genres)” (39). The dissertation style is dependent on the discipline, individual, program, and institution, and it is important to question how to expand or broaden options to the dissertation because of the unique combination of research students can bring. It is also important to acknowledge that not all students will be proponents of a multimodal dissertation. Regardless, it is crucial to determine if there are similarities such as life circumstances, experiences, learning strategies, or learning needs among students. This knowledge leads to better-informed ways of understanding how institutions and faculty can support students who may benefit from using alternative formats for dissertations. An essential ingredient of a dissertation is an argument, which is conventionally communicated through linear, alphabetic text. At present, some academics cannot conceive argument in any other way (Andrews et al., 2012). The traditional print dissertation does not reflect the dramatic transformation of representational alternatives and resources that is taking place in the construction of knowledge (Edminister & Moxley, 2002). Although multimodal pedagogy is increasingly integrated into institutions of higher education (Gourlay, 2012), my research will address this gap by aligning this pedagogy with the monomodal, linear, print-based dissertation. Much knowledge can be lost if both the writer and the reader of a media-rich dissertation do not understand how an argument can be communicated multimodally. It is evident that “the problem of digital and multimodal argumentation remains one of the most pressing to solve” (Andrews & England, 2012, p. 45). Yamada-Rice (2012) stated “the
This article explores four aspects of the changing nature of undergraduate dissertations. The first section, on the role of the dissertation in the students learning experience, argues that the curriculum context of dissertations has changed. The second section, explores the changing nature of the link between theory and practice, and the third section identifies some of the consequences of the digitization of information resources. Another change arises from the wider range of research methodologies currently adopted by students. A final section on the consequences of these changes for the role of supervisors serves to conclude the article.
Ombretta Romice, as Dissertation Convenor, has coordinated the honours year dissertation programme in the Department of Architecture at Strathclyde for three years, during which time Paul Yaneske has been the year convenor and chair of the departmental Learning and Teaching Group. At Strathclyde, students can graduate with a Pass degree in architectural studies after Year 3, or an Honours degree after Year 4 (i.e. after a total of four years full time academic study); the first professional training year is normally taken as a year out placement after Year 3. The Dissertation is part of the common curriculum for both Honours year students and for students entering directly into the Department onto the first year of the Master of Architecture (MArch) programme. In both cases, successful completion of the curriculum allows progression into Year 5, the year of MArch graduation. The students are encouraged to develop the Dissertation as an area of personal interest, which can be the foundation for further work in the fifth year as this is organised in thematic streams – Advanced Architectural Design, Architectural Computing and Urban Design. The second professional year is taken after Year 5. At the time the authors started working on Dissertations, these had just been reintroduced after a number of years when they had not been compulsory and were in a very poor state. There was no support/preparation for students or staff, the choice of topics was too dependent on student preference and there was very little guidance on criteria of evaluation or quality benchmarks. Final evaluation standards were hard to characterise within uniform parameters and student progress over the year depended too heavily on individuals.
As expected, the MA dissertations in the corpus contain direct quotes from the literature, excerpts from data (e.g. questionnaire answers, transcribed interviews, excerpts from pedagogical materials), as well as non-prose text (e.g. tables, charts, graphs). Arguably, including those non-author and non-prose (henceforth NANP) text portions in the analysis would skew the overall results, and would probably obscure differences between native and non-native students, as well as among speakers of different first languages. To avoid this, the non- prose portions have been removed from the corpus, and the non-author portions are in the process of being annotated (see section 6). However, it should also be noted that informal observations during the manual NANP annotation indicate
The concept ‘concord’, which signifies agreement between the different elements that are used in a sentence, has been extensively discussed by scholars. It has usually been assumed that concord only poses problems for secondary school students and undergraduate students in tertiary institutions. Postgraduate students are thought to be immune to this problem. This paper examined the dissertations of eight postgraduate students in Linguistics Department, University of Ibadan with the aim of either substantiating or debunking this claim. Forty-six sentences are extracted from five master’s projects, one M.Phil dissertation and two Ph.D theses. The basic concept of Error Analysis which is a key element of the systemic grammar formed the theoretical basis of this work. Grammatical errors as a result of poor mastery of the rules of concord are responsible for these forty-six faulty constructions. These errors could broadly be classified into two – grammatical and notional. Most of them result from lack of agreement between the subject and verb, pronouns and antecedents, demonstratives and nouns, articles and nouns, the use of the copula ‘is’ and the auxiliary ‘have’ which do not agree with the subjects of the sentences in which they are used. Postgraduate students are not immune to the problem of concord. Thus, the researcher recommends that the teaching of the General Studies Programme ‘Use of English’ at the undergraduate level should be intensified and that a similar course should be introduced at the postgraduate level to complement what is taught at the undergraduate level to improve the quality of the use of English of undergraduate and graduate students.
