DPPH free radical scavenging

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Assessment of DPPH free radical scavenging activity of some medicinal plants

Assessment of DPPH free radical scavenging activity of some medicinal plants

Free radicals are one of the critical causative factors in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative disorders, autoimmune diseases, inflammatory conditions, diabetes, and gastrointestinal disorders. Several phytochemical and biological studies have made it evident that medicinal plants have profound antioxidant potentials that can be furnished further in the prevention and treatment of these annihilating diseases. We had assessed ethanol extracts of 08 medicinal plants from Bangladesh, for antioxidant potentials with the help of DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) free radical scavenging assay. Those plant extracts were found to have profound antioxidant effects that could explain and justify some of their uses in traditional medicine. Among the extracts, Ammannia multiflora, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Dendrophthoe falcata and Syzygium cumini were observed displaying strong DPPH free radical scavenging action with IC 50 value of 6.25 µg/ml, 7.46
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Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities of Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd

Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities of Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd

Present research was designed to evaluate the free radical scavenging capacities and antioxidant activities of rhizome extracts of Alpinia galanga prepared in different solvent systems (60% aqueous methanol, 60% aqueous ethanol and distilled water) using different in vitro chemical assays. Antioxidant components such as total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and ascorbic acid contents of the ginger species were screened. Antioxidant assays employed included sulphur free radical reactivity assay, ferric ion reducing power assay, DPPH free radical scavenging capacity assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, nitric oxide scavenging activity assay and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay. The obtained data reveal that the plant extracts contained significant amount of the observed antioxidant components and also exhibited significant free radical scavenging capacities. Methanol (60%) extract exhibited highest antioxidant activity than other solvents. The polyphenolic constituents of the plant extracts appear to be largely responsible for the radical scavenging capacity. The plant extracts act as promising source of antioxidants, and may be useful for development of nutraceuticals and pharmaceutical drugs.
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IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT SCREENING OF BIO ACTIVE FRACTION OF SEEDS OF STRYCHNOS POTATORUM LINN

IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT SCREENING OF BIO ACTIVE FRACTION OF SEEDS OF STRYCHNOS POTATORUM LINN

ABSTRACT: Strychnos potatorum Linn. is a medium sized deciduous tree belonging to the family Loganiaceae. The collected seeds of Strychnos potatorum were dried and powdered. Methanolic extract of these seeds was prepared by cold maceration. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the crude extract revealed the presence of flavonoids and phenolic compounds. The crude extract was partitioned (gradient) with different solvents like chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and water. After conducting preliminary in vitro DPPH free radical scavenging assay on these fractions, the one with maximum antioxidant activity (bioactive fraction) was selected and screened with different in vitro antioxidant methods. The different in vitro antioxidant methods include DPPH free radical scavenging assay, nitric oxide radical scavenging assay, superoxide radical scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay and inhibition of peroxide formation method. The percentage inhibition of free radicals in each method was compared with standard drug. Ascorbic acid and α- tocopherol were used as standard drugs. The seeds of Strychnos potatorum have shown significant antioxidant activity.
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PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS AND PHARMACOLOGICAL SCREENING OF XANTHOSOMA SAGITTIFOLIUM (L.) LEAF EXTRACT

PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS AND PHARMACOLOGICAL SCREENING OF XANTHOSOMA SAGITTIFOLIUM (L.) LEAF EXTRACT

Xanthosoma Sagittifolium is a common herb consumed in Bangladesh for its nutritional and traditional medicinal values. The current study was carried out to evaluate the presence of phytochemicals and to screen out antioxidant and antibacterial potentialities of Xanthosoma Sagittifolium (L.) ethanolic leaf extract. Phytochemical screening of extract ensured the presence of carbohydrates, tannins, flavonoids, steroids and alkaloids. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH free radical scavenging assay where ascorbic acid used as standard. The leaf extract showed free radical scavenging capacity which is an indication that this extract may have antioxidant ingredient. Antimicrobial sensitivity of ethanolic extract was measured by disk diffusion method with Mueller- Hinton agar media using kanamycin as standard. The extract showed mild activity against four of the tested bacterial species such as Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus. Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Vibrio cholera and Shigella dysenteriae.
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IN VITRO EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF PIPER BETEL

