecular features of the CDR3 motif from isolated PBMCs and CD8 + and CD8 - subsets from patients with CSHB using GMSP analysis. The Table 3 GMSP assay-generated profile of skewed TCRBV gene families in CD8 + and CD8 - cells in patients with CSHB
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Domain swapping of complementarity-determining region in nanobodies produced by Pichia pastoris

Domain swapping of complementarity-determining region in nanobodies produced by Pichia pastoris

Easy preparation of chimeric nanobodies with various scaffolds is important for customizing abilities of nanobodies toward practical utilization. To accomplish high-throughput production of various nanobodies, utilization of microbes is an attractive option. In the present study, various chimeric nanobodies were prepared using the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. We designed chimeric nanobodies with complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) against green fluorescent protein (GFP) or cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) based on the scaffold of GFP-nanobody. FLAG- tagged chimeric nanobodies were prepared by one-step cloning and produced using P. pastoris. Secreted chimeric nanobodies were purified from the culture media of P. pastoris transformants. Relative binding abilities of purified chimeric nanobodies to GFP and CD4 was tested using a BIACORE T-200. P. pastoris successfully produced a high yield of FLAG-tagged chimeric nanobodies. FLAG-tagged GFP- and CD4-nanobodies were shown to specifically bind to GFP and CD4, respectively. Chimeric nanobodies, in which the CDR2 or 3 of GFP-nanobody was replaced with CDRs of CD4-nanobody, acquired the ability to bind to CD4 without binding to GFP. These results demonstrate successful production of functional chimeric nanobodies using P. pastoris. These results also suggest that swapping of CDRs, especially CDRs 2 or 3, potentially enables a novel method of creating nanobodies.
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What you should know about PR3 ANCA: Structural aspects of antibodies to proteinase 3 (PR3)

What you should know about PR3 ANCA: Structural aspects of antibodies to proteinase 3 (PR3)

Reactive antigenic epitopes on presumed autoantigens of biologic interest have been examined by many researchers. The central third complementarity-determining region (CDR3) residues of a human monoclonal anti-proteinase 3 (PR3) antibody contained many negatively charged aspartic acid residues, perhaps contributing to its reactivity with positively charged PR3 regions. Examination of four other human monoclonal anti-PR3 antibodies shows a number of negatively charged residues within their CDR3 regions. Mapping of segments of linear PR3-epitopes reacting with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) demonstrated a preliminary estimate of structures contributing to antigenic determinants. T-cell epitopes on PR3 are reported in studies of chronic myeloid leukemia. These T-cell epitopes appear to be human leukocyte antigen (HLA) A2.1 restricted.
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Oligoclonal expansion of TCR Vδ T cells may be a potential immune biomarker for clinical outcome of acute myeloid leukemia

Oligoclonal expansion of TCR Vδ T cells may be a potential immune biomarker for clinical outcome of acute myeloid leukemia

Expression frequency and clonality of TCR Vδ T cells in AML In this study, the complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) sizes of eight TRDV subfamily genes were analyzed in γδ T cells sorted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 30 patients with AML and 12 healthy individuals using RT-PCR and GeneScan (Fig. 1). Approximately, 25–75 % of the TRDV subfam- ilies were expressed in 30 different AML patients. The mean value of the number of expressed TRDV subfam- ilies was 4.40 ± 1.07, which was significantly lower than that in healthy individuals (6.67 ± 1.23, P = 0.000). The most frequently expressed subfamilies in the AML pa- tients were TRDV8 (26/30; 86.67 %) and TRDV2 (25/30; 83.33 %). TRDV6 was detected in only 11 patients (11/ 30; 36.67 %), and the frequencies of TRDV1, TRDV3, TRDV4, and TRDV6 were significantly lower than those in healthy individuals (P = 0.000, 0.031, 0.037, and 0.015, respectively) (Fig. 2a).
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A complete, multi level conformational clustering of antibody complementarity determining regions

A complete, multi level conformational clustering of antibody complementarity determining regions

Classification of antibody complementarity-determining region (CDR) conforma- tions is an important step that drives antibody modelling and engineering, prediction from sequence, directed mutagenesis and induced-fit studies, and allows inferences on sequence-to-structure relations. Most of the previous work performed confor- mational clustering on a reduced set of structures or after application of various structure pre-filtering criteria. In this study, it was judged that a clustering of every available CDR conformation would produce a complete and redundant repertoire, increase the number of sequence examples and allow better decisions on structure validity in the future. In order to cope with the potential increase in data noise, a first-level statistical clustering was performed using structure superposition Root- Mean-Square Deviation (RMSD) as a distance-criterion, coupled with second- and third-level clustering that employed Ramachandran regions for a deeper qualitative classification. The classification of a total of 12,712 CDR conformations is thus presented, along with rich annotation and cluster descriptions, and the results are compared to previous major studies. The present repertoire has procured an improved image of our current CDR Knowledge-Base, with a novel nesting of con- formational sensitivity and specificity that can serve as a systematic framework for improved prediction from sequence as well as a number of future studies that would aid in knowledge-based antibody engineering such as humanisation.
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Reduced T cell repertoire restrictions in abatacept treated rheumatoid arthritis patients

