In addition the culture of organisation has a significant impact on those who work within it. An inhospitable culture within construction organisations is one of the most significant barriers to women’s advancement and also a major factor in diminishing their satisfaction in work. It has been mentioned as a mitigating factor by the case D leader who works in a construction site. However case B female leader who comes from a different discipline has not felt any difference with regard to the culture in her work division though she is from a construction company. Further, one of her subordinates who is also from the same discipline, when explaining his view about the culture of his work environment said that they are sheltered by their professional background as they have an equal number of women and men. However he recognised that in construction there are probably more hurdles to cross for women due to the nature of the people who work in the industry.
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The two contrasting views on how social science research should be conducted can be labeled as positivism and social constructionism / phenomenology (Esterby-Smith et al., 2003; Collis and Hussey, 2003; Remenyi et al., 2003). The key idea of positivism is that the social world exists externally, and that its properties should be measured through objective methods, rather than being inferred subjectively through sensation, reflection or intuition (Esterby-Smith et al., 2003). The phenomenological paradigm assumes that the reality is not objective or external but is socially constructed and given meaning by people (Esterby-Smith et al., 2003). This research intends to explore and investigate the ways leadership styles of women managers may contribute to the UK construction industry. Leadership characteristics and styles mean different things to different people (Pedler et al., 2004), thus a socially constructed idea should be obtained in order to identify the appropriate styles. In this context, it could be said that this research takes the overall phenomenological stance. The research philosophy that is adopted contains important assumptions about the way in which we view the world. These assumptions will underpin the research strategy and the methods one chooses as part of that strategy (Sauders et al., 2007). The three major ways of thinking about research philosophy are ontology, epistemology and axiology (Collis and Hussey, 2003; Sauders et al., 2007). These ontological, epistemological and axiological assumptions are concerned with the nature of reality, the acceptable knowledge in the field of study and the values respectively. These three assumptions help to position the research within the philosophical continuum.
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Construction industry provides much needed work opportunities for some of the poorest and most marginalized sections of the society. In reality, women all the creators, Protectors and destroyers. All the energies of women, their intellect, their strength and their skill are devoted to catering to the needs of men. In India as the literacy level among women is increasing, but still women occupy a disadvantage position in the society. Women construction workers in Chikmagalur district of Karnataka more than ten thousand. Large numbers of women workers are un skilled and work as an agricultural labourers as soon as the season ends, they shift to the construction industry which increases their employment level in the industry by doing so they support to their husband in income generation, for meeting their house hold expenditure. Majority of the women workers are married, after the marriage they move with their husband.
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ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted on hundred women labourers consisting of 50 respondents each from Hisar and Gurgaon district. Out of these 25 respondents, each wasengaged in work either at residential construction sitesor commercial construction sites. The focus of the study predominantly consisted of basic amenities provided to women labourers on construction sites and reproductive health disorders faced by them.Results revealed that majority of the respondents were illiterate (93%) and hailed from Madhya Pradesh (45%). The majority of the respondents (71%) were employed on atemporary basis. Most of the respondents (36%) were residing away from the construction site followed by those living in the vicinity of thesite (33%) and within the premises of construction site (31%). The labourers reported having no toilet facility (72%) and medical facility (77%). About half of them reported having drinking water facility (50%). Therespondents reported having anabortionbetween 3-6 months of pregnancyboth in thecase of residential (10.86%) and commercial site workers (10.63%) as a consequence of strenuous activities and lack of medical facilities. About 60percentof the women construction labourers (59.13%) reported suffering from the problem of leucorrhoea.
