It would seem evident from this research, that communities themselves have always understood the interplay between economic, social, environmental and culturalsustainability. As seen from the case studies included here, communities themselves are best posed to know what their communities need in cultural terms, and being owners and administrators of their own community energy schemes could allow them to achieve their aims. They acknowledge the need for an economic pathway, oﬀered through developing CEPs, to enable cultural beneﬁts to take place. Scholarship on such issues is yet to catch up. We suggest that research in this vein could be developed within (and enhance) energy justice literature, i.e. further explorations into the cultural bene ﬁ ts and justices (and similarly, parallel disadvantages and injustices) that can arise within the low-carbon transition, be it within the community energy sector or large scale developments. This paper has taken an important step to begin addressing this knowledge gap, and opens the door to an avenue of research, which recognises that both place and culture matter.
Ball (1992), speaking from a research perspective, points out that visuality has to do with the ways a culture is visually available (4). Ball, the visual researcher, conducted a case study of visual materials collected from fieldwork in Himalayan India (1998). He was able to distinguish aspects of Tibetan Buddhist culture from the indigenous Hindu culture, through an analysis and interpretation of cultural arrangements including pictorial and linguistic signs displayed in public space. The article points out culture’s visual availability as a resource of visual research, substantiating the connection of the visual to the cultural. What, then, is the implication of the interdependence of the visual, cultural and visuality for this research? It is my argument that signage and public art in Hong Kong public housing estates illustrate Ball’s concept of “visual availability of culture” (131), and that these visual forms also manifest elements of culturalsustainability. I return to this topic later in chapter 10. What follows is a short history of culturalsustainability, beginning with a brief account of the term “sustainability.”
Already, projects in Scotland are investing in initiatives that lead to cultural and language sustainability both directly and indirectly. Language and culturalsustainability are central to the Welsh case sites (see also, Forman, 2017), and one of the factors that has driven the projects to develop. Language threat was also a reason for pursuing CEPs. This paper shows that rather than culture being a force for opposing energy developments (McIntosh, 2004; Murphy, 2012), it can also be a force that drives communities to develop their own indigenous projects. Culture can be decisive in shaping ‘preferences’ within the energy sector (Necefer et al, 2015, p.9), and lead to the uptake of indigenous, culturally sensitive natural resource use and renewable energy projects (Murphy and Smith, 2013; Henderson, 2013). Further research could also reveal the importance of culture to CEPs in other communities of place such as within urban settings where multiple cultures coexist. Further research in this subject area would have a significant value to the community energy sector, and be of particular interest to communities whose cultural identity and language are under threat. It would seem evident from this research, that communities themselves have always understood the interplay between economic, social, environmental and culturalsustainability. As seen from the case studies included here, communities themselves are best posed to know what their communities need in cultural terms, and being owners and administrators of their own community energy schemes could allow them to achieve their aims. They acknowledge the need for an economic pathway, offered through developing CEPs, to enable cultural benefits to take place. Scholarship on such issues is yet to catch up. We suggest that research in this vein could be developed within (and enhance) energy justice literature, i.e. further explorations into the cultural benefits and justices (and similarly, parallel disadvantages and injustices) that can arise within the low-carbon transition, be it within the community energy sector or large scale developments. This paper has taken an important step to begin addressing this knowledge gap, and opens the door to an avenue of research, which recognises that both place and culture matter.
