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Pray in Early Modern English drama

Pray in Early Modern English drama

The fact that pray is primarily used by the upper ranks also relates to the observation that it exclusively co-occurs with requests in the Drama Corpus. As mentioned in Section 2, Culpeper and Archer (2008, 74) indicate that the scarcity of support moves such as pray in their Early Modern English request data underlines the power structure, because of a perceived lack of a need for politeness or mitigation (based on assumed rights and obligations associated with social position and power). Our study does not extend to unsupported requests, which would be more of a direct reflection of the power differential, since it is limited to mitigated requests including pray forms. Nevertheless, it is likely that higher-ranking characters would have had more opportunities to make requests (whether mitigated or not), because of their position at the top of the hierarchical structure. Therefore, pray, despite its hedging effect, can be seen as a sign of the highest ranks’ power over the lower ranks. What is interesting about our data is the fact that all these characters of high social rank use a polite marker in contexts where their high status does not seem to oblige them to do so. We noted earlier in Section 2 that, in dramatic dialogue, such choices are of course imposed by the dramatists in constructing characters in particular ways. It is possible that this is a somewhat idealised or stereotyped representation of the language of polite upper class people (whose patronage of the plays would have been important to the dramatists).
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Appropriations of Irish drama by modern Korean nationalist theatre : a focus on the influence of Sean O’Casey in a colonial context

Appropriations of Irish drama by modern Korean nationalist theatre : a focus on the influence of Sean O’Casey in a colonial context

The modern Korean theatre movement was launched in 1921 when a small group of college students in Tokyo organised a theatrical troupe and started performances throughout Korea. The group comprised the members of the Geukyesul Hyeophoe (Theatre Arts Association), an association that had been organised in 1920 by Korean students at Japanese universities, including Gim U-jin, Hong Hae-seong and Jo Myeong-hui, to study classical and modern Western drama. This group organised the Donguhoe Theatrical Troupe and came to launch a tour of Korea to arouse the Korean people through theatre (Yi M. 1994: 150). 33 Their repertoire included two original Korean plays and one Irish play: Jo Myeong-hui's Gim Yeong-il ui Sa (The Death of Gim Yeong-il) (3 acts), Hong Nan-pa’s Choehu ui Aksu (The Last Handshake) (2 acts), and Lord Dunsany's The Glittering Gate (1 act). 34 Gim Yeong-il ui Sa was Jo Myeong-hui’s first modern play, which he created in 1920 for the Korean tour. 35 Gim Yeong-il ui Sa, a three-act tragedy, dealt with the poverty, ideological conflicts, and nationalistic movement that students in Japan had to deal with at that time. Gim Yeong-il, a poor self-supporting student in Tokyo, finds a purse on the street and, after much internal debate, returns it to its owner Jeon Seok-won, a rich student. Later Gim Yeong-il receives a telegram telling of his mother’s serious condition and asks Jeon to help with the travelling expenses to his home town. When Jeon refuses to offer enough help, a fight takes place between Jeon and Gim’s friends. When the police come to stop them, seditious documents are
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De-Mythologisation - path towards the Hidden Truth in Albanian Modern Drama

