Digital forensics

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Digital Forensics

Digital Forensics

Digital forensics is a branch of forensic science concerned with the use of digital information produced, stored and transmitted by computers as source of evidence in investigations and legal proceedings. Digital forensics has existed for as long as computers have stored data that could be used as evidence. For many years, digital forensics was performed primarily by government agencies, but has become common in the commercial sector over the past several years. Originally, much of the analysis software was custom and proprietary and eventually specialized analysis software was made available for both the private and public sectors. The first part of this paper provides a brief overview of digital forensics Process, followed by the models of digital forensics. In the further part of the paper, we consider the need of the “Digital Forensic Investigation Model” which is currently an active area of research in the academic world, which aims to ameliorate procedures followed in this field. At last, we discuss challenges and future scope of digital forensics.
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A Ph.D. Curriculum for Digital Forensics

A Ph.D. Curriculum for Digital Forensics

Practical internships are one of the keys to success in a program such as the one we are forming and the program that it emerged from at the University of New Haven. While many internship programs end up placing students in work environments related to their fields, many such students end up not doing work similar to what they expect from their field of interest. In digital forensics an intern without a clearance cannot work on national security-related forensics, and unless they sign non-disclosure agreements and are adequately trusted by the hiring party, they cannot reasonably work on almost any case that can be identified. As a student, they cannot get involved in the aspects of cases requiring testimony because, among other things, they are expecting to graduate and move on, legal matters often have delays of months or years, and things change on a moment's notice as a case is closed or settled.
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Digital Forensics: Legality of the Process in Cameroon

Digital Forensics: Legality of the Process in Cameroon

In many legal systems today, it is important for evidence that is obtained for use in any judicial proceedings, especially criminal and civil prosecutions, to be obtained lawfully. In other words, evidence should be obtained and examined in such a way as to make it relied upon in court. Part III of the 2010 LAW N° 2010/012 OF 21 DECEMBER 2010, law relating to cyber security and cyber criminality in Cameroon creates a procedural law provision to punish criminal offence of cyber criminality, which has a significance on the acquisition, examination, and analysis of digital evidence; knowing that traditional digital forensic processes, most be legally authorized, so that they do not potentially contravene this law. Cameroon is faced with constraints and limitations in the way digital evidence is interpreted and handled in the courts. These constraints are related to skills, time, laws, technology and cost. The huge limitation is the lack of experts with appropriate skills to carry out digital forensic processes. The legal implications and ramifications for both digital forensics experts, law enforcement, and the cases that they are engaged in are identified, and provide appropriate legal solutions to ensure that these digital forensic practitioners do not contravene the existing laws .
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Digital Forensics, A Need for Credentials and Standards

Digital Forensics, A Need for Credentials and Standards

To be sure, federal agencies such as FBI, Secret Service, IRS, and DoD have their own certification and accreditation processes. NIST also offers excellent certification and ac- creditation guidelines in its 800 series Special Publications. External certification and ac- creditation processes supported and approved by governments are desirable as they bring consistency and professionalism to the profes- sion of digital forensics. Programs developed by DoD, NIST, DHS, etc. are certainly use- ful and at times quite necessary, but these efforts are not coordinated and often target the specific needs of the agency developing it. Many times, they are too broad, attempting to address too much. What is needed is a collective and coordinated effort by the gov- ernments, and this cannot come soon enough. The recent breaches of the federal Office of Personnel Management (OPM) which leaked over 22 million classified personnel records and Equifax’s breach resulting in over 146 million private records of Americans being stolen show the tremendous need for proper
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Post-Genesis Digital Forensics Investigation

Post-Genesis Digital Forensics Investigation

factual information for judicial review. Another term for computer forensics is the collection and analysis of data from various computer resources including computer systems, computer networks, communication lines, and appropriate storage media for trial. The existence of computer science of forensics is much needed nowadays especially in the future because the number of computer- based crimes can not be proven in real terms, so sometimes it is not recognized as evidence in court for such cases [3]. So no wonder at institutions like the police has a special department for this computer forensics. Various digital behaviors and digitalization that has penetrated in every human activity become a behavior that must be observed properly. Computer forensics or digital forensics are widely deployed in a variety of purposes, not just criminal cases involving the law. In general, the need for computer forensics can be classified as follows:
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A survey on privacy issues in digital forensics

