This study’s data was collected from an online panel through the AIP Corporation. Participants in this study were emailed a short description of the questionnaire by AIP Corporation, and those interested in participating proceeded to the actual web-based questionnaire hosted externally through a hyperlink. Additionally, the participants were given a small monetary incentive for participating as in prior research (De Gregorio and Sung 2010; Deutskens et al. 2006). In order to ensure the cross-national comparability of a stimulus in terms of the brands and relevance to respondents (who met the abovementioned matched sample requirements), a preliminary study was conducted with 120 participants (40 participants in each of the three countries). Specifically, the preliminary test was conducted to ensure that the selected stimulus for American, Chinese and Singaporean participants had a similar familiarity and usage of the selected stimulus. This is in line with previous research suggestions for conducting a cross-culturalstudy (e.g. Broyles 2009; Ross et al. 2008). Participants who took part in the preliminary study were recruited for the stimulus selection, so they did not participate in the following steps of the pilot study or the main study. On the basis of the results of the preliminary study, a product category of computing devices (a product category comprising smartphones, tablets, laptop computers and desktop computers etc. that offer computer operating system features) is selected in this study as a stimulus for consumers’ brand purchasing experience in relation to brand loyalty.
The Indianapolis–Ibadan Dementia Project compares the rates of dementia at two sites, one in the U.S.A. and one in Nigeria. This paper concentrates on the data management issues in this longitudinal cross-culturalstudy. Approximately 2500 elderly people were recruited at each site, and continue to be re-assessed every two years. All the data are collected on paper and then entered into a FoxPro relational database. Most of the data management, including data cleaning, is done in Indianapolis. The design of the data collection forms is particularly important in a cross-culturalstudy, with the questions and the coding of responses clear and simple. Since Nigeria and the U.S.A. have dierent levels of technological development, the computer hardware and software were chosen to be suitable for use at either site. Exchange visits have been needed to address data management issues and resolve unexpected problems. The data management on cross-cultural studies can be handled successfully, given careful planning. Copyright ? 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Evolutionary and socio-cultural influences on feelings and attitudes towards nature: a cross-culturalstudy
Mounting environmental issues have prompted reconsideration of the human-nature relationship. Accordingly, attitudes to nature, as an important dimension of human-nature interactions, have become a research focus. In particular, how feelings and attitudes towards nature are influenced by evolutionary and social-cultural constructions, and whether there is variation between different cultural groups, demands more attention. Using a survey of visitors to two very different National Parks, the New Forest National Park, England and Jiuzhaigou National Scenic Area, China, this paper shows that of nationality and past and present living environment，differences between the two nationalities were significant in respect of both attitudes and feelings. Specifically, it demonstrates that the biophilia thesis, which purports that people have an innate, and hence a genetically inherited, need for affiliation with nature is influenced by their socio-cultural environment, in particular their national culture, but also by their current living place. The study contributes to a better understanding of sustainable tourism in natural areas.
A large dataset was needed to undertake the statistical analysis associated with testing the motives construct for the six major tourist markets identified as sampling populations for this study: four Western cultures represented by English-speaking tourists from North America, New Zealand, United Kingdom and Ireland, Australia (interstate), and two Asian cultures represented by Japanese tourists and Chinese-speaking tourists from any Asian countries. A popular tourist attraction was needed as the sampling site and the Queen Victoria Market (QVM) in the Melbourne CBD proved ideal as it operates five days a week, includes a heritage building, entertainment by musical performers and other special events, and last but not least, attracts considerable numbers of tourists as shown by the ranking of markets for international and domestic tourists. For example, research of tourists’ top 15 activities nationally for Australia and by state for Victoria (Tourism Victoria, 2005), ranks going to markets within the top three activities for international tourists (51% nationally cf 57% Victoria), and the 11 th most popular activity for six percent of all domestic tourists, nationally and for Victoria. Purposeful, convenience and quota sampling were used to identify eligible respondents from the eight tourist population unit quotas of interest to the study. Respondents eligible to complete the research instrument which was a personally administered in-situ structured questionnaire were firstly identified through selected demographic questions used as screening questions recorded by the data collector on an intercept sheet. A total of 961 usable surveys were obtained from on-site data collection between December 2005 and February 2006 using a structured questionnaire administered by bilingual data collectors fluent in English and Chinese (Mandarin) or Japanese. These bi-lingual data collectors were recruited through university employment services and then trained in accordance with international guidelines (International Chamber of Commerce/European Society for Opinion and Marketing Research, 1995).