De-Mythologisation - path towards the Hidden Truth in Albanian Modern Drama

By camouflaging the author own voice through the voice of the Sourer of Rooster Inn, Bekir Musliu explains indirectly the purpose or, expressed in a more direct way, the access to material that is the subject of mythological drama: "the Anger of the artistic body also reaches the highest point - explains he in the [didaskalitë] of the drama – thus two scenes are faced into two categories of the meaning of myth and legend Halil Garris from its inception to its modernization of the visual and transformation in terms of the requirements of this theatres’ game which, obviously, is the Sourer of Rooster Inn. Mythology is closely related to the rite and ritual. In his work "Tales of identity", the theorist and the representative of the critic mythical-symbolist literature Northop Fray argues the presence of archetypes in the works of different authors in different periods that provide recycling invariant unlikely literary character of a class or ways for the perception of dramatic situations. Since the rite, according to him, is a sequence of temporary acts with a certain sense, contrary, is exactly the myth that transforms into an archetypal rite of human behavior and attitude towards this or that object with which it comes into interactive relationships. Myth comes sometimes as an original way of telling the dramatic work, mainly in the structuring of the subject, while the rite and the archetype help in exposing the significance of this story. Hence, beyond the concrete analysis of the plays, we come to the view that favorite characters in modern Albanian drama of Kosovo authors, there are the heroes of the Albanian cultural anthropology calendar that often come out of the early tales and legends, the "Epic of the heroes ", without excluding, of course, other human figures that constitute the biblical and Koranic myths.
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Fairies in Early Modern English Drama:  Fictionality and Theatrical Landscapes, 1575 1615

Fairies in Early Modern English Drama: Fictionality and Theatrical Landscapes, 1575 1615

The same competing representations can be seen in the account of the entertainment at Woodstock. The documentation that survives of the Woodstock entertainment derives from various sources, the most important of these sources is an anonymous pamphlet printed in 1585 for the bookseller Thomas Cadman. 177 This is, however, only one eye-witness account and the complex relationship between the fairy figure and its place in the conflation of primary and secondary universes is demonstrative of the nature of early modern English drama as a collective enterprise. Edward Dyer had the keepership of Woodstock manor since 1570, and is known to have written at least one of the lyrics to the songs performed in the entertainment. 178 Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, and Sir Henry Lee also assisted in directing and planning the entertainments. Although Lee was an established writer, and was clearly a favorite of the queen, 179 it was George Gascoigne, not Lee, who produced the manuscript of the entertainment at Elizabeth’s request and translated it into Latin, Italian, and French. The elaborate frontispiece depicts Gascoigne, in armor kneeling before the queen and presenting the manuscript to her. 180 In both the entertainments themselves, and the textual reproductions of them, fictionalizing the desired relationship between Elizabeth and her courtiers was a means of achieving actual
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Corporeal Returns: Theatrical Embodiment and Spectator Response in Early Modern Drama

Corporeal Returns: Theatrical Embodiment and Spectator Response in Early Modern Drama

Renaissance audiences and early modern body studies. These I draw upon to address the underexplored issue of how the intrinsic duality of theatrical performance (as comprised of actor/characters and actual/imagined spaces) might have structured for early modern spectators a particular experience of the body in peril. Critics working in various areas of Renaissance drama studies have long recognized that early modern dramatists are fond of reminding their spectators of the process of theatrical illusion- making. However, sustained analyses of metatheatre in Renaissance drama have neglected violent plays, or violent moments in plays, in favour of instances where the reminders to spectators that they are watching a play are more insistent or overt, as in, for example, theatrum mundi metaphors, or disguise and cross-dressing motifs which call attention to the distinction between the actor and the character he embodies 2 . This actor/character distinction, I show, is seminal to audience engagements with all genres of plays. Although scenes of corporeal violation do not tend towards the same kind of obvious metatheatrical commentaries upon the drama which is unfolding—and perhaps this is why violent moments are passed over more often than not in discussions of metatheatre—the spectator’s recognition of theatricality itself is crucial to how the performing body signifies under duress. The awareness of the theatre as a performance venue, and of the actors as representational vehicles structures spectators’ responses to corporeal trauma in such a way as to make violence and its consumption appealing, desirable, and even empowering. As assessments like those cited at the outset of this
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Are Fictional Voices Distinguishable? Classifying Character Voices in Modern Drama

Are Fictional Voices Distinguishable? Classifying Character Voices in Modern Drama