So a cultural and social studies need to be done and sustainable practices can be framed .This is to challenge routine, reduction of everyday life to standard and monotonous. Practices needs to be future oriented, cannot only be preserving nature ,conserving resources but involves questions about how people should live ,how society is shaped ,and shapes our particular ideals. Thus lifestyles need to be studied with different perspective.
program provides fresh fruits and vegetables, pro- motes eating healthy and culturally appropriate foods, and is connected to an ancillary program, “Roots to Fruits,” which provides horticultural and garden development training, environmental edu- cation, and cultural awareness workshops (AFB, n.d.). AFB executive director Anan Lololi says the Afri-Can FoodBasket program, along with its 26 community garden projects, is planning future crops on conservation land outside of Toronto. These are aimed at developing training farms and support programs to encourage involvement in Ontario agriculture by the immigrant community. The intention is to demonstrate both the demand and potential for growing a diversity of ethnic foods. Lololi states, “We have good sun, water, and seeds, so you can get the same type of crop as those jetted-in edibles.” 23 A similar project that
The exclusion of these women from education as seen earlier basically emanates from the socio- economic, cultural and religious subjugation of women, and these continue to act as impediments to ongoing efforts by the international community, local governments and NGOs to mitigate the situation. The beliefs that women are; intelligently weak as compared to men, potential and future housewives and not major actors in society, has even created a negative mindset about female education among women themselves and some educational stakeholders thereby negatively affecting the education of girls who already find themselves within an educational setting. For instance, since independence from French colonial rule in 1960, the Republic of Benin has been plagued with an education system that has routinely underserved its school-aged population especially the girls largely because of cultural and religious beliefs on girl child education. In an attempt to address this malaise, the World Bank in collaboration with the Ministry of Primary and Secondary Education (MEPS) has undertaken ambitious reforms to increase participation of girls and other marginalized groups in primary and secondary education. Efforts have been made to raise teachers’ awareness on gender bias in the curricula and in their interactions with students. Worthy of mention is the development of a series of ‘‘equity in the classroom’’ (EIC) training modules with the aim of equipping teachers with pedagogical strategies that will foster gender-equity, and ‘‘girl-friendly’’ classrooms (Moulton and Mundy, 2002). However, the impact of these efforts remains unclear as negative cultural and religious ideologies on girls’ education in this society have eaten deep into the understanding of its citizenry; thereby forestalling progress in this domain.
Some examples will make the importance of culture and language in this process clearer; as Okri stated “(s)tories can heal profound sicknesses of the spirit.” (Okri, 1998: 115). The states of Southern Africa and other public and private bodies, notably universities, hold a rich range of cultural material but not without some special challenges. For example, in performing its archival function, the National Archives of South Africa (NASA) has given special attention to dealing with holdings developed during previous periods of history. After majority rule, NASA was able to support the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) by identifying the nature and extent of the destruction of public records during the earlier period (National Archives of South Africa, 2007:11), and was also able to return to Namibia the records removed by South Africa immediately prior to Namibian independence (National Archives of South Africa, 2007:10).
The Environmental Cost Indicator (ECI) is used during tenders to quantitatively determine and compare the sustainability and environmental cost of different bids. The ECI can be used as an absolute requirement by the contractor or as an award criterion which can lead to a fictional discount on the tender price. To determine the ECI, a tool is used named DuBoCalc (Dutch=DuurzaamBouwenCalculator), which expresses the sustainability performance of a bid by calculating its environmental impact and translating the impact to cost in euros. DuBoCalc is based on the methodology of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), and calculates all material and energy use over a product its life-time. The aim of DuBoCalc is to achieve a significant reduction in environmental impact during design, tenders and construction of infrastructural projects. The great advantage of DuBoCalc is that the amount of required data is relatively low, because many data can be subtracted from an environmental database. The data which can be used to calculate a specific project its ECI include: type of material, quantity of material, transport distances of materials, quantity of dischargeable material, lifetime expectation of material and expected energy use during exploitation. This national environmental database holds many environmental values of materials and energy use during all life cycle phases: production and installation (A), use and maintenance (B) and demolition and waste-processing (C) (DuBoCalc, 2017).