IN VITRO EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF PIPER BETEL

ABSTRACT: The Piper betel is an evergreen and perennial creeper belonging to the Piperaceae family, with glossy heart-shaped leaves and white catkin. It is valued both as a mild stimulant and for its medicinal properties. The total phenolic content of methanolic leaves extract was estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu assay method, and was found to be 0.110 mg/CE/g (Catechine Equivalent per gram). However, antioxidant activity of methanolic leaves extract of Piper betel was determined by DPPH free radical scavenging method. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of methanolic extract of Piper betel was found to be highest at 100μl concentration which was 25.2%. Nevertheless, % DPPH scavenging activity of standard ascorbic acid at same concentration was found to be 40%. The % DPPH scavenging activity increases with the increasing concentration. The concentration of Piper betel needed for 50% inhibition (IC50) was found to be 282.31μg/ml whereas 369.19 μg/ml needed for ascorbic acid.
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Phytochemical investigations and antioxidant potential of roots of Leea macrophylla (Roxb )

Phytochemical investigations and antioxidant potential of roots of Leea macrophylla (Roxb )

Leea macrophylla Roxburgh (Family: Leeaceae; Bengali name: Dholsamudra, Dinda, Hatikana) is a robust herb or shrub, is widely distributed in Dinajpur, Savar and Chit- tagong hill tracts of Bangladesh, Yunnan of China, Cam- bodia, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal and Thailand. The roots of the plant have been used traditionally in fracture and healing cut injury and to allay pain. It has astringent, styptic and antiseptic activity [10]. Though, the plant has a lot of ethnopharmacological use, there have been no scientific study on the chemical and pharmacologi- cal properties of roots of the plant. Previously, we have reported antinociceptive activities of different extracts of roots of L. macrophylla in swiss albino [11]. There are no scientific reports about antioxidant potentials of roots of L. macrophylla. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate different extractives of roots of L. mac- rophylla as new potential sources of natural antioxidants and phenolic compounds. Antioxidant activities of dif- ferent extract of the plant were also evaluated by using DPPH free radical scavenging assay, superoxide anion
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PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ETHIOPIAN INDIGENOUS MEDICINAL PLANTS, OCIMUM LAMIIFOLIUM HOCHST. EX BENTH AND OCIMUM BASILICUM L.

PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ETHIOPIAN INDIGENOUS MEDICINAL PLANTS, OCIMUM LAMIIFOLIUM HOCHST. EX BENTH AND OCIMUM BASILICUM L.

extracts found alkaloids, sterols, carbohydrate and glycosides, tannins and flavonoids. The fraction inhibition of lipid peroxide at the first stage of oxidation illustrated antioxidant activity of O. lamiifolium and O. basilicum as 90% and 88% compared to those of gallic acid (97%) and BHT (84%) respectively. Also, the aqueous leaves extract of O. lamiifolium and O. basilicum exhibited significant DPPH free radical scavenging activity, nitric acid free radical scavenging activity assay, superoxide anion scavenging activity, ABTS scavenging activity and hydrogen peroxide free radical scavenging assay. Our findings provide confirmation that the aqueous leaves extract of O. lamiifolium and O. basilicum are potential source of natural antioxidants, and this warranted its uses in traditional medicine systems.
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Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Madhuca Indica

Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Madhuca Indica

The present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of alcoholic extract of bark of Madhuca indica belonging to Sapotaceae family. The extract was screened for free radical scavenging effects at various concentrations (100, 300 and 500 µg/ml) by superoxide free radical scavenging activity and DPPH free radical scavenging method. All these antioxidant activities were concentration dependent which were compared with standard antioxidants such as BHA and ascorbic acid. The antimicrobial activity was studied using the agar well diffusion method. Extract of Madhuca indica at concentration of 100mg/ml was found to be most effective against Staphylococcus aureus followed by Bacillus subtilis whereas in case of Gram negative bacteria, extract was found to be most effective against Escherichia coli followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The ethanolic extract of M. indica did not showed any activity against C. albicans.
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Free Radical Scavenging Potential of Acrostichumaureum L., Leaves