Reduced T cell repertoire restrictions in abatacept treated rheumatoid arthritis patients

T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire was analyzed by complementarity-determining region-3 (CDR3) spectra- typing after TCR beta variable (TCRBV) gene multiplex PCRs that allow the detection of 23 functional TCRBV families starting from 500 ng of total RNA extracted from at least 2x10 6 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) [13,14]. The length distribution of fluorescent- labelled PCR products was analyzed on an ABI 3130 analyzer (Applied Biosystems). Distribution of fragment lengths, number of detectable peaks per TCRBV elem- ent, and area under the curve were calculated by Peak Scanner software version 1.0 (Applied Biosystems). Data were analyzed and reported in three different ways; in the first two, TCRBV repertoires were globally analyzed while in the third, TCRBV perturbations were evaluated at the single patient level. Therefore, proportions of TCRBV families of all patients were grouped depending to the “normal” (≥7 peaks, Gaussian distribution), “shifted” (≥7 peaks, deviation from Gaussian distribution), “re- stricted” (<7 peaks prominent deviation from Gaussian distribution), “mono/oligoclonal” (1 or 2 dominant peaks) distribution of the CDR3 region [15]. TCRBV perturba- tions were also evaluated with the generalized Hamming distance method [14] by “subtracting” from the CDR3
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Sequence analysis of T-cell repertoires in health and disease

Sequence analysis of T-cell repertoires in health and disease

Figure 1 T-cell receptor-antigen-peptide-MHC interaction and TCR gene recombination. (a) A T-cell (pink) encountering an antigen-presenting cell (APC; blue). The APC presents peptide antigen (Ag; yellow) in complex with the larger major histocompatibility complex (MHC; turquoise). The T-cell receptor (TCR; multi-colored) binds to both the antigen and MHC, and if the binding avidity is sufficiently high the T-cell is activated. (b) A TCR heterodimer, composed of an α and β chain, engaging peptide-MHC (pMHC). Moving outward from the T cell, the constant region (green) of the TCR is anchored to the cell membrane, followed by the J region (red). In TCR α chains the J region is followed by the V region (orange), whereas in TCR β chains, a D region is located between the V and J regions. The complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) domain, approximately 45 nucleotides long, comprises the VJ (for TCR- α ) or VDJ (for TCR- β ) junction. Color gradients at junctions represent the regions encoded by arbitrary, untemplated nucleotides introduced during somatic recombination, and which represent a primary source of sequence diversification and TCR variability (see (c) for details). The CDR3 regions are the main domains of the TCR that are in contact with peptide antigen, and largely determine TCR specificity. (c) Simplified representation of TCR- β VDJ gene recombination resulting in TCR diversity. The TCR- β locus is located on chromosome 7 and is approximately 620 kb in length. Initially one of the two D regions is joined with one of 13 J regions (both randomly selected), followed by joining of the DJ region to one of more than 50 V regions (also randomly selected), yielding a final VDJ region that is approximately 500 bp in length. The mechanism by which gene segments are joined also introduces base pair variability, which together with the combinatorial selection of these segments results in TCR diversity. A completely analogous process occurs for the TCR α chain, without the D gene segment included.
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IDENTIFICATION OF ANTIBODY TARGETS USING PHOTOACTIVATED CROSS LINKERS LOCATED IN THE BINDING SITE

IDENTIFICATION OF ANTIBODY TARGETS USING PHOTOACTIVATED CROSS LINKERS LOCATED IN THE BINDING SITE

Historically, Stro-1 monoclonal antibody have been significant in the identification of both mesenchymal precursor cells and its lineage since it was first discovered and the binding of Stro-1 to nascent pluripotent mesenchymal precursor cells (MPCs) remains the cornerstone in the field of MPCs research (Fitter et al., 2017). Even with it much great details in the definition of mesenchymal stem cells, the definitive antigen to which Stro-1 binds to was not completely understood until recently, even though much work is still needed in this promising field. In this study, report the conversion of the monoclonal antibody (Stro-1) into a recombinant fragment and mutated the complementarity determining region (CDR3) of the variable heavy (V H ) chain to allow the incorporation of the amber codon (TAG) in DNA and
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Tissue distribution and clonal diversity of the T and B cell repertoire in type 1 diabetes

Tissue distribution and clonal diversity of the T and B cell repertoire in type 1 diabetes

