Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) often called cantaloupes in the United States, are commonly grown here in Pakistan, although their cultivation is increasing in many areas of Sindh including all of the country. Its high water content help to stay hydrated during the hot season. Melon is divided into two groups namely Citrullus (Water melons) and Cucumis (muskmelon- cantaloupe group). The muskmelon is a member of the Cucurbitaceae family, which is muskmelon and popular crop with lots of
Plant material and growth conditions. Two melon (Cucumis melo L.) genotypes were used. Midyat is a native melon genotype originating from hot and dry region of the south-east part of Turkey, and is tolerant to both salt and drought stress. Yuva is a local cultivar from the central part of Turkey which is known to be suscepti- ble to environmental stress. Seeds were germi- nated and the young seedlings were grown in vermiculite at 26°C/22°C ± 2°C day/night tem- peratures with a 16/8 h light/dark regime. They received a photosynthetic photon flux density of 350 µmol/m 2 /s. Relative humidity during daytime
Sweet melon (Cucumis melo L.), is an economically important crop, which belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae. The family includes watermelons (Citrullus lanutus), calabash (Lagenaria sileraria), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), pumpkins (Cucurbita pepo) and squash butternut (Cucurbita moschata). The crop originated in Africa and spread to the United States of America and Asia (Sebastian et al., 2010). Some of the leading producers of sweet melons include Turkey, United States of America, China, Mexico and Brazil (FAOSTAT, 2015). The world’s average production of sweet melons is 31 million tons (Martuscelli et al., 2015). Cultivation of sweet melons in Kenya is done in the warmer counties such as Makueni, Machakos, Garissa and Taita Taveta (Horticultural Crops Directorate, 2014). By the year 2006, Kenya produced 32,240 metric tons of sweet melons (HCD, 2014).
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Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is a plant originating from the Mediterranean region on the border between West Asia to Europe and Africa, but has been developed in Indonesia because melon is a fruit-bearing crops market share among the upper middle class society. Melon is also one of the main priorities plant is gaining attention among other horticultural crops, because the price of melon fruit is relatively high compared with other horticultural commodities, so it would be more profitable to farmers melon. 
Thirty five genotypes of muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) were evaluated in a randomized block design with three replications at the Experimental Farm, Vegetable Research Station, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India during late rabi season (November 2010 to February 2011) for genetic diversity based on 18 morphological traits. Cluster analysis revealed distinct clustering pattern and grouping of genotypes into six distinct clusters. Cluster II was the largest (22 genotypes) followed by cluster I (8 genotypes) and cluster IV (2 genotypes), while cluster III, V and VI were solitary consisting of single genotypes. Intracluster D 2 values ranged from 0.00 (cluster III, V and VI) to 85.514 (cluster IV), while the intercluster D 2 values ranged from 94.56 (clusters I and II) to 753.29 (clusters I and VI). The genotype of the most divergent clusters I and VI (753.29), clusters IV and VI (590.55) and clusters II and IV (529.79) could be used in hybridization programmes. Total soluble solids, seed yield, days to appearance of first staminate flower, average fruit weight contributed maximum towards divergence.
Melon (Cucumis melo L.) ranks as the 9th most cultivated horticultural crop in terms of total world production. This species belongs to the botanical family Cucurbitaceae, commonly known as cucurbits. It is an important crop in tropical and subtropical areas, many of which have P-deficient soils. The species is considered to be divided into two subspecies, ssp. melo and ssp. agrestis, each one with several botanical varieties that display a rich morphological diversity . Botanical varieties belonging to the ssp. agrestis are wild or exotic types found in Africa and eastern Asia, from India to Japan, and those belonging to the ssp. melo are mainly cultivated types found from India to Europe and in the Americas. The main ssp. agrestis varieties are conomon (Thunberg) Makino, momordica (Roxburgh) Duthie & Fuller, and the main ssp. melo varieties are dudaim (L.) Naudin, flexuosus (L.) Naudin, cantalupensis Naudin, and inodorus Jacquin, with cantalu- pensis and inodorus containing most of the commercial varieties . Variability in root morphology and architecture has been described within this species, especially between varieties of both subspecies [29,30]. The relationships between root architecture and response to Pi starvation has also been studied, showing a high variability in the acquisition and use of Pi among melon varieties . However, to our knowledge, there is no information available on the genes involved in the Pi starvation response in melon.