We propose new techniques for classifying char- acter speech in the works of seven modern drama- tists. We show that SAGE models achieve the highest classification scores. Our results suggest that, in many dramatic works, characters are dis- tinguishable with relatively high precision; that certain playwrights are better able to create dis- tinctive character voices; and that these play- wrights tend to be more canonical. Given the small size and restricted domain of our dataset, we treat these results are preliminary. Further investigation with a wider range of authors and genres, includ- ing novels, would aid us in drawing more decisive conclusions.
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Guest Editors' Introduction: (Re)constructed Spaces for Early Modern Drama: Research in Practice

Guest Editors' Introduction: (Re)constructed Spaces for Early Modern Drama: Research in Practice

This special issue concerns the joining and intertwining of practice and research in early drama. Undertaking such work brings us to a complicated intersection of disciplines and traditions, concerned variously with literary analysis, performance strategies, the materiality of space, and fleeting encounters with the past, which allow us to tell the story of the medieval and early modern stage. This special issue questions the nature of the relationship between practice and research, and asks how, between the gaps and the unknowns and the contradictions of surviving evidence, as well as the temporal distance between moderns and our forebears, the act of doing and making in the present enables us to develop informed understandings of the past. The essays presented here attempt to tease out such questions. As editors we did not wish to impose a single framework for engaging in this kind of work, but rather to bring together discussions of projects that investigate common problems across a wider range of periods and geography than is often the case. Thus we hope that what follows offers readers the chance to compare similarities and differences in methodology and interpretations, and explore the kinds of questions and claims practice-as-research (hereafter PaR) can ask and make about early drama.
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BRECHT'S EPIC THEATRE AS A MODERN AVANT-GARDE AND ITS INFLUENCE ON POSTMODERN THEATRE/DRAMA

BRECHT'S EPIC THEATRE AS A MODERN AVANT-GARDE AND ITS INFLUENCE ON POSTMODERN THEATRE/DRAMA

of the text the way modern directors might think. It is a conscious “political choice” to convey an idea to the audience. For example, a director might cast a red-haired white man as the husband of a black woman, and they have a blond son. With such a choice the performance politically says “in theatre race doesn’t matter”. With such choices theatre is “forcing on to the audience an ever greater awareness that the event on stage is theatre and not natural occurrence” (Szanto, 1978, p. 172). The consequence of devaluating the text is that there might not be any lasting plays in the future. Since the playwright is not “the initiator” of the theatre performance, a play might only serve a single theatre performance and then disappear. “As history moves toward such a theatre, there may well be valuable dramatic experiences even if there are no lasting plays” (172). It may be one of the directions of postmodern theatre.
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Absurdism in Modern Drama: Examining the Role of Setting in Revealing the Theme with Reference to Samuel Beckett’s Play Endgame

Absurdism in Modern Drama: Examining the Role of Setting in Revealing the Theme with Reference to Samuel Beckett’s Play Endgame

The characters, the theatrical props and the stage as a homely place show that man is thrown into a state of waiting. The place has its own impacts of character and action. For instance, the room in which the action takes place consists of two high windows which are the only means to let them look at the outside world. Because they are high, it requires Clove to use a ladder each time he is ordered by Hamm to explore the world. Each time he sees it he replies to Hamm’s question about its howness that it is still as the same as it was before. The high windows and the ladder cause too much torment to Clove’s calamity since he is crippled in one of his legs. The little room, the ashbins and the ladder are structural in so far as they play a great role in this drama. Whose functions is to direct the characters to certain actions: Hamm is to give orders to Clove to look through the windows to learn about the outside world; Clove has to use the ladder so that he can attain the glass of the window and see the surrounding environment; he has also to uncover the ashbins whenever Hamm wants to talk to his crippled parents, and to cover them when required. It is a place in which particular human beings are living a miserable life. The play can be subject to many interpretations. The main one is that human sufferings are endless in this world that projects the life of m and as being futile. According to Shalghin, critics give many interpretations to Beckett’s plays which may stand counter to one another. He says (Shalghin, p. 103):
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When I am in game, I am furious: gaming and sexual conquest in early modern English drama