38 An alternative scheme for classifying cultural values has emerged in subsequent research conducted by the Israeli psychologist Shalom Schwartz and his colleagues (Schwartz, 1992; 1994; Schwartz & Bilsky, 1987; 1990). Schwartz‟s analysis is based on the premise that values may have different meaning for respondents from different cultures. For example, humility may have a very different meaning for a Buddhist Monk in Thailand, than it has for an American sports star. This problem confounds attempts to establish a universal set of values. To remedy this Schwartz first attempted to research relationships amongst values independently in each country that he studied. Schwartz identified fifty- six values which he included in a questionnaire that asked respondents to identify to what extent these values were „a guiding factor in my life‟. Data were collected from two samples in each country, secondary school teachers and students.
Shapero and Shokol (1982), suggest that there must be a trigger, which the desirability and feasibility to act on opportunities derives from. For the purposes of this study, cultural norms are proposed as one of these. Depending on the place and its conditions, an entrepreneurial mindset will be either promoted or thwarted, potentially affecting how a person will both value its wishes and the feasibility to start a business. Thus, while cultural norms may possess a considerable influence, it could also be fundamental, and with perhaps a stronger effect, how the person itself weights its desire and control on the situation, forming ultimately his intention to act upon enterprising. The hypotheses proposed for this study are as follows:
procedure (Brislin, 1986) and revising translation done by previous researchers, most of the measures used in the study were developed by researchers in the West. Thus, it is possible that these measures may have been interpreted differently and even performed differently by the US and Chinese participants. For example, as determined by the factor analyses, the Compound Remote Association Test may well have been perceived to be a low-restrictive BC task by US participants, whereas it may have been perceived to be highly restrictive by Chinese participants, possibly due to Chinese participants’ relative unfamiliarity with this type of word game. These and other cultural differences may have compromised the validity of some of the measures employed. Researchers who are interested in conducting cross-cultural investigations in the future should consider using measures that have been developed in a variety of cultural contexts to better address this issue of cultural fit.
arguments turned out to be related to compulsive buying. This result might be explained in two ways. First, the latter two countries score higher on embeddedness (Schwartz, 2006) and, as argued by Kacen and Lee (2002), the compulsive buying tendency might result in less compulsive buying behavior in such countries. The second explanation may be the prevailing gender roles in these countries: the gender equality index (UNDP, 2010) indicates more traditional gender roles in Russia (.44) and Turkey (.62), compared with Spain (.28) and the Netherlands (.17), and, therefore, (extensive) shopping might be a more accepted activity for women within Russian and Turkish society. Moreover, a recent study by Ergin (2010) on compulsive buying in Turkey reveals that traditional gender roles are a primary reason for women in Turkey to engage in shopping activities. This study also finds that Turkish women prefer to shop as a key reaction to negative feelings such as boredom, stress, low self-esteem, or even depression, because shopping is accepted as a woman’s role. Thus, when female shopping behavior has high social acceptability, compulsive buying might not provoke family arguments (e.g., Rook & Fisher, 1995).