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Melon (Cucumis melo L., 2n = 2x = 24) is the most cultivated member of the Cucurbitaceae in the world (Sabato et al., 2015). The socioeconomic importance of the crop depends upon sales of hybrid seeds and fruits, which are mainly consumed in natura. In Brazil, the crop is concentrated in the Northeast region, particularly in the Jaguaribe-Açu agricultural region, because of the favorable climatic conditions. In this region, it is possible to harvest up to three crops a year, and the period of greatest production includes a season for international export, from July to January. These facts make melon the main Brazilian fresh fruit in terms of volume of exports, and the European Union is the main destination (MDIC, 2016).
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A lot of research has been established that Cucumis species product exhibits multiple biological activities. Czech collections of Cucumis spp. genetic possessions include 895 accessions of cultivated C. melo and C. sativus species and wild species of 89 accessions. Musk melon is attractive luscious tasty and tasty household produce consumed for its medicinal, and nutritive properties. Pharmacological experiment conducted on C. melo and some Cucumis spp., point to its immense prospective in the management of conditions such as inflammation, pain, cancer, cough, liver diseases, and cardiovascular disorders. The wide use of cucumber in cosmetic industry and as well as in traditional medicine as a skin conditioner. Musk melon shows excellent antiulcer and antioxidant potential. Those plants have incredible recognition now and hold surprising promise for the future. In view of the low toxicity of Musk melon plant that included many parts and their employ as a nutraceutical as well as a clinical studies also, reliable medicine need to be carried out only to cement C. melo and their spp. As a significant constituent of our biodiversity, in view of the fact that there are no any side effects have been reported till now, Musk melon may be look upon as a distinctive affordable, tasty, and safe fruit medicine.
An experiment was carried out during 2016 to investigate effect of N , P and K fertilizers and bio-stimulant Trichoderma harzianum (T.26) to growth and nutrient uptake of cucumber (Cucumis melo L., var. flexuous) under field condition. The results revealed that application of 100% NPK + T.26 was significantly superior for growth parameters such as maximum vine length, number of leaves, number of branches per plant, relative chlorophyll, shoot system dry weight which were (202), (121), (6.3), (48.3) and (147g) respectively and nutrient uptake per plant parameters like nitrogen ( 3.624 ), Phosphorus (64.8), Potassium (307), Iron (35.2), Manganese (4.6) and Zinc (3.93) was on par with plants provided with 75 NPK % +T.26 bio-fertilizer. The results confirm that the integrated nutrient management system offers an alternative to the organic, chemical and bio-fertilizer individually and achieve higher production yields not differ significantly from the full treatment dose of mineral fertilizers and less environmental damage.
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Fifty genotypes of muskmelon (Cucumismelo L.) were evaluated for variability through yield attributing characters and molecular markers. Analysis of variance for yield attributing character showed significant variation for all the traits, indicating presence of sufficient variability. D 2 values distributed all the genotypes in seven clusters. Maximum genetic distance was obtained between clusters II and V, while clusters III and VII displayed the lowest degree of divergence. Total soluble sugars followed by total soluble solids and fruit yield per plant contributed the most towards divergence.Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD)and Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR)analysis using 130and 62primers generated 1108and 462 discrete markers, respectivelyranging from 200-1800 bp in size. The UPGMA analysis showed that genotypes were distributed in different groups based on similarities matrix.The dendrogram obtained by combining the data of both the molecular marker revealed genetic similarities ranging between 57% to 81% with highest genetic similarity between MM-68 and MMM-61. These results suggest that RAPD and ISSR markers are useful for muskmelon genetic diversity analysis from different region of India, which will be helpful for further genetic improvement program of plant. Knowledge on the genetic diversity of muskmelon can be used to future breeding programmes to improve fruit quality.