This study focuses on the organizational cultural obstacles that prevent women from staying or progressing in their careers in the UK construction industry. It begins by providing a background literature review of the term ―culture,‖ both with regard to its origin as well as outlining some example literature with reference to both societal- and organizational- based cultures. Then some of the latest research within the specific area of the UK construction industry is reviewed to provide insights into the fragmented and White male-dominated organizational culture existent in the industry sector. The next section outlines the methods and tools used, including justification of the usage of grounded theory (GT) as the most appropriate methodology in this research process; empirical data are given center stage in directing the discovery of both the ongoing literature and evolving research process. The methodology section includes an outline of the number of participants, their age and professions, as well as the nature and origin of the collected data. The article concludes by identifying three key areas in which CPD for minority groups could arguably facilitate positive change in the organizational culture of the sector along with recognition that further research will be required to ascertain its effectiveness over the long term. Culture: Concept, Origin, and Usage
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C. Educational background of the respondents Majority of those employed in the construction industry have only attained up to primary school education, 67.5% (Dar es Salaam) and 66% (Dodoma). In both Dar es Salaam and Dodoma, these are followed by those who have attained primary school education and proceeded to Vocational Training, 17.5% and 18% in Dar es Salaam and Dodoma respectively. On the other hand, 5% of the respondents in Dar es Salaam (all women) have not attained any formal education while in Dodoma 14% of the respondents fall in this category. Further looking into these details, majority of those with primary school education are women. For example, out of the 67.5% and 66% recorded in Dar es Salaam and Dodoma respectively, women comprise 60% and 48% respectively. On the other hand, those with Vocational training education portray a reciprocal relationship where few women were recorded in Dar es Salaam (2.5% out of total 17.5%) and more women were recorded in Dodoma (12% out of total 18%). This information tells one important thing, that majority of women have less chance to attain formal education and hence have resorted to the type of employment that requires no intensive training or any particular skills. The fact that a small number of women both in Dodoma and Dar es Salaam are seen engaged in painting or operating machines such as excavators, graders, concrete-mixing machines this indicates an emerging struggle among women to make their position more secure, felt and appreciated within the construction industry; something which was previously looked upon as an exclusive male-domain. One can say that most women are less educated compared to men and that is why they are mostly found working in the construction industry and in the less-skill requiring jobs. Consequently, these kinds of jobs fetch less pay.
The construction industry fails to appreciate some of the issues associated with combining job and family commitments (Play, 1995; Gale, 1994b cited Fielden et al. 2000) and organizations tend to treat family and work as completely different aspects. As a result, women often highlight the aspects of multiple commitments as barriers to their career development in construction. The tradition of long hours of work including routinely working through weekends and the project nature of the industry they need to spend more time in work especially during the commencement and completion of the contract. The periods away from home and the travelling substantial distances are major obstacles to them. In addition, women’s commitments to child care and the elderly prevent them from carrying these duties. This challenge of balancing the career and the family is a major barrier for their advancement. Researches found that they have been socialized to subordinate their careers in favour of their families (Fagenson and Jackson, 1993 cited Taylor, 1997). Any career break due to family commitments is a blow to their advancement. Some women leave their job or do not take any interest in developing them or or in promotions.
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Research findings summarized that construction companies provide a patriarchal workplace environment, where men resent women’s participation as professional equals. Gender appears to be embedded within the practices and relationship that construction organization endorse, as the synergy of the exclusionary and discriminatory aspects of the industry’s subculture challenge women’s success and avert their participation. Hofstede (1991) contented that culture creates an orderly set of rules which allow work to be carried out in a particular way. This reflects the different power of workers and managers to create these practices. According to Brown (1995) Human Resource Managers now claim organizational culture as their “territory”. This implies that they manipulate culture through recruitment (control over the types of people that gain entry to the organization), promotion and demotions (control over who reaches positions of influence within the organization), induction and socialization (a strong influence over the social dynamics within the organization), codes of practice, mission statements and reward appraisal systems. Human Resource Managers aim to remove cognitive and behavioural dispositions which deviate from the norm, and to ensure that employees adopt the organization’s values as their own behaviour in pursuit of career goals (Baron and Greenberg, 1990). Therefore Human Resource Mangers are the key persons to handle the career development guiders. Such mangers make assessments of their staff’s training needs and progression via performance appraisal systems. These male managers stipulate performance criteria compatible with male career development patterns. In particular, working hours and staff allocation are organized in an erratic and ad –hoc manner, which creates difficulties for women with life-cycle restraints (Bagilhole, 2003). According to Bagilhole et al (2000), reaching powerful senior operational positions has proven
Women constitute 48 per cent of India's population but their share and participation in its development is nominal. Reforms, special legislations, creation of a number of institutions supposed to cater to their needs and increase in the, budgetary allotments over the years have not altered the basic life-styles of large masses of women. Although women now, work in diverse fields and occupy positions of importance, official statistics themselves indicate that three decades of 'development' has not been very kind to women workers in general. This is especially so in regard to the women working in the unorganized sector. In the unorganized sector, a significant percentage of women are engaged in construction industry. Although this industry offers difficult jobs, women are employed to undertake certain specified works. Wage differentiation, turnover of equal work and the more submissive nature of women are important attractions for the employers to use women in this field. The industry, however, does not guarantee permanent work since it depends upon a number of factors such as volume and intensity of construction work, type of work, migration trends, contractors' choice, wage-rates and manipulations of employers. Despite the unpredictability, hundreds of thousands of women have contributed in the construction of buildings, projects, dams, roads. (K. Murali Manohar et.al. (1981).