Free Radical Scavenging Potential of Acrostichumaureum L., Leaves

Acrostichumaureum L. is a medicinal fern collected from Puthalam, Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India. This plants leaf is used by the local people for curing pharyngitis, chest pain and diabetics. Hence, in the present study, we evaluates the in vitro radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity of different concentrations of (20µg/ml, 100µg/ml, 200µg/ml, 400µg/ml, 800µg/ml) petroleum ether, benzene, ethyl acetate, ethanol and methanol extracts of the A. aureum leaves by using different in vitro analytical methodologies such as DPPH free radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, ABTS radical scavenging and total reducing ability methods. Ascorbic acid and trolox were used as the reference antioxidant radical scavenger compounds. In the present investigation, the antioxidant activity is increases with the increase in the concentration of the extracts. These analysis suggests that A. aureum(fern) leaves contains potentially health-protective phytochemical compounds with a potent source of natural antioxidant that can be used against free radical associated oxidative damage.
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FRUITS OF SCINDAPSUS OFFICINALIS ATTENUATES PYLORUS LIGATION INDUCED ULCER IN RATS

FRUITS OF SCINDAPSUS OFFICINALIS ATTENUATES PYLORUS LIGATION INDUCED ULCER IN RATS

The antioxidant activity of HAESO fruits was investigated using total antioxidant activity capacity, DPPH free radical scavenging assay, and NO scavenging assay. The free radical DPPH possesses a characteristic absorption at 517 nm. The radical scavengers cause reduction of DPPH by providing proton, which is indicated by color change (from purple to yellow) and a decrease in its absorption. The HAESO proved to be almost equivalent in offering protection against DPPH free radicals as compared to the standard ascorbic acid. NO, and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) have been reported to be involved in the oxidative cellular damage 29 . The major reactive species of NO are nitrous anhydride (N 2 O 3 ) and peroxynitrite
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“A Comprehensive and Comparative Study of Anti-Oxidant Efficacy of Different Extracts of Ionidium Suffruticosum by Mutiple In-Vitro Antioxidant Assays” by Sasikumar .S, Kalavathy Ponniraivan, India.

“A Comprehensive and Comparative Study of Anti-Oxidant Efficacy of Different Extracts of Ionidium Suffruticosum by Mutiple In-Vitro Antioxidant Assays” by Sasikumar .S, Kalavathy Ponniraivan, India.

Oxidative stress (OS) caused by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in course of biological activity results in various detrimental effect to the viability of the cell. To counter this effect antioxidants defense mechanisms exist. An imbalance between these necessitates extraneous antioxidant supplementation. Ionidum suffruticosum has been in use in traditional medicine mainly as aphrodisiac among various divergent uses. The plant was subjected to cold extraction method with ethanol, chloroform and aqueous solvents. Ascorbic acid was used as control. The efficacy of this plant as an antioxidant has been analyzed by DPPH free radical scavenging, ABTS free radical scavenging, ferric reducing power assay, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. Interpretation of IC 50 values showed maximum efficacy in DPPH assay
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Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science

Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science

The plant Hyptis is an effective medicinal herb and a well known medicinal plant in herbal world. The present study was aimed to investigate the α-amylase inhibition and antioxidant activities of chloroform fraction of H. suaveolens. Chloroform fraction of H. suaveolens was screened for α-amylase inhibition activity by 3, 5- dinitrosalicylic acid (DNSA) method respectively. and antioxidant activity was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2- picryl-hydrazile (DPPH) free radical scavenging, Super oxide radical Scavenging, nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging, and 2.2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazole-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assays. The chloroform fraction of H. suaveolens showed effective α-amylase inhibition activity (IC 50 57.34µg/ml).
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Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science

Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science

The present study was undertaken to determine antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of leaf and flower extracts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Delonix regia and Peltaphorum ferrugineum. Antimicrobial activity was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans by Agar well diffusion assay. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH free radical scavenging assay, ABTS free radical scavenging assay, Ferric reducing assay and Total antioxidant capacity determination. Total phenolic content of extracts was estimated by Folin-Ciocalteau Reagent method. S. typhi and C. neoformans were susceptible to extracts to greater extent than S. aureus and C. albicans among bacteria and fungi respectively. Except C. pulcherrima extract, the leaf extracts were more effective in inhibiting bacteria than flower extracts. Leaf extracts have shown high antifungal activity than flower extracts. The extracts have shown dose dependent scavenging of DPPH and ABTS radicals. Scavenging of ABTS radicals was more efficient than that of DPPH radicals as revealed by low IC50 values. All leaf extracts except C. pulcherrima displayed stronger scavenging activities than flower extracts. Similar results were observed in ferric reducing assay and total antioxidant capacity determination. Total phenolic content was found to be higher in leaf extracts (except C. pulcherrima) than flower extracts. A correlation has been observed between phenolic content of leaf and flower extracts and the antioxidant activity. A marked antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of leaf and flower extracts was observed which may be attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds and other phytochemicals. The plants can be used to control infectious diseases and oxidative damage.
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Free Radical Scavenging Potential of Acrostichumaureum L., Leaves