One of the main contributions of this study is to build a large cross-cultural dataset for MIR research. The unique characteristics of the dataset built for this study make it suitable for various evaluation tasks involving cross- cultural components. Specifically, for each of the three annotation sets (i.e., 5-clusters, 18-groups, and 2- dimenions), both within- and cross-cultural evaluations can be performed. For the former, both training and test data can be extracted from the datasets with annotations by listeners from the same cultural group (by cross- validation, for example); for the latter, models can be trained by the dataset annotated by listeners in one culture and applied to the dataset annotated by listeners in anoth- er culture. These tasks will be able to evaluate whether mood recognition models often used in Western music can be equally applied to 1) non-Western music, specifi- cally K-Pop songs; 2) K-Pop songs annotated by Ameri- can and/or Korean listeners; and 3) cross-cultural music mood recognition, for both categorical mood classifica- tion  and dimensional mood regression .
entrepreneurial journeys. The interviews were conducted in person in both cities of London and Florianópolis, during the first semester of 2016. The results show that all of the immigrant entrepreneurs faced some type of cultural shock and discrimination during their entrepreneurship processes, which is most evident in the Latin entrepreneurs. Regarding the influence of their cultural capitals, family influences, accumulated knowledge and professional experiences greatly influenced their entrepreneurship process, and the entrepreneurs who possessed the higher amount of accumulated and recognized cultural capital faced far less difficulties as immigrant entrepreneurs. When talking about their social capitals, the entrepreneurs mostly relied on their social connections with people born in their home countries or in nations more culturally similar to their own. These relations, however, were of different natures between the Latin and European immigrants. The social capital that mostly influenced the Latin entrepreneurs consisted on their families and Latin immigrant friends, who faced similar obstacles as they did. On the other hand, the social capital the European entrepreneurs relied during their entrepreneurial processes were friends born in their home countries, who are also renowned professionals in the culinary field and that were able to share valuable knowledge with them. This study contributes to the entrepreneurship field by addressing the emerging immigrant entrepreneurship topic, which is still being consolidated and has important gaps such as this one to be fulfilled.
majority of businesses and employment are located in just a few centres, while the periphery experiences economic stagnation.
Little has been done to date in the field of cross-cultural research with regard to Slovenia. Since the country did not have extensive contacts with foreign markets until a few years ago (with the exception of the former Yugoslavia, which in this case is hardly classified as a foreign market, in view of the powerful historical connections), the need for research of this kind was not very pressing. More recently, the most influenced and systematic cross-culturalstudy was conducted by Hofstede (2001), and shows that Slovenes score highly in the power distance dimension. They accept a hierarchical order in which everybody has a place and which needs no further justification. Slovenia could be described as a feminine society, where the focus is on “working in order to live” and on well-being. People living in this country have a high preference for avoiding uncertainty, their daily behaviour is perceived as very well-organised, hard-working, and precision and punctuality are the norms. Security is a crucial element in individual motivation.
Indian tourist market by offering services tailored to Indian cultural characteristics. The focus should be on delivering a significantly higher level of service quality and adopting the mentality of Indian tourists. The emphasis should be on service punctuality, professional competence and apologetic attitude by service providers, social etiquette, customer differentiation based on social status and age, sense of order, politeness and respect, accuracy and adequacy of information, concern about the collectivistic needs of the Indian tourists, and binding personal relations. This study has offered better understanding and useful insights of the impact of culture on complaints based on a study about hotels. Apparently, culture plays an important role in determining how customers expect services to be delivered as well as their complaint behavior. Today’s service managers in the hotel industry should be aware of the cost of ignoring cultural norms. The classification of e-complaints into nine categories should provide more detailed information on what causes customer dissatisfaction and make customers to subsequently express their negative comments online.