A survey on privacy issues in digital forensics

Table 1 signifies the shift of research focus when it comes to preserving privacy. It is rather evident that the current focus of forensics and security solutions are now more towards databases and networking with the rise of dependency on cloud computing technology, with 8 papers focusing on that area. More data are being stored in third party databases as compared to 5 years ago, and it became a tempting source to gain valuable private information. A shift of focus is inevitable from software and systems to database and networking under such circumstance where it is harder to gain access to information without networking access and maintain it for further exploitation. Methodologies and framework still receive adequate focus as these are the foundation of many solutions that are to be proposed in the future. The keyword analysis signifies the focus of each specific specimen analyzed. As it is shown in Table 2, keywords used do not necessarily bear the same signature as published in these specimens, but are grouped based on their representation. For example, a computer forensics publication with digital forensics representation will be grouped together as they represent similar research nature. Keyword analysis provides a picture of techniques and theories that are being emphasized within the timeframe of this research paper.
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Digital Forensics and Cyber Crime Datamining

Digital Forensics and Cyber Crime Datamining

Digital forensics is the science of identifying, extracting, analyzing and presenting the digital evidence that has been stored in the digital devices. Various digital tools and techniques are being used to achieve this. Our paper explains fo- rensic analysis steps in the storage media, hidden data analysis in the file system, network forensic methods and cyber crime data mining. This paper proposes a new tool which is the combination of digital forensic investigation and crime data mining. The proposed system is designed for finding motive, pattern of cyber attacks and counts of attacks types happened during a period. Hence the proposed tool enables the system administrators to minimize the system vulner- ability.
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DATA MINING APPROACH IN DIGITAL FORENSICS

DATA MINING APPROACH IN DIGITAL FORENSICS

Digital forensics is a sophisticated and cutting edge area of breakthrough research. Canvass of digital forensic investigation and application is growing at a rapid rate with mammoth digitization of an information economy. Law enforcement and military organizations have heavy reliance on digital forensic today. As information age is revolutionizing at a speed inconceivable and information being stored in digital form, the need for accurate intellectual interception, timely retrieval, and nearly zero fault processing of digital data is crux of the issue. This research paper will focus on role of data mining techniques for digital forensics. It also identifies how Data mining techniques can be applicable in the field of digital forensics that will enable forensic investigator to reach the first step in effective prosecution, namely charge-sheeting of digital crime cases.
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COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF DIGITAL FORENSICS

COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF DIGITAL FORENSICS

Abstract— This paper presenting the review about digital forensics, it consists of techniques as well as various tools used to accomplish the tasks in the digital forensic process. Network forensics is forensics and important technology for network security area. In this paper, we inspect digital evidence collection processes using these tools. From last few decades the digital forensic techniques have been improved appreciably but still we face a lack of effective forensics tools to deal with varied incidents caused by these rising technologies and the advances in cyber crime. This article discusses the tools used in network forensics , various gaps founds in these tools, and the advantages and disadvantages of these tools.
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On the Development of a Digital Forensics Curriculum

On the Development of a Digital Forensics Curriculum

Network Forensics Policy Maker, Computer Network Forensics Professional, and Computer Network Forensics Researcher. The topics that are part of the education program are fundamentally different than a training program. An education program focuses on theory and knowledge, while a training program focuses more on practical skills and application. The authors of the model argue that an undergraduate program can ideally integrate topics that are found in both education and training programs. (Troell et al., 2003) describes the development of an undergraduate and graduate course in computer forensics. The undergraduate course introduces the student to the basic tools and procedures of the field. The graduate course has the above undergraduate course as a prerequisite and discusses advanced issues related to analysis and presentation of evidence, as well as the customization and integration of available tools into standard operating procedures. It does not give a detailed guide on the specific topics, especially the practical use of tools, and skills that would fit into the forensics education programs. The High Tech Crime Consortium (HTCC) proposed an online certification program, which demonstrates the perspectives or competencies required of a graduate of a computer forensics program (Lang, 1999). Two programming courses, security concepts, system administration, web publishing, and two courses in computer forensics were recommended. Its main focus was on topics of network and security, and students are not expected to learn practical skills and tools. Erbacher and Swart (2007) pointed out the need to integrate training and education topics in computer forensics education programs, but its main focus is on the managerial or administrative aspect of digital forensics.
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TOWARDS A FORMALIZATION OF DIGITAL FORENSICS