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Thus the present studies find some interesting facts and suggest that women participation in labour forced has increased after 1971. But women workers large forces were involve in unskilled work (water feeding, material supply, mall mixing and digging worker) in this sector. The numbers of actual women workers are high in urban areas, in comparison to rural areas. Since 1981 to till 2011 women workforce gradually increasing in public and private sector but employment growth is high in public sector compare to private sector. Women workers contributions increasing in this sector on the other hand participation of the women workers were high in some states like J&K, Jharkhand, Karala and Madya Pradesh. Result is showing that women contribution highly correlated among unskilled and semi-skilled work and there was no correlation of women skilled work in the construction industry.
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For the youth of today, who are in their teens, 20s and 30s, virtual presence and image is as essential as physical existence for being connected and related. It is as necessary as making or breaking their day. They fulfill these vital needs through different social media – Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, Whatsapp, etc. This paper expects to inspect the involvement of youthful Chennai women in online activities – their dreams and dreads, efforts and effects and comforts and complains. The study is carried out with the help of an online survey with a specific end goal to catch how women create their identity utilizing Facebook. The data revealed that women are conscious about their Facebook activity and the implication of their action on Facebook. This is activity revealed in their way they want to appear within their peer group and the reality of expression is determined by their social setting. The Findings are based on Goffman’s (1959) idea of Identity construction and George Herbert Mead concept of ‘Me’ and ‘I’. Particularly the findings imply that woman's identity creation is carefully drafted keeping in mind their social, cultural, and ethnic background.
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construction industry, hard and inflexible working conditions, competitiveness of construction business and women’s lack of self confidence. So that it is more difficult for a woman to compete with her male counterparts at the stages of recruitment and promotions regardless of the necessary qualifications and experiences. Schein (2007) states, gender stereotyping of the managerial position fosters bias against women in managerial selection, placement, promotion and training decisions. This phenomenon makes women who wish a successful career in the construction industry constrained from achieving their targets. It has been found that gender stereotypes are salient in organizations as a potential barrier to advancement (Bono and Duehr 2006).
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24 ‘essentially’ and ‘morally’ different to ‘normal’ members of society (Young, 1999). Each of the women were positioned as a spectacle to observe and survey in each of the aforementioned drawings, particularly due to the location of the women in the image (i.e. in a glass box, at the centre or via video link) and the angles of those present in the drawing. Significantly, the women’s male co-defendants were not drawn in a way that emphasised the ‘spectacle’ of them being on trial (with the exception of figure 9) and rather Figures 2, 9 and 10 in particular reinforce their status as active members of the courtroom as opposed to ‘others’. Furthermore, the construction of the images arguably provides a visual example of Mathisen’s (1997) concept of the synoptican. This concept forms the opposite process of Foucault’s panoptican, developed by Bentham (1995), and outlines a process of modern surveillance whereby the ‘many watch the few’. The ‘many’ can be defined in two ways here. Firstly, as those who were drawn as being present in court. Due to the majority of this ‘many’ being men according to the court artist’s interpretation, this serves to emphasise the gendered nature of this synoptic process in court. Secondly, the ‘many’ could also be defined as those who view the court drawings. The ‘spectacle’ of the drawings offers an indirect invitation for the public to observe the female co-offenders in the ordinarily invisible space of the courtroom, thus highlighting the potential ideological influence of court drawings.