When I am in game, I am furious: gaming and sexual conquest in early modern English drama

We Couple at Games: Masculine Sexuality in the Tragedies of Thomas Middleton To examine the relationship between the Renaissance male and contemporary attitudes towards heterosexual congress is to not only reiterate and extend the early modern anxiety over the impermanence of masculinity, but additionally to highlight the critical importance played by conquest in guarding one‟s masculine essence against corruption. The cultural belief that masculinity was the natural result of the stable foundation of a divinely ordered English hierarchy made it critical that masculinity be maintained in a manner consistent with such a patriarchal system, as exampled by the household, where the male head could fashion it in his own masculine image and judge it according to its stability. An inescapable part of proving oneself a leader of a household was populating such a dwelling with heirs so as to ensure the succession of one‟s family, necessitating that a man choose a wife and perform his marital and procreative duties with a degree of regularity. Yet, this most critical of duties was fraught with peril, opening the male to both the inherently damaging influence of the lustful and indulgent woman and the risk of becoming lustfully effeminate himself. His barrier against such an outcome was his masculine sense of aggressive conquest, expressed through the language and imagery used to describe sexual coupling as well as his performance of the act, to be viewed and performed as a triumph of the man over the forces of effeminacy. The use of games and gaming that prioritised conquest above all else was one such method by which the male could display his capacity for aggressive masculinity and therefore protect himself against the potentially effeminising influence of sexual congress. The flip-side to such an outcome, of course, was that the man who was unable to conquer another in the scope of games would likewise fail in avoiding the debasement of femininity.
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‘The hot house of decadent chronicle’: Michael Field and the dance of modern verse drama

‘The hot house of decadent chronicle’: Michael Field and the dance of modern verse drama

On their return to London, the women got some good news: Elkin Matthews had taken up Attila, My Attila! But when later in the year the play came out, the reviews were bad. Of the Daily Chronicle’s review, in particular, Cooper would talk of ‘defamation.’ 21 The Chronicle described the play as an ‘excursus against chastity, obviously written by the most harmless and well-behaved of ladies.’ 22 In the wake of the Oscar Wilde’s trials, the reviewer used the play to launch a personal attack on the very nature of Michael Field (and on the modernity of New Woman literature): ‘We do not seek to know what personality is veiled under the pseudonym of “Michael Field”, but it is most manifest that it is not that of a man, nor even that of a storm-tossed or passionate woman.’ ‘The writer’s foremost interest’, it went on, ‘is in the cult of the Elizabethan drama. Behind this, but a long way behind, comes a curious remote desire of such modernity as burgeons and blossoms in the immortal pages of Mr. Grant Allen.’ The play was ‘a Byzantine corruption’ yet written by someone with no knowledge of sex: ‘As for the lusts of empresses and the lechery of the Calmucks […] a schoolgirl would know as much about them’. The reviewer laughed at the plot, the characters and the play’s intellectual links to New Woman literature (‘the world of literature is nearly
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THE SIGNIFICANCE OF ABSENTEE CHARACTERSIN SELECTED MODERN DRAMA

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF ABSENTEE CHARACTERSIN SELECTED MODERN DRAMA

American playwright Tennessee Williams received the Pulitzer Prize for Drama in 1948, for his work ‘A Street Car Named Desire’ written in 1947.The play has one major absentee character that is Blanche Dubois‟s dead husband. The minor absentee character is Mitch‟s old and dying mother as well as the 17 year old school boy whom Blanche kissed and that was the reason she was thrown out of the job. The protagonist of the play ‘A Streetcar Named Desire’ is Blanche DuBois, thus, the theme of the drama revolves around her directly. Her tragedy is between the two worlds –the world of the past and the world of the present. Her tragedy starts with the death of her young husband, who committed suicide. She moved to her only sister after losing everything that she has had. She moved to New Orleans, on Elysian Fields Avenue; the local transportation that she takes to arrive there includes a streetcar route named “Desire”.Blanche‟s pathetic attempt to find love through sexual affairs with casual acquaintances has only made her situation worse. The attraction for the young boy with whom she had an affair and that cost her school job and she came to road. In the second attempt she kissed the young man who comes to the apartment for newspaper money-this all is her love for her young husband. Her love for her young husband she sees in other young boys. Due to the death of her husband she is restless and unable to find her own niche.Mitch is would be suitor to Blanche. He is lonely too. He only has his mother and he is shortly to lose her.
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Turning to Food: Religious Contact and Conversion in Early Modern Drama