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Foi realizado um experimento no campus da Universidade Federal de Pelotas, RS, entre fevereiro e abril de 2000, com o objetivo de analisar os fluxos do balanço de radiação durante o ciclo da cultura do meloeiro em estufa plástica. Foi utilizada uma estufa plástica tipo Túnel Alto com área de 307,3 m2 e volume de 941 m3, coberta com PEBD de 150|x de espessura. Foi utilizada a cultivar híbrida Trusty SLS conduzida tutorada na densidade de 4 plantas.m'2. Os fluxos radiantes foram medidos com tubos solarímetros artesanais e um saldorradiômetro, conectados a um micrologger programado para fazer leituras a cada 10 segundos e agrupá-las em médias a cada 15 minutos. Os elementos do balanço de radiação interno foram fortemente influenciados pelas condições meteorológicas externas, material de cobertura, manejo e estado sanitário das plantas. A radiação líquida diária representou em média 53% da radiação global e 70% do balanço de ondas curtas interno. O albedo variou de 0,24 nos estádios iniciais da cultura até 0,30 nos dias anteriores a poda, sendo reduzido no final do ciclo para 0,19. A estimativa da radiação líquida em 24 horas e diurna através da radiação global interna, balanço de ondas curtas interno e da radiação global externa apresentaram coeficientes de determinação elevados e em geral superiores a 0,90. Dias com elevada nebulosidade proporcionaram valores mais elevados de r2 em comparação a dias parcialmente encobertos. Palavras-chave: Cucumis melo, saldo de radiação, albedo, equações de estimativa, cultivo protegido.
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Hossain, M. F., Rabbani, M. G., Hakim, M. A., Amanullah, A. S. M. and Asanullah, A. S. M. 2010. Study on variability character association and yield performance of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Bangladesh Res. Publications J., 4(3): 297-311.
Inoculation in greenhouse: Parents and hybrids were raised in 50 unit plastic potting trays containing sterilized coco-peat as growth media in the greenhouse in September 2006. For each parent and cross, 10 plants each in were raised in three replicates. Inoculation and post inoculation procedure as proposed by Cohen et al. (1984) and Kenigsbuch and Cohen (1992). The source pathogen was isolated from a muskmelon growers’ ﬁeld near Bangalore, India. A colony of Pseudoperonospora cubensis maintained on susceptible variety, Arka Jeet in greenhouse at 18- 26 o C. Infected leaves from Arka Jeet were collected and gently washed in distilled water to release the spores. Test plants were inoculated on ad axial leaf surfaces with sporangial suspension containing 10,000 sporangia per milliliter using atomizer. The concentration of spores was measured with a hemocytometer. The inoculated plants were kept in high humidity black polythene tent for about 20 h and returned to greenhouse bench. On the seventh night, seedlings were again placed in high humidity black polythene tent for 20 h to allow fungal sporulation. Disease reactions were noticed on 8th day after inoculation. Plants were maintained for 6 weeks after inoculation. Seedlings were hand watered every day. Nutrition solution containing 150 mg N, 150 mg P and 150 mg K per liter of water was supplied every week. One spray of micronutrients @ 0.5 ml/l of water was supplied at 2–3 leaf stage. Seedlings trays were arranged with proper spacing on greenhouse benches to allow the spread of growing plants.
Melons ( Cucumis melo L., var. reticulatus , cultivars Harper and Proteo), of known cultivations, were selected on the basis of their size and maturity and on the visual characteristics, in particular for the attributes of homogeneity, freshness and integrity, while those with an irregular shape or eventually damaged were discarded. The chosen fruits were submitted to an accurate washing with an antibacterial detergent and rinsed, rubbing the peel, under tap water of good microbiological quality (EC=0.9-1.1 mS). Then, melons were washed with 1000 mg/l sodium hypochlorite solution at 14% (Clean Sud Industriale s.r.l.) by keeping them under the surface of the solution for one hour.