Free Radical Scavenging Potential of Acrostichumaureum L., Leaves

Acrostichumaureum L. is a medicinal fern collected from Puthalam, Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India. This plants leaf is used by the local people for curing pharyngitis, chest pain and diabetics. Hence, in the present study, we evaluates the in vitro radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity of different concentrations of (20µg/ml, 100µg/ml, 200µg/ml, 400µg/ml, 800µg/ml) petroleum ether, benzene, ethyl acetate, ethanol and methanol extracts of the A. aureum leaves by using different in vitro analytical methodologies such as DPPH free radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, ABTS radical scavenging and total reducing ability methods. Ascorbic acid and trolox were used as the reference antioxidant radical scavenger compounds. In the present investigation, the antioxidant activity is increases with the increase in the concentration of the extracts. These analysis suggests that A. aureum(fern) leaves contains potentially health-protective phytochemical compounds with a potent source of natural antioxidant that can be used against free radical associated oxidative damage.
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In Vitro Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activities of the Leaf Ethanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Asteracantha Longifolia and Andrographis Paniculata Against Lead Acetate Induced Toxicity

In Vitro Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activities of the Leaf Ethanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Asteracantha Longifolia and Andrographis Paniculata Against Lead Acetate Induced Toxicity

The aqueous and ethanolic extract of Asteracantha longifolia and Andrographis paniculata were subjected to screening for their possible antioxidant activity. The complementar y test systems namely DPPH free radical scavenging, FRAP, β - Carotene linoleic acid system, Nitric oxide radical scavenging, Hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging system, Hydroxyl radical scavenging systems and superoxide anion scavenging system were used for the analysis of the antioxidant capacity of the aqueous and ethanolic extract extracts of Asteracantha longifolia and Andrographis paniculata have potent antioxidant effects against ROS and have the capability to induce the invitro antioxidant systems. The results are tabulated in Table 1.
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IN VITRO TRANSPORT EVALUATION OF GARCINIA MANGOSTANA L  PERICARP EXTRACT LOADED CREAM AND GEL

IN VITRO TRANSPORT EVALUATION OF GARCINIA MANGOSTANA L PERICARP EXTRACT LOADED CREAM AND GEL

These activities have been evaluated based on various methods such as radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, and lipid peroxidation inhibition. The chemical constituents of GMP extract responsible for antioxidant and radical scavenging activity were complex phenolic compounds identified as flavonoids, tannin, and xanthones with the mangostins being the major constituent 5 . Even though GMP extract possesses antioxidant activity, which is potentially useful for topical antioxidant skin treatment, only little is known for GMP extract skin penetration data. Tachaprutinum et al., 6 evaluated porcine ear skin penetration of GMP extract in particulate and free form loaded in cream or water vehicle. They reported that GMP extract loaded cream had superior penetration into hair follicle as well as in the stratum corneum compared to that of GMP extract in a water vehicle. The choice of the vehicle was seen to influence GMP extract skin penetration depth. Despite this potential skin penetration ability of GMP extract, to our knowledge, there is only limited data known on skin penetration GMP extract evaluated based on free radical scavenging activity which is important for its topical antioxidant formulation development. This research aimed to study the influence of formulation types on the in-vitro skin transport of GMP extract evaluated by stable radical DPPH scavenging activity which was then expressed as radical scavenging activity equivalent GMP extract concentration (RSGMPE).
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IN-VITRO ANTIOXIDANT STUDIES AND TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ALTERNANTHERA SESSILIS LINN. AERIAL PARTSAshok Kumar D, Mrinmay Das*, Mastanaiah. KDOWNLOAD/VIEW