Turning to Food: Religious Contact and Conversion in Early Modern Drama

The issue of the foreigners’ presence in early modern England is dealt with also in Robert Wilson’s highly allegorical play The Three Ladies of London (c.1580s), in which the vice characters, significantly, are all immigrants. Kermode argues that the death of the character Hospitality indicates the destruction of London since Hospitality is an embodiment of Christian London (65). 16 In fact, it is Usury (who is tellingly of Jewish descent) who murders Hospitality, and this murder implies that the destruction of London is caused by foreign economics infiltrating London. Furthermore, Hospitality’s rejection of any strangers to dinner, Kermode argues, “strongly suggests the rejection of any aliens from the table” as well as it “suggests the rejection of any influence that may bring corruption to the hospitable house” (65). Hospitality, by its very nature, is an act that necessarily involves receiving or bringing in others (in order to eat, or find lodging). Here, I contend, Hospitality is like the humoral body and the uninvited strangers are like the foreign or foul food particles that, when ingested – or invited – would corrupt the hospitable body. It cannot be a coincidence that the threatened and eventual death of Hospitality – the conversion of a purely Christian (Protestant) London to a heterogeneous city – is figured in terms of food /eating. I will return to this play in more detail in my second chapter where I discuss notions of English hospitality and its complications when forced to deal with religious others.
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                        Lennart Green and the Modern Drama of Sleight of Hand

Article Lennart Green and the Modern Drama of Sleight of Hand

It is worth remembering that one of the essential texts on card magic from the turn of the century, S. W. Erdnase's Artifice Ruse and Subterfuge at the Card Table: A Treatise on the Science and Art of Manipulating Cards (1902), devoted two thirds of its pages to methods for cheating at cards for money. The book details a long series of sleights which could be used by magicians and cheats alike. On the subject of crime, Erdnase takes an amoral stance, and makes no secret of the fact that his insights were learned in ‘the cold school of experience’ (1902, p. 14). The author - who wrote under a pseudonym - had no reputation to preserve. Within the modern tradition I have been discussing, however, the subject of crime was more often an opportunity for the gentleman conjuror to moralise and demonstrate his integrity. Robert-Houdin is a case in point. The stated aim of his Card-Sharpers: Their Tricks Exposed or The Art of Always Winning (1891), was to prevent cheats from exploiting the well-to-do public: ‘I have myself an excellent opinion of the respectable classes, and hope that the reading of my book will inspire no thought beyond that of guarding themselves against the tricks of sharpers’ (1891, p. vi).
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Trafficking Women: Interest, Desire, and Early Modern English Drama