Reaktivni kisikovi spojevi (ROS) mogu dovesti do hemolize te u konačnici do bolesti poput talasemije i anemije srpastih stanica. Takvo se djelovanje može ublažiti ili spriječiti terapijskim djelovanjem antihemolitika. Cilj je ovog istraživanja bio izdvojiti biljke koje najuspješnije sprječavaju hemolizu uzrokovanu reaktivnim kisikovim spojevima. U tu smo svrhu pripremili 30 ekstrakata biljaka poznatih po svojem antioksidacijskom djelovanju: Orobanche orientalis G. Beck, Cucumis melo L., Albizzia julibrissin Durazz, Galium verum L., Scutellaria tournefortii Benth, Crocus caspius Fischer & Meyer, Sambucus ebulus L, Danae racemosa L., Rubus fruticsos L. te Artemisia absinthium L. Rabili smo tri uobičajene ekstrakcijske metode (perkolacija, Soxhlet i ultrazvučna ekstrakcija) kako bismo utvrdili utječe li metoda na anihemolitičku aktivnost ekstrakta te smo u nekoliko uzoraka ekstrahirali polifenole kako bi se vidjelo koliko je ta aktivnost povezana s njihovom razinom. Antihemolitičku smo aktivnost mjerili u mišjim eritrocitima i usporedili je s onom vitamina C, koji je poznati antioksidans. Izdvojeno je devet ekstrakata sa snažnijom aktivnosti od vitamina C, od kojih su ekstrakti G. verum (zračni dijelovi/perkolacija) odnosno S. tournefortii (nadzemni dijelovi/polifenoli) bili najsnažniji, s inhibicijskom koncentracijom (IC 50 ) od 1,32 odnosno 2.08 µg mL -1 . Inhibicija hemolize ovisila je o koncentraciji ekstrakta te o metodi ekstrakcije.
The plants of Cucumis melo subsp. agrestis var. agrestis were collected from Botanical Garden-Azakhel, University of Peshawar in 2014. Stem, leaves, roots, fruits and seeds were separated and kept in shade for air dry. Each plant part was crushed and the powder material was obtained from each part. 10g of powder material of each was dissolved separately in 100ml of distilled water and after 48hrs each solution was filtered by using Whatman filter paper and aqueous extracts of different concentrations (25%, 50% and 75%) were prepared from the stock extract solution of different plant parts. Distilled water was used as control (0%) treatment. All these extracts were then applied to the pots kept in Green House having ten seeds of wheat. The plant height, No. of leaves plant -1 , length of spike plant -1 ,
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SEM-EDX analysis. In order to examine the textural structure of biosorbent, SEM micrograph was taken before and after biosorption study onto Cucumis melo rind biomass (refer with: Fig. 1(a) before biosorption, (b) after Fe(II) biosorption, (c) after Mn(II) biosorption). SEM micrograph of the unloaded biosorbent indicates rough, irregular and porous structure of surface which indicative of a good characteristics to be employed as a natural adsorbent for metallic ions uptake . Similar structure were observed in watermelon rind , yellow-passion fruit shell  and pomegranate peel . Many new shiny small particles was observed over the surface of loaded-biosorbent. The EDX analysis done on the unused biosorbent identifies the presence of prominent C and O peaks and did not show the characteristics signal of Fe(II) and Mn(II) (refer with: Fig. 2).
of these plant extracts contain various amounts of vitamins E and C, Carotenes, triterpenoids and other flavanoids . Therefore, they have been used as potential antioxidant prophylactic agents for both health and diseases management [3-4]. The methanolic seed extract (MECM) of Cucumis melo. Var possess significant antioxidant, anti inflammatory and analgesic properties  while the fruit extract C. melo fruit exhibited immunomodulatory activity . Even though a large number of compounds were screened for cytotoxicity and anticancer studies, hardly a few lead compounds had shown promising results. Hence, it was thought to identify potential compounds from our traditional ethno-medicinal knowledge for treatment of kidney, urinary and prostate cancer. In the present study, an initial attempt has made for to scientifically evaluate for its anticancer effects. The main aim of the study is to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of aqueous fruit extract of C. melo in human prostate cancer cell line (PC-3) using MTT and neutral red assays.