TOWARDS A FORMALIZATION OF DIGITAL FORENSICS

General procedures for digital forensics should be flexible rather than being limited to a particular process or system. Reith and colleagues also identify a number of reasons why standard operating procedures (SOPs) are lacking in many operational laboratories. The reasons in- clude the uniqueness of cases, changing technologies and differing legis- lation. Many of these issues can be addressed by having flexible SOPs that permit changes within a framework but with clear overall outcomes.

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Survey on Different Phases of Digital Forensics Investigation Models

Survey on Different Phases of Digital Forensics Investigation Models

ABSTRACT: Most forensics models focus on the investigative process and its different phases and are characterized by a rather informal and intuitive approach. When a formalized process been introduced, in 1984, a new and improved computer forensics investigation processes have been developed. A digital forensics investigation is a process that used science and technology to examine digital objects and tests theories, which can be entered into a court of law, to answer questions about events that occurred. There is various digital forensics investigation models which consist different phases. The interchanging one or any steps may lead the incomplete results hence wrong interpretation and conclusion. In this paper we reviewed a few investigation processes or models; discuss the phases and identifying common phases. KEYWORDS: Digital Forensic process, Computer Forensic Models.
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A Survey on Digital Forensics to Address Big Data Challenges

A Survey on Digital Forensics to Address Big Data Challenges

The field of digital forensics has received an increasing amount of attention in the previous years as digital proof found on different devices has become more and more valuable during examinations. Digital forensics handles challenges of analysing and handling enormous data. The low price of digital storage, the increasing ubiquity of computing, and the growth of the type and number of the Internet of Things (IoT) drive this massive increment in the amount of digital data. The developing challenges can be attributed to technological advances, the capacity to interconnect different devices capable of generating huge volumes of data, the need to gather and investigate data found on data (both structured and un-structured) as well as the need to conduct forensic analysis on information stored on cloud. All of these factors emphasize a relationship between the field of data science and digital forensics and point out the need to analyse “big data” in digital forensics.
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Digital forensics : the missing piece of the internet of things promise

Digital forensics : the missing piece of the internet of things promise

other locations will at some point come under scrutiny in the course of investigations and legal matters. Yet no reliable forensics applications nor digital forensics guidance exists to retrieve the data from IoT devices in the event of a cyber event, an active investigation or a litigation request. The digital forensics of internet of things (IoT) technologies is the missing conversation in our headlong rush to the promise of connecting every

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Advanced Techniques for Improving the Efficacy of Digital Forensics Investigations

Advanced Techniques for Improving the Efficacy of Digital Forensics Investigations

We have developed a prototype system for native filesystem support for both DEC-enabled and legacy applications, based on FUSE. Our system is developed in C and Python, under Linux. In our prototype, user-level applications are currently used to import and export DECs into and out of a special DEC-aware FUSE filesystem. An import operation essentially splits the DEC into component files and places these files into the filesystem, along with the DEC audit log and other metadata. Exporting a DEC from the DEC-enabled filesystem simply recreates the DEC structure from the data stored in the corresponding directories in the filesystem. The use of these import and export applications enables our system to be neutral with regard to developing standards for DEC structure. Our prototype provides automatic auditing of access to DECs by applications. Many applications, including those specifically designed for digital forensics investigation (e.g., file carvers) and those which are not (e.g., dd and other common Unix command line programs) may never be modified for DEC compliance. So our implementation instruments filesystem-level system calls (through FUSE), such as file open, read, and write operations, and captures information about both the calling application and the operations themselves. Applications may simply use the standard C library open(), close(), read(), and write() operations (and their buffered counterparts) on digital evidence blobs contained within a DEC. Access to the blobs of digital evidence in a DEC automatically results in updates of the audit log. For example, an open operation records information including the user ID, process ID, MD5 hash of the accessing application's executable, the date and time, and the command line of the accessing application. Auditing of read/write operations ties these operations to the
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DIGITAL FORENSICS CERTIFICATION BOARD RECERTIFICATION POLICY