At this point-in-time, there is wide-ranging debate over the role of the food industry/global capital and how it influences food choice, food security/poverty and the global balance of trade (Deacon, Ollila, Koivusalo & Stubbs, 2003; Crister, 2003). The power of financial capital has a wide reach—it can be seen as the interface between the food system and food choice. What appears on our shelves is the result of a complex interplay of global supply, price and consumer preferences. There is a very big question over the long and short-term sustainability of the current global food system, with aspects of the new local/regional food security and supply being examined. The current system is based on ‘false’ accounting, where the global food supply system is not held to account for the impacts that the system has on the environment or human or social health (Lang & Heasman, 2004 ). The World Health Organisation has challenged the global food industry over its role in promoting certain types of fats and processed foods and the impact on human
Based on the previously presented results from the questionnaire a number of assumptions can be made about the regime of sustainability management. First of all, the main function of this regime is: to change the way companies do business. Secondary functions are the change of society and the economy. Although political and technological change is not widely denied by the respondents it is clear that politics and technology are not the prime focus of sustainability management. When we look at how the relevant changes should be informed it is very clear that the respondents have little faith in the general public. The active parties should not listen to the public opinion if we want to achieve sustainability. Market mechanisms are also not preferred. Technological solutions and governmental policies are received with ambiguity. The member of this regime are actors from the private and semi-private domain. Governments are thought to be less active members, but they are allowed to intervene drastically if necessary. I have interviewed members of the sustainability advisory group and members of staff that are appointed to deal with sustainability issues within DHV. It would be stating the obvious to say that these interviewees believe that sustainability management is an acknowledged concept as it is their daily work. But there are some interesting observations to point out. Interviewee 2, director of sustainability management at DHV, was only just appointed in October 2010. The position did not previously exist. Something similar can be seen with interviewees 7 and his successor interviewee 6. Both were CSR managers but interviewee 7 had to perform his (ad hoc) activities alongside other tasks, whereas four years ago interviewee 6 became the dedicated CSR manager. So, at DHV sustainability management has become instituted in the last few years. Interviewee 2 remarks: ”the fact that there is now sustainability director for integral a company wide approach is an indication that sustainability management is increasingly becoming accepted on strategic level”. The interviewees recognize the same shift in their surrounding peers, but DHV has a leadership role.
While we continue to face the challenge of balancing energy efficiency with business growth in our Availability Services segment, overall we saw a decline in our electricity consumption across the company, which translates to a 12 percent reduction in our CO 2 e emissions. As we move forward, we plan to explore new technology and best practices to improve our data center efficiency, and support energy efficiency efforts within our owned and leased office spaces. We believe we can create significant positive change through engaging our employees, stakeholders and the communities we work in around these efforts. Within SunGard, we are quickly expanding our employee resource groups, including our newly formed Sustainability Action Network and Women’s Initiative Network to allow employees a space to develop and share their ideas across the company and communities we reach. We continue to partner with our private equity sponsors on these issues as well, working to set goals and participating in their sustainability leadership programs. With respect to our customers, we work to align with their standards as a supplier. SunGard’s five year track record of reporting is emblematic of the company’s commitment to accountability and transparency. I am proud of our progress, and encourage you to learn more about our initiatives described in the report. We invite you to provide feedback, as we welcome the opportunity to learn from all of our stakeholders.
Most messages analysed were explicit (85%), since customers are given clear information on how the business is sustainable without having to implicitly guess how an action affects sustainability (O'Keefe, 2002). An example is the Lao Rivertime statement on their homepage that “we work in harmony with the local people and have an agreement in place, under which we use local labour and local staff and contribute $2 per lodge night to local education and community development”. However, many messages were also connotative (56%) which meant customers were likely to misunderstand them because they used abstract concepts (Bettinghaus and Cody, 1994). We found extensive use of technical jargon suggesting the content had not really been written with consumers in mind. We also judged most messages to be passive (89%) because they did not elicit any behavior and gave the impression that customers cannot or should not engage (O'Keefe, 2002; Mick and Politi, 1989). For example, a message we found in several instances is “It is the perfect ecotourism destination”. This is explicit because there is no need to have a high level of sustainable awareness to understand that it is an “eco message” (O'Keefe, 2002), however, it is connotative because the word ’eco’ may have different meanings for different audiences as ’eco’ presents an unclear definition of what it means. Furthermore, it is passive because it doesn’t compel the reader to an action of how to behave sustainably in the given destination. When we saw appeals for active participation this normally meant encouraging donations, for example “Asilia Giving is an online platform for charitable giving — offering a way for individuals to offer support and stay connected to projects and initiatives in East Africa”.