133 on them (Schaefer & Renner, 2011). Endozoochory is the most likely dispersal mode for Cucumis, and seeds of Cucumis melo subsp. agrestis, have been found in the stomachs of Australian bustards in the northern Australian savannas (see Schaefer et al., 2008). I myself have watched birds feed on the fruits of Cucumis hystrix in Northern Thailand. In some other species, such as Cucumis oreosyce, fruits open explosively (also in Muellerargia timorensis from the sister genus, which is commonly called ‘spitting gourd’), in others, fruits mature below ground and are then dug up by animals, such as aardvarks (Orycteropus afer; Meeuse, 1958), and Cucumis messorius is dispersed by harvesting ants (see Renner et al., 2007). In one newly discovered species from Australia, the developing fruit is pushed into rock crevices or under foliage on the ground by the elongating pedicel and thus often matures hidden from animals like birds that could feed on them (my observation in Kakadu National Park, NT, Australia). The evolution of small fruits, which usually turn red at maturity, as is typical of fruits adapted for bird dispersal, in the C. maderaspatanus/C. ritchiei clade appears to have coincided with increased dispersal ability across Southeast Asia, to Australia and even back to Africa. In Sicyos, on the other hand, long-distance dispersal was always associated with the presence of retrorsely barbed spines on the surface of small, dry one-seeded fruits, which appear adapted to exozoochory. Lineages of Sicyoeae that evolved larger, fleshy, and glabrous fruits more likely to be eaten by animals did not get dispersed across very long distances and are mostly restricted to Central America. Interestingly, winged fruits, which evolved in two Sicyos lineages, also did not result in LDD between continents. This is in contrast to other cucurbit lineages (e.g., Zanonia/Siolmatra, Neoalsomitra), and lineages in other plant families (e.g., Asteraceae), where wind-dispersed groups often appear to be efficient dispersers. However, it may be worthwhile to recall that morphologically defined dispersal syndromes and long-distance dispersal are not always correlated (Higgins et al., 2003), and that selection can never act in favor of transoceanic dispersal. Long-distance dispersals are, by definition, non-standard events, that may sometimes be favored by certain morphological adaptations of the diaspore but one cannot predict which species will be long- distance dispersers and which will not.
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bases removal with base quality below 3; sliding window of 4:15. Using Bowtie, the remaining high-quality reads were mapped onto the Cucumis melo genome v3.5.1 with maximum mismatch of 1 bp. Unique mapping of reads was adopted. To determine the target regions of H3K9Ac ChIP-Seq, the model-based analysis of ChIP- Seq (MACS2) was adopted (Number of duplicate reads at a location: 1; Bandwidth: 300; mfold of 5:30; q-value cutoff: 0.05) . For peak detection in H3K27me3 modified regions, we used SICER with the following cri- teria: Window size: 200, Gap size: 600 . Alignment and tag-density were inspected with IGB. HOMER was used to associate peaks to nearby genes . To cluster the H3K9Ac and H3K27me3 peaks, linear normalization and clustering of tag density with Density Array method (window size 50 bp; 2 kb flanking region of genes) was performed using SeqMINER . Annotation of cor- responding genes was done using melonomics resource (https://melonomics.net). Average profile of coverage along the genic region (between transcriptional start sites (TSS) and TES) along with the 2 kb flanking region was plotted using NGSplot in binning mode . To identify differentially enriched histone modified sites in leaves, root, fruit and flowers, we used DiffReps with the follow- ing settings: Window size 1 kb; step size: 100 bp; p value: 0.0001; Statistical testing method: Chi-square method) .
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