DIGITAL FORENSICS CERTIFICATION BOARD RECERTIFICATION POLICY

Breaking these hours into a percentage of required hours results in: (9.6 / 48 = 20%), (28.8 / 144 = 20%), (19.2 / 96 = 20%), (57.6 / 288 = 20%) and (19.2 /96 = 20%). Since the percentages add up to 100% the certificate holder has demonstrated that he/she is an active participant in the digital forensics arena by partially satisfying each of the three experience categories.

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The Time-Cost of Digital Forensics for Archival Collections

The Time-Cost of Digital Forensics for Archival Collections

Access to these laptops could potentially allow scholars to gain great insight into the minds of these writers. 32 Although Kolowich focuses on literary collections, the digital materials of politicians, scholars and even organizations, or anyone else using a computer, could prove incredibly informative. “Computers today function as personal environments and extensions of self – we inhabit and customize our computers, and their desktops are the reflecting pool of our digital lives.” 33 The question, then, is how to uncover these digital lives, especially when they are stored on seemingly obsolete media, such as the floppy disks that were donated to Harvard. This is one place where digital forensics can help.
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An Approach for Digital Forensics Using Behavior Analysis

An Approach for Digital Forensics Using Behavior Analysis

As noted above, psychographic information about an offender obtained through digital forensics is used to create a multi-axis profile. The technical ability axis covers a subject’s technical skill, as well as their adoption of new technologies (technophilia). The countermeasures axis looks at the subject’s use of protective measures both before and after criminal activity. The sociability axis looks at a subject’s social interactions, both online and offline. The domain ability axis evaluates the subject’s criminally relevant skillset, generally with the help of a domain expert. While each axis can be quantified, which may be helpful in multi- offender conspiracies when deciding which subject to target, they are more useful as qualitative measures in investigative planning, developing interview themes, and performing investigative actions.
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A SYNOPSIS ON DIGITAL FORENSICS AND ITS INVESTIGATIVE STRATEGIES

A SYNOPSIS ON DIGITAL FORENSICS AND ITS INVESTIGATIVE STRATEGIES

from the crime scene which can then be produced in the court of law as evidences to solve the crime. Digital Forensics is the art of using methods/techniques that are derived scientifically using advanced investigative methodologies and strategies. According to DFRWS- „Digital Forensic Research Workshop, USA-2001‟, “The use of scientifically derived and proven methods towards the preservation, collection, validation, identification, analysis, interpretation, documentation and presentation of digital evidence derived from digital sources for the purpose of facilitating or furthering the reconstruction of events found to be criminal or helping to anticipate unauthorised actions shown to be disruptive to planned operations”.
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Need of Digital Forensics in Cloud Computing Enviornment

Need of Digital Forensics in Cloud Computing Enviornment

ABSTRACT: Cloud computing is one of the rapidly growing technologies in the field of Information Technology which is getting more and more attention from the information and communication technologies to industries recently. All the leading organizations show their interest in the services provided by cloud. But the increasing use of cloud services is attracting many internet users resulting in criminal activities. Thus, more efforts should be made in forensics analysis of cloud storage services. The cloud data should be prevented from getting compromised. A forensic tool should be developed which will analyse the metadata generated from cloud database to trace the criminal activities. Also, in case of deleted data, some provisions should be made to reconstruct the deleted data. This survey paper reviews the need of digital forensics in cloud computing. A brief literature on some challenges in implementing the phases of digital forensics in cloud computing is also mentioned along with comparative study of few tools available for digital forensics.
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