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described in traditionally masculine terms (Schein and Mueller, 1992). The individual differences as the main reason for the paucity of the advancement of women into management, looks into the question of whether the stereotypes illustrated above are for real. Further, the male dominated culture and environment displayed by the construction industry put the women into difficulties to fit in with male colleagues work and social activities. The construction industry has a tradition of working long hours, including routinely working through weekends. There is a strong culture within the industry that working long hours demonstrates employment commitment (Sutherland and Davidson, 1993) and a lack of compliance with such cultural norms can adversely impact promotion prospects and even future job security. Site based employees, both professional and manual workers, are usually subject to changing work locations. This can involve traveling substantial distances or periods away from home, a situation which can present serious difficulties in terms of transport and child-care (Greckol, 1987 cited in Fielden et al, 2000). The construction industry fails to appreciate some of the issues associated with combining work and family commitment (Gale, 1994), and organizations tend to treat family and work as completely separate. Evetts (1993 cited in Fielden et al, 2000) found that many women in construction did not feel that management was an appropriate career for them because of the conflict between family and work commitments.
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UK construction industry faces many challenges such as low performance, high dissatisfaction among clients, low productivity, poor image, high fragmentation etc. Recruiting employees, particularly for senior/ middle level management, to fulfil the skills and labour shortages has also been a challenge faced by the industry for many years. The gender segregation pattern of the construction industry seems to be highly according to the societal expectations of the traditional gender roles. In evident to that, more than 85% of the women who are attached to the UK construction industry hold administrative or secretarial positions which are not construction specific occupations. This typical gender segregation has led the industry being unable to benefit from the diverse skills that women could offer. In this context, increasing the number of women managers may have an impact on the typical gender segregation pattern of the industry and in turn may help the industry fulfilling their skills needs. However, it needs to be assured whether the increment in the number of women managers will make the industry better. This research, therefore, explores and investigates the contribution of women managers towards the construction industry. The contribution of the women managers are analysed based on the leadership styles that woman managers typically exhibit in the construction industry. This research adopted case study as the research strategy and used questionnaires and semi-structured interviews as the research techniques. Based on the preliminary analyses of the case studies, all the women managers have demonstrated certain level of leading roles such as commanding, motivating and coaching while maintaining a balance between work and personal life. In terms of gender qualities, all women managers were found to be strong in both their masculinity and femininity adjectives. Further, the women managers perceive themselves as using transformational leadership styles more often than the transactional styles. The above mentioned preliminary findings of the case studies are presented in this paper.
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Vol. 5, No. 3 139 This sounds like a matriarchal situation where women have ruling power in the home and in the society at large. However, this is often used to explain the negative influence, the domination, and the audacity a woman has in influencing her husband to do her bidding. If a man in authority makes an unpopular decision, it is because he has succumbed to petticoat influence or bedroom politics. This implies that a man is too sober-minded to make an egregiously unsound decision. That is the domain of the women. This is what de Beauvoir(1949:18) means when she writes that the man 'is the subject, he is the absolute - she is the other'. This binarism helps to entrench patriarchy and separate masculinity as the be and end-all. This frames the woman as the negation of all that is male and lucidly independent. This construction of women in Ndebele society can be analogized to the biblical myth of the influence of Eve on Adam in the Garden of Eden. The Ndebele proverbs and the Edenic myth reinforce the patriarchal/traditional way of absolving the male of all blame and heaping it on women. Both are a product of the masculinist ideology and its privileging of the male. According to Moyana (2006:159), 'this is the flip side of the power of domination…denouncing the oppressed to make them monstrous'.