IN-VITRO ANTIOXIDANT STUDIES AND TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ALTERNANTHERA SESSILIS LINN. AERIAL PARTSAshok Kumar D, Mrinmay Das*, Mastanaiah. KDOWNLOAD/VIEW

Free radicals are implicated for many diseases including diabetes mellitus, arthritis, cancer, ageing etc. In the treatment of these diseases, antioxidant therapy has gained utmost importance. Ethanolic extract of Alternanthera sessilis (EEAS) was studied for its in vitro antioxidant activity using different models viz. Free radical scavenging activity assay (DPPH method), Reducing power assay, Nitric oxide scavenging activity, Superoxide radical scavenging activity and Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. Total phenolic content was determined by using Pyrocatechol as a standard. The results were analyzed statistically by the regression method. Its antioxidant activity was estimated by IC 50 value and the values are 74.05 ± 1.44 μg/ml (Superoxide radical scavenging), 31.50 ± 1.04
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Synthesis, antibacterial, and antioxidant studies of 7-amino-3-(4-fluorobenzoyl)indolizine-1-carboxylate derivatives

Synthesis, antibacterial, and antioxidant studies of 7-amino-3-(4-fluorobenzoyl)indolizine-1-carboxylate derivatives

The stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazide radical (DPPH) was used for determining free radical scavenging activity. Different concentations compounds were added at an equal volume to the silution of DPPH (500 µl). After the sample preparation, keep the sample for 20 minutes and the absorbance was recorded at 517 nm at room temperature, using Ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometer. The experiment was repeated thrice. Ascorbic acid was used as standard control (Koleva et al., 2002).

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In Vitro Antioxidant Properties of  Phloretin—An Important Phytocompound

In Vitro Antioxidant Properties of Phloretin—An Important Phytocompound

Reactive oxygen species [ROS] cause oxidative damage to the tissues and protection from such damages is provided by endogenous and exogenous antioxidants. Much research work has been carried out in recent years on the beneficial effect of phenolic compounds which act as natural an- tioxidants and help to neutralize free radicals. So, this study was aimed to evaluate the in vitro an- tioxidant capacity of one of the phenolic compounds phloretin. Phloretin was used at four differ- ent concentrations like 20, 40, 60 and 80 µg/ml to determine the antioxidant activity by different methods such as total antioxidant capacity, reducing power, DPPH radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging and metal chelating assays. In addition to that the ascorbic acid was used as reference compound. The results showed that the phloretin displayed potent in vitro antioxi- dant capacity. It was able to scavenge different in vitro free radicals in all tested concentrations. Among the different concentrations, 80 µg of phloretin has maximum activity when compared to other concentrations in all in vitro antioxidant assays. High antioxidant property and maximum protective effect of phloretin were observed in a concentration dependent manner. The results were expressed as IC 50 value. The lowest IC 50 value indicates the highest scavenging activity. The
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Chemical composition and antioxidant capacities of phytococktail extracts from trans Himalayan cold desert

Chemical composition and antioxidant capacities of phytococktail extracts from trans Himalayan cold desert

Progression of a large number of common chronic dis- eases is induced by free radical-mediated oxidative dam- age and a lot of health benefits are attributed to the utilization of fruits and vegetables in our diet due to their strong antioxidant capacities. A wide variety of bio- logically active phytochemicals such as polyphenols, flavo- noids, alkaloids, terpenoids, carotenoids etc. are derived from plant foods and natural products which have promis- ing health benefits. These diverse phytocompounds have protective effects against chronic diseases while acting in combination rather than individually [47]. In recent times, the antioxidant content has become an essential biochem- ical marker of plant product quality. The antioxidant cap- acity resulting from hydrophilic or lipophilic compounds individually has been estimated in plant foods. In the present work, we have performed the widely used and well recognized antioxidant capacity assays that have positive influence and applications in biological antioxidant re- search. The DPPH radical scavenging assay is a simple and precise method to measure the antioxidant capacity of plant extracts where the DPPH radical is used as a stable free radical to determine the antioxidant capacity of natural compounds. In our study, the DPPH radical scav- enging capacity of the phytococktail extracts was found to increase in a dose dependent manner. The phytococktail extracts at the used concentrations displayed potential free radicals scavenging effect (Table 1). A higher DPPH rad- ical scavenging capacity is associated with a lower RSa 50
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