Moreover, for more than three decades the advancement of social sciences research on cross-cultural transition and adaptation has been largely guided by theories grounded in social and health psychology (Ward, Bochner, & Furnham, 2001). Two major conceptual frameworks have been used to understand, explain, and predict cross-cultural adaptation. The first, culture learning, has arisen from Argyle‟s (1969) work on social skills and interpersonal behaviors and focuses on the social psychology of intercultural interactions. This approach is based on the assumption that cross-cultural problems arise because cultural novices have difficulty managing everyday social encounters. Adaptation, therefore, comes in the form of learning the culture-specific skills that are required to negotiate the new cultural milieu (Bochner, 1986; Masgoret & Ward, 2006). From this perspective, empirical research investigating the predictors of adaptive outcomes has highlighted the importance of factors such as length of residence in a new culture, culture-specific knowledge, cultural distance, interactions with host nationals, and acculturation strategies (Furnham & Bochner, 1982; Kurman & Ronen-Eilon, 2004; Searle & Ward, 1990).
other cultures, and meet with a new culture grounds reactions that may affect us in many ways. International students in abroad go through a new cultural experience that can reason what the literature calls culture shock, which involves more or less undecorated symptoms based on how well International students are able to adapt to the culture and handle with accompanying difficulties. Individualism and collectivism are very common descriptors of culture, but the role of language as part and medium of culture. Hofstede  suggest that, “language is the most clearly recognizable part of culture”. When discuss about culture, religion is also an important element [4, 5]. Religion can be defined as “any set of attitudes, beliefs, and practices belonging to supernatural power” (Ember & Ember). From a psychological perspective, religious practices are seen as a reaction to anxieties, threats, unpredictable risks, and uncertainties that create and effect on individuals and their social groups .
marked as different in group/individual, implicit/explicit, and facework. It was assumed that Chinese stress group more than Dutch, and the results of the study supported the assumption. Compared to Dutch users, Chinese users are also more willing to use group chat on instant messaging apps to maintain relationships, more acceptable with the use of instant messaging apps in daily life, and more dependent on instant messaging. What’s more, Chinese culture values the implicit way to communicate, while Dutch culture emphasizes the explicit way of interacting. Therefore, it was expected that Chinese users have a higher level of acceptance with record keeping, fluidity and more than text communicating features on instant messaging apps. The results proved the first two expectations, indicating that Chinese users have higher possibilities to use fluidity features and record keeping on instant messaging apps. It is also noted that under the impact of cultural dimensions, Chinese people and Dutch people share different aspects of needs and concerns for facework. Chinese people, on the one hand, have other-positive and other-negative facework; on the other hand, Dutch people have self-positive and self-negative facework. These were supposed to affect users’ attitudes toward privacy, personality, sharing personal info and sharing confidential info. According to the results, Chinese participants are more sensitive about their privacy. In the mean time, they are more interested into invading others’ privacy than Dutch participants. This contradictory result may be explained by Chinese people’s ‘middle way’ perspective, which is the worldview of harmony (Chen, 2002). The results also showed that Chinese people like their online personality than their true personality more than Dutch. In addition, Chinese will share their personal info on instant messaging apps less than Dutch. Although not significant, it was still found that Chinese people hold a more positive attitude toward the convenience of sharing confidential information on instant messaging apps.
Quality, Data Trustworthiness, and Rigor of the Study To improve the credibility of the study, those who had plenty of knowledge and imagination about population policies in Iran were recruited. Diversity in recruiting the informants gives more credibility to data (selecting participants with different approaches and experiences from different governmental, legislative, non- governmental, academic, and international institutions). Triangulation was used in all research phases including the types of data and collection methods (interview, observation, memoing, and documents) to gather the viewpoints of key informants and documents, and achieving rich results. All interviews were immediately and fully transcribed, documented, and sent to the participants to collect their opinions about the coherency, integrity, and comprehensiveness of the text. Constant attendance of the interviewer in all interviews and spending enough time on gathering accurate and rich data, and clarity of methodology added to the transformability of the study. All interviews were performed by the first author to prevent bias and improve the accuracy through coordination within the framework of interviews, understanding the questions, answers, and perspectives of the participants .
The experiences of the participants may provide an additional opportunity for local educational agencies (LEAS) to examine the impact of culturally responsive teaching practices on the disproportionate placement of RCED students into the special education classroom.