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The findings of this study confirm the gender bias that still exists within the South African construction sector. The male-dominant nature of the industry accompanied by gender-based discriminatory practices experienced by women employed in the industry are challenges that need to be overcome if increasing numbers of women are to choose careers in construction. Legislation by itself is insufficient to boost the present low numbers of women and significantly reduce the skills shortage that their increased employment will produce. The overall poor image of the industry presents as a further inhibitive factor to women choosing to work in construction. The industry needs to make a more visible and tangible commitment to empowering women at all levels in their organisations by providing equal opportunities for women. Gender relations need to change. Access to construction education needs to be widened and the specific barriers, image and culture addressed. However, it is also necessary for women to review their own roles and accept themselves as competent women in the industry in their own right.
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This paper reviewed the literature relating to the barriers faced by women in construction. It is found through the literature review that image of the industry, career knowledge, culture and working environment, family commitments, male dominated training course and recruitment practices are the major barriers to women in construction. Each of these barriers have been elaborated, and the possible difficulties that the women face due to such barriers in entering and retaining in construction have been discussed. Considering these barriers, it is felt that the reduction or elimination of most of such barriers is an important step which leads to recruit and to retain more women into construction industry. The construction industry itself has not, until recently, formally acknowledged that the under-representation of women is an important issue or promoted any initiatives or research into this area (Fielden et al, 2000). In 1996, a report was produced by CIB Working Group 8 (CIB, 1996b) that provided constructive guidelines on equal opportunities for construction companies. At a European level a New Opportunities for Women training and exchange project, funded by the EC, shows the possibility for future successful collaborations between women and trades across Europe (Wall, 1997). A study by Willkinson (1996) revealed that on the occasion when the industry is short of labour, it becomes particularly important not to waste the labour of construction graduates. It also suggested that while, on the whole, altering the pattern of benefits would have little differential effect on recruitment by sex, there is the exception of child-care. In attempting to recruit more women, employers should perhaps think more seriously about providing some form of child- care benefit. Thus it is vital to identify appropriate recommendations and good practice guidelines to aid the recruitment and retention of women in construction.
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The issue regarding lack of women leaders in construction has been a prominent concern for many years because women in mainstream management reduces potential managerial skills shortage in the industry and increases women’s interest for construction related occupations. This paper is based on a study, which was designed to identify the role of women in leadership positions in the UK construction industry and the barriers confronting their careers. A literature review has been carried out followed by four case studies that were developed around four female leaders in the industry in order to identify the role and the barriers confronting them. Results of this study revealed that role of women leaders in construction is yet to be improved both in terms of number of leaders and the significance of their role. However, the findings of the case studies show that the majority of women leaders do not find problems in their leadership ability and the recognition which is received, however working in a site environment brings additional inconveniences to women in performing their role as leaders. Further the study revealed that women leaders in construction face career barriers which prevent them from advancing towards leadership positions. The results from the case studies indicate that the task of balancing family and work commitments, childcare problems and old boys networks are the most common barriers encountered by women in leadership positions in construction.
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All respondents in both the focus groups and the semi structured questionnaires were asked to identify their age grouping and their profession categorisation. Respondents were also asked to provide information on how long they had worked in the construction industry, to outline the top two barriers that they had faced in staying or progressing and any other additional personal or professional barriers that they had faced (or are facing) in being a woman in the industry sector. Additional questions were also asked regarding what type of training they would find useful in the future and whether they had any suggestions for training or support that would help women enter, say or progress within the UK construction industry. The questionnaires were handed in either at the end of each workshop or posted back to the research team after the training event had taken place. All research findings were analysed in an ongoing process and themes were identified via usage of keyword analysis in a series of Word documents. Both the literature and empirical data has been analysed in an ongoing GT basis, to which the findings have become emergent regarding the issues and identified themes, which will be both illustrated and discussed later in this paper.
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