We next assessed clonal sharing between our data set and that obtained from a T1D patient with recur- rent autoimmunity following a simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant (44). We hypothesized that these particular sequences would represent clones that were presumably long lived and pathogenic, given their enrichment concurrent with the reemergence of GAD-autoreactive T cells and AAb and with β cell dys- function (Supplemental Table 7). Indeed, we observed that a number of the reported GAD (555–567) –reactive Figure 6. Immune subsets display distinct receptor distributions among various tissues. The percentage of unique T cell receptor β chain (TRB) and B cell receptor (BCR) immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) amino acid (AA) sequences shared across the pancreatic draining lymph node (pLN, yellow), spleen (blue), and “irrel- evant” mesenteric and/or inguinal lymph node (iLN, red) is shown for representative donors (control [nPOD 6271], T1D [nPOD 6207], and T2D [nPOD 6273]) and donors within the Treg, CD4 + conventional T cell (Tconv), CD8 + T cell, and CD19 + B cell subsets.
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The expanding array of HIV broadly neutralizing antibodies

The expanding array of HIV broadly neutralizing antibodies

Arguably, the identification of new epitopes has been the most significant output from the characterization of HIV bnAbs over the last decade. The first new bnAb epitope described was that bound by PG9 and PG16, a pair of somatic variant antibodies, which were the first in the new wave of bnAbs [58]. Crucially the identifica- tion of novel epitopes was made possible by using an unbiased selection method as reviewed in [59]. The land- mark study by Walker et al. [58] showed that these anti- bodies recognized a highly conserved epitope centered on an N-linked glycan at N160, which is preferentially expressed on trimeric Env and spans conserved regions of first and second variable loops (V1/V2) of the gp120 subunit. Structural studies revealed that PG9/16 bind in a heavy chain dominated fashion, using a long third heavy chain complementarity determining region (CDRH3) in what was termed a “hammerhead” structure to bind to the V1/V2 at the very top of the Env trimer where the three gp120 subunits meet to form the trimer apex [60]. Later work redefined the precise molecular requirements of the apex class of bnAbs, including PG9/16 along- side other bnAbs, and the contribution to the paratope made by bnAb framework regions [61]. Furthermore, additional structural studies on the PGT145 apex bnAb [58] confirmed previous work on the trimeric nature of this epitope by demonstrating the CDRH3 penetrates between glycans at the trimer threefold axis, to contact peptide residues from all three Env protomers [62]. In addition, a novel apex bnAb, BG1, was observed to bind asymmetrically to Env using a compact CDRH3 rather than a hammerhead structure [63]. Thus, this bnAb binds in a 2:1 ratio to Env trimer, rather than 1:1 as per classical apex bnAbs such as PG9 [63].
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Bovine cryptosporidiosis: impact, host-parasite interaction and control strategies

Bovine cryptosporidiosis: impact, host-parasite interaction and control strategies

%: percent; ~: approximately; <: less than; =: equal to; >: more than; °C: degrees centigrade; AIDS: acquired immune deficiency syndrome; APC: anti- gen presenting cell; BMDCs: bone marrow-derived dendritic cells; C. andersoni: Cryptosporidium andersoni; C. bovis: Cryptosporidium bovis; C. hominis: Crypto- sporidium hominis; C. meleagridis: Cryptosporidium meleagridis; C. parvum: Cryptosporidium parvum; C. ryanae: Cryptosporidium ryanae; CD: cluster of dif- ferentiation; CDR: complementarity-determining region; cm: centimetre; DCs: dendritic cells; DNA: deoxyriboneucleic acid; GALT: gut associated lymphoid tissue; GM-CSF: granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor; HCT-8: human colon carcinoma cell line; HPA: health protection agency; HPS: health protection Scotland; HT-29: human colon adenocarcinoma cell line; ID50: infectious dose to 50% of exposed individuals; IFN: interferon; IL: interleukin; kg: kilogram; MHC: major histocompatibility complex; MICA: MHC class I chain- related protein A; MICB: MHC class I chain-related protein B; mRNA: messenger RNA; NFκB: nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells; NK: natural killer cells; NKG2D: natural killer group 2 member D; PBMCs: peripheral blood mononuclear cells; PCR: polymerase chain reaction; pH: negative log of the activity of the hydrogen ion in an aqueous solution; PRRs: pathogen recognition receptors; Rag2: recombination activating gene 2; RFLP: restriction fragment length polymorphism; RORγt: retinoid-related orphan receptor gamma t; spp.: species; STAT3: signal transducer and activator of transcription 3; TCR: T cell receptor; TGF: transforming growth factor; Th: T helper; TLR: toll- like receptors; TNF: tumor necrosis factor; UK: United Kingdom; USA: United States of America; VIDA: veterinary investigation diagnosis analysis; α: alpha; β: beta; γ: gamma; δ: delta.
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Public Infrastructure, Education, and Economic Growth: Region Specific Complementarity in a Half Century Panel of States