The study’s findings suggested that teachers need to fit their teaching styles to meet the academic needs of all students (Banks, 2013). Findings from this study highlight that the lived experiences of the participants played a role in their desire to meet the needs of the RCED students in their classroom. The results did not reveal any difference in the way the genders conceptualized the benefits of culturally responsive teaching. Regardless of participants lived experiences, all participants discussed a lack of understanding about RCED students’ cultures and how this impacted the manner in which they referred them for special education services and conducted RtI strategies. The participants understood that RtI is a multi-tiered system developed to provide multiple levels of intensity of instruction to students who have been identified as having a deficiency in specific areas of instruction. However, due to the lack of understanding of RCED students, the participants felt that they were guilty of identifying RCED students for special education services when in fact, these students may not have necessarily needed them.
Literature review shows, culture has an influence on user behaviour through its manifestations of values, heroes, rituals, symbols and colours (Luna & Gupta, 2001). This held true for this study. For example, in this study non-CAUI, HMI carried dark and black dominated colours, which are seen as elegant in Europe according to Rossger (2014). However, participants in this research study found dark or black colours are unsatisfactory, as they communicated, black is non- auspicious (religious belief) and in general, dark colours make them claustrophobic (ref. data summarised from participants ‘any other comments’ responses in application study questionnaires). This substantiates the idea that satisfaction and preferences differ amongst regional automotive users and that culturally adapted automotive HMI solution which offers user configuration of cultural dependent UI features can resolve these differences. Therefore, the study found a valid argument that cultural adaptation of automotive HMI can play a significant role in user acceptance of future HMI design for the global automotive industry. The study has also provided further support to the idea that designing for Indian cultures requires, “developing evaluation methods and metrics capable of capturing relevant dimensions of the interaction” and, importance to the user experience rather than technology (Coventry et al, 2004, p42).
The need for compromise and negotiation resulted in naming inconsistency. Even if the foreign cultural centres are all under the authority of the Ministry of Culture, their names vary. For instance, it is called the Taipei Cultural Center of Taipei Economic and Cultural Office in New York, whist in Paris the name is Centre Culturel de Taïwan à Paris. The cultural centre in Paris joined the Forum des Instituts culturels étrangers à Paris (the forum for foreign cultural institutes), and it was necessary to change its name to distinguish it from the Chinese cultural centre. The latest cultural centre in Tokyo was originally named Taipei Cultural Centre (台北⽂化センタ) when the preparatory office was set up in 2010. When the Cultural Centre in Tokyo opened a new office in 2015, the name changed from Taipei Cultural Centre to Taiwan Cultural Centre (台湾⽂化センター) and under the affiliation of the Taipei Representative Office in Japan. At the launch of the Taiwan Cultural Centre in Tokyo, because it was reported that the former name could be mistaken for the Cultural Centre established by the Taipei city and not Taiwan, the Ministry of Culture negotiated with the Japanese government for the new name (Chao, 2015).
Tyendinaga, and the Six Nations of the Grand River; see Figure 1 for the locations of the bands), and offers programs through four departments: language, education, library, and museum. These programs, in principle, are offered to members of the supporting bands. As of October 2010, the Centre had eight board members (three from the Six Nations, three from Wahta, and two from Tyendinaga), who create strategic plans and review if the Centre’s overall activities are meeting community needs, such as cultural and historical education, language preservation and revitalization, and the safe guard of collections. According to the Centre’s Executive Director Janis Monture, overall the board members have been supportive and the Centre has had much freedom; therefore most of the Centre’s activities have been planned and organized at the discretion of the Centre’s staff members, the majority of whom are from the Six Nations (personal communication, October 8, 2010). Some staff members, including Executive Director, Librarian, and Museum Coordinator, have credentials from post-secondary institutions. Between April 2009 and March 2010, the Centre’s education program accepted 2,623 tour participants, 84 per cent of whom were non-Indigenous people, mainly from schools in the surrounding area. 1 The majority of Indigenous tour participants