Pertaining to the second point, i.e. the extent of dedication step, it was observed that the dedication entailed either broad or specific categories. They were either dedicated to a very broad concept such as the whole world or society or dedicated to a very small group such as a sister or an old friend. The dissertations were dedicated to different ones namely, God, spiritual and religious figures, faculty members, parents and siblings, and also friends. In some cases the writers insisted much on the inclusion of all their loved ones in the dedication section which resulted in too long and wordy texts, neglecting the other moves and steps of writing a standard acknowledgement. This attitude was even evident in the title they selected for their acknowledgment page. Such students preferred titles such as: Dedication and Thanking [Taghdim va Tashakkor] or Gratitude and Dedication [Sepasgozari va ehda].
Leiding’s (2005) study on the James Madison University Library collection needs, reveal that the proportion of journal citations in relation to books has increased slightly over the period of 1993- 2002. Though her intention was to examine the pattern of use of electronic journals, it could not be done as there was no indication in the citations if the journal article was accessed in print or electronic means. Tonta and Al (2006) did a study on the scatter and obsolescence of journals cited in theses and dissertations of librarianship. They analysed bibliometrics features such as the number of pages, completion years, the fields of subject, the number of citations and their distribution by types of sources and year of 100 theses and dissertations completed at the Department of Librarianship of Hacettepe University between 1974 and 2002. Monographs received more citations than journal articles. The more recent completed theses and dissertations contained more citations to electronic publications. Among the core journal identified in the field of librarianship were Tu¨rk Ku¨tu¨phanecilig˘ i, College & Research Libraries, and Journal of the American Society for Information Science.
“My own way of dealing with students has been to try to get to know them well enough so that I have some idea of how they prefer to operate. Probably the two extremes of good dissertations produced by very wildly different people—one was a guy with pretty extraordinary credentials, not in our field, but still, world-renowned sort of stuff he had done in another field. He needed essentially daily contact with me…he was really into the idea of, ‘Well, let’s go have coffee and sit outside and draw sketches on napkins.’ I really like doing that and it turned out that those sessions were often times when two or three other people who were maybe a term or two behind him would come along and observe the process and they’d get some idea that, ‘Oh, well, maybe I don’t have to ask permission for this step or that step, but now I know I should do w before x.’ On the other hand, I had a lovely dissertation turned out by somebody whom I used to have to call myself every eight or nine weeks to see if she was still alive, because I wouldn’t have seen her or heard from her and she would bring back absolutely lovely pages and I would make a few comments and suggestions and then she would disappear for two months and both the dissertations turned out to be quite lovely and I enjoyed both of the levels of engagement.” (ID500)
The results of this study are subject to some limitations. First is the non-randomness of the data. This study only collected dissertations created in PA’s infant stage, and only in four elite Chinese universities. This may indicate systematic bias in the data. This problem may be addressed in the future through follow-up research that has broader samples in time and scope. The analysis in this paper was also limited by focusing mainly on texts. When analyzing the factors influencing the quality of PA dissertations, a better way is to survey the authors. These are directions future research should consider. Finally, while this paper concentrated on empirical analysis and generalization of the status quo, it did not solve the problem of how to understand and handle the contradictions and incompatibility between externally developed social science standards and the Chinese social science research context. This fundamentally determines the applicability of the six quality criteria used here. In this respect, profound, concrete, and evidence-based exploration research should be very important for China’s social science development.
The China Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations has been widely realized by Chinese academic libraries in recent years. The China Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations project was initiated by the China Academic Library and Information System and current research into related technologies, including metadata standards, OAI metadata harvesting protocol, standard document format and intellectual property protection. Research work on multilingual and cross lingual searching, personalization and knowledge organization is also described. The goals of the China Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations are to establish electronic theses and dissertations collection for Chinese academic library universities, to provide services to access them efficiently, and to ensure the seamless organization of distributed electronic theses and dissertations collections (Yi Fin, 2004).
While a papillary architecture is, on its face, quite sug- gestive of conventional pRCC, it is not unique to them and may be seen in other subtypes such as MiTF-RCC, collecting duct carcinoma (CDC), fumarate hydratase (FH)-deficient RCCs such as that arise in hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma syndrome (HLRCC-RCC) and unclassified RCC. Focal papillary and pseudopapillary patterns may also be seen in high-grade ccRCCs. Conventional pRCCs are well circumscribed and encapsulated tumors that are classified into so-called type 1 and type 2 patterns that have been shown to be distinct molecular entities. While gains of chromosomes 7 and 17 as well as MET alterations are seen in type 1 tumors, type 2 is increasingly recognized to represent a very distinct (from conventional pRCC) but quite heterogeneous group containing at least three distinct molecular clusters. These include tumors with molecular alterations involving the NRF2-ARE pathway, chromatin-modifying genes, TFE3 fusions, CDKN2A silencing, and CpG island methylator phenotype. 19
Our results show that the majority of low and high grade SIL in women referred for colposcopy at gynecological outpatient clinic of our Center are caused by Group 1 HPVs. The relative high prevalence of unclassified HPVs in low grade SIL and NILM and their absence in high grade SIL suggests that these viruses have a marginal role in cervical neoplasia in the general population. However, the identification of unclassified HPVs in HIV positive women with high grade lesions observed in previous stud- ies, suggests that uncommon and unclassified HPV geno- types need to be characterized in immune compromised patients to allow a correct clinical management.