Public Infrastructure, Education, and Economic Growth: Region Specific Complementarity in a Half Century Panel of States

For the education and infrastructure parameters, the GMM and OLS estimators yield roughly similar results. Given that the instruments are strong, with highly significant first-stage F-statistics, and that the J-statistic fails to reject the exogeneity of the instruments, the similarity in the OLS and GMM coefficients suggests that, in this case, the use of long lags with a recursive structure is a successful identification strategy. The robustness of the OLS estimates is bolstered, as well, by the results of tests of Granger causality, which indicate that tax investments in neither public infrastructure nor education alone ‘Granger cause’ growth (p= 0.095 and p= 0.2091, respectively), but the complementarity between them does (p= 0.0334.) 13
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Determining the focal mechanisms of the events in the Carpathian region of Ukraine

Determining the focal mechanisms of the events in the Carpathian region of Ukraine

Abstract. The modification of the matrix method for con- structing the displacement field on the free surface of an anisotropic layered medium is presented. The source of seis- mic waves is modelled by a randomly oriented force and seis- mic tensor. A trial and error method is presented for solv- ing the inverse problem of determining parameters of the earthquake source. A number of analytical and numerical ap- proaches to determining the earthquake source parameters, based on the direct problem solutions, are proposed. The fo- cal mechanisms for the events in the Carpathian region of Ukraine are determined by the graphical method. The the- ory of determination of the angles of orientation of the fault plane and the earthquake’s focal mechanism are presented. The focal mechanisms obtained by two different methods are compared.
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Stochastic complementarity

Stochastic complementarity

Strikingly, the condition in the statement is an exact ordinal analog of the condition obtained for the ‘rationality limit’ of the logit case, in which the utility of a bundle σ is measured by (the opposite of) the number of bundles better than σ. One way of understanding this analogy is to think that both models are special cases of the RUM family, and that both models are based on an underlying preference. When the para- meters of these models converge to ‘rationality’, the deterministic preference effect (as opposed to the stochastic effect) dominates. The correlation definition of complemen- tarity captures the complementarity information contained in these ‘unbiased’ prefer- ence. However, in the multinomial logit case, preference is cardinal, while in the mood model preference is ordinal: the numerical analogy between the conditions of the two models holds for one utility representation of but it may not hold for other, ordinally equivalent, representations.
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Rapid detection of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement by PCR and melting curve analysis using combined FR2 and FR3 primers

Rapid detection of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement by PCR and melting curve analysis using combined FR2 and FR3 primers

rearranged processes during early B-cell development, creating a unique hallmark for each B-cell [5]. V seg- ments contain three framework regions (FRs) and two complementarity determining regions (CDRs). Unlike the FRs that are similar among various V segments, the CDRs are highly variable even within the same V family [6]. Since B-cell malignancies contain identically rear- ranged IgH genes, PCR priming at FRs is able to detect monoclonal B-cell population in the form of single band on gel or sharp peak on fragment analyser [7–9]. Of many DNA-based PCR tests, the protocol developed as a result of BIOMED-2 collaborative study [6] using three sets of primers named FR1, FR2 and FR3 has become the most commonly used laboratory method.
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Complementarity in Time between Hydro, Wind and Solar Energy Resources in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, in Southern Brazil

Complementarity in Time between Hydro, Wind and Solar Energy Resources in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, in Southern Brazil

This work studies the complementarity between hydro, wind and solar pho- tovoltaic energy in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. Brazil is a country highly dependent on hydro energy; however, the existent plants are not being able to cover the energy demand in recent years. In this context, the state of Rio Grande do Sul becomes important because of its potential for wind and solar photovoltaic energy, having complementarity between water, wind and solar photovoltaic schemes when hydroelectric reservoirs are at their lowest levels. This study aims to survey the complementarity of various parts of Rio Grande do Sul by proposing mathematical dimensionless ratios, focusing on intra-annual period to carry out a mapping of the entire state. It also analyses the ability to provide power supply throughout the year, through the stabiliza- tion of the energy supply, which depends on an adequate scale for photovol- taic, wind power and hydroelectric harnessing. According to the results ob- tained, the regions with the best complementarity indexes for deployment of a hybrid system in relation to water and wind power were the Metropolitan Re- gion of Porto Alegre and the Southeast region, and the same regions also pre- sented the best results for the complementarity between hydro and solar pho- tovoltaic. Regarding wind and solar photovoltaic energy, the state’s northeast region presented the best results. Finally, the Northeast region of the state also presented the best results for the three energies together.
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