Importantly, our study shows that considerable GHGE reductions can be achieved without omitting entire food categories. All optimized solutions were omnivorous, i.e. included both plant and animal products such as eggs, milk or fish. This is an important aspect of cultural acceptability in Sweden where the majority of the population consumes an omnivorous diet . Other researchers aiming to align health and environmental priorities have recommended dietary approaches that exclude entire food categories, such as vegetarianism [17,56,57], based on the high contribution of livestock to the overall GHGE burden . Although overall mortality and incidence of non-communicable diseases decreases with an elevated intake of fruits and vegetables , vegetarian or vegan diets do not inevitably result in health improvement  and diets with appropriate ratios of vegetables, fruits, pulses, meat and fish are also health-promoting [11,61]. Furthermore, the exclusion of an entire food category such as red meat could compromise nutritional status. Meat has a high bioavailability of iron and also enhances absorption of iron from other foods . Replacing meat and meat products with cereals, pulses, and tubers may negatively affect iron status in vulnerable populations . Current recommendations emphasize diversified diets as the most important strategy for achieving an adequate iron status .
allowed them to learn about and explore these topics in Fall 2013 before they travelled to Thailand. We also asked them to re-read the literature and complete the assignment again upon returning from the GCS programme trip to Thailand in Winter 2014. The literature was selected to provide balanced views of global citizenship (both pro and con) and to help spark the conversation with the students participating in this programme. The goal of the assignment was for students to analyse and reflect on their experiences within the current world system. We present a comparison of the pre-and post global citizenship reflections as part of this paper. The assignment and readings are as in Figure 1. These articles provided multiple viewpoints about traveling abroad for service learning and community-based work. Additionally, while in the programme, students completed weekly reflections (at the conclusions of each of the three weeks in the programme in Thailand and the United States). Thematic coding was used to extract key categories related to cross-cultural communication and global citizenship (Boyatzis 1988).
Abstract The businesses have a critical role in moving the society toward sustainability. The fast changing and dynamic global business environment requires firms to be more flexible to quickly adapt and respond to market changes. Among the forces that drive changes, requirements for corporate responsibility and sustainability are getting more urgent. During such difficult time as this economic downturn, companies are faced with hard choices to survive. Research has acknowledged that addressing sustainability issues is critical to the long-term existence and thriving of companies. The concept of sustainability makes it necessary that besides the economic categories and the operational environment protection, it should be considered the social effects of company in management actions. Sustainability business oriented can be realized through developing a corporate target pyramid in enterprise. Such pyramid will help organizations to shape their targets in accepting social, environmental and economic responsibilities. The current research tries to review the research background done till now and depict a perspective of an integrated target pyramid for both scholars and managers. Furthermore, this paper has a holistic look toward the concept of sustainable information system.
motivation as separate constructs that are together responsible for acculturation, but also attempts to tease the two constructs apart in the measurement. Second, this is the first study that looks at the acculturation level of the individual and its effect on cultural congruence. Whereas the majority of studies seem to assume that all bicultural people can shift cultural frames, this study looks at whether a shift really occurs and specifically investigates factors that make one more likely to use this cognitive technique. Lastly, although the focus of this study was an examination of the effect of cultural competence and cultural motivation on responsiveness to cultural primes, the design of the study permitted the examination of competence and motivation in both cultures as well as participants’ scores on both independence and interdependence. This approach helped to shed light on how participants feel about being a part of both cultures, and showed that in this sample, bicultural individuals displayed high competence and motivation to