Trafficking Women: Interest, Desire, and Early Modern English Drama

Shakespeare's Hamlet (1603/1604) and All's Well That Ends Well(1623), Christopher Marlowe and Thomas Nashe's Dido, Queen of Carthage (1594), and the anonymous Arden of Faversham (1592) — deliberately pursue relationships with men and other women to bring themselves financial and social benefit. In attending to the ways in which women are imagined to befriend, love, or lust after men and women, I focus on how women achieve and seek to achieve those affective aims, noting the key role that money and class play in enabling women to get what they want. What these women want, I argue, has not always fit comfortably with what certain strands of feminist criticism have wanted women to want. In particular, analysis guided by tenets of cultural feminism, which tends to read women as driven by desires to form close interpersonal relationships marked by egalitarianism and warmth, has stopped us from seeing these women as fully rational and has shifted attention away from the economic and political underpinnings of their affective ties. In my analysis of Hamlet and Dido, for example, I break from a tradition that has framed discussions of female rulers in terms of the queen's private feelings rather than public concerns, highlighting the ways in which both Gertrude and Dido exert not just sexual but also political agency. While gender is my primary category of analysis, this dissertation attests to the ways in which social class presents an equally if not more powerful force in structuring imaginative possibilities for the men and women of the Elizabethan and Jacobean stage. This is particularly clear in drama that depicts the middle-class domicile and its master, mistress and servant
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Setting as a Emblematic Vehicle for Verbalization of Health and Family Planning Messages: A Case Study of Siri: A Kenyan Serial TV Drama

Setting as a Emblematic Vehicle for Verbalization of Health and Family Planning Messages: A Case Study of Siri: A Kenyan Serial TV Drama

Through modernism, materialism has taken hold on worship in both traditional African religion and modern churches. Consequently, the sacred has been subjected to an object of ridicule, while days of worship like Sundays are now “mere market days for hawking, buying and receiving of religious goods.” The outcome of this trend is the negligence of universal religious values that actually promote ethical values, sound reasoning and moral conducts in communities. Thus, genuine pastoral guidance and peaceful co-existence of the laity and the priestly have given way to dangerous embrace of materialism by the two groups. Hence, spiritual degeneration and the failure of religion to serve as the moral voice of the society remain major causes of retrogression in moral, ethical and social standards among the citizenry. The mode of worship in the society negates Emile Durkheim’s argument which states that the function of religious ritual is to maintain social solidarity by affirming the moral superiority of the society. Rather according to Karl Marx; religious leaders have made religion the opium of the people and use it as a negative instrument of social control and exploitation. Through bigotry and commodification atrocities are being committed in the name of religion among religious leaders and the faithful. Religious leaders and the faithful freely indulge in violation of religious tenets partly because there is no regard for the sacred anymore. Consequently, horrible acts ranging from terrorism, raping, killing, stealing and assaults are carried out in the name of religion. Victims of these religious businessmen are abused and treated in most heinous manners psychologically, physically, economically and emotionally. To this effect Marx outlines a society where the individual reconciles with the society, rather than depend on a religion that is commodified. Marx proposes a community of free individuals devoid of religious bigotry, fanaticism and commodification. According to Torn Halves, there are two aspects to this kind of community. He states;
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A REVIEW ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF ARABIC DRAMA LITERATURE

A REVIEW ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF ARABIC DRAMA LITERATURE

The lot of the Palestinian literary community, which reflected the turmoil that affected the larger community throughout the second half of the 20th century, was such that the promotion of a dramatic tradition proved extremely difficult and often impossible. However, there were plays that reflected the trials and conflicts that were part of daily life, such as Muīn Basīsū’s Thawrat al-Zanj (1970; “The Zanj Revolt”) and the poet Samīh ̣ al-Qāsim’s Qaraqāsh (1970). The tightly controlled circumstances in which the Palestinians lived their lives also led to the appearance of one of the most interesting and creative theatre troupes in the Middle East , the Ḥakawātī troupe (named for the ḥakawātī, or traditional storyteller), which emerged from an earlier group known as Al - Balālīn (“Balloons”). An itinerant troupe established in 1977, Ḥakawātī toured villages and performed its own plays in a variety of public spaces through the turn of the 21 st century. Tunisia and Morocco provide some of the best examples of a thriving theatre tradition. The Tunisian writer Izz al-Dīn al-Madanī, one of the most fruitful contributors to the history of modern Arabic drama during the 20th century, composed a series of plays that were both experimental and popular; they included Thawrat ṣāh ̣ib al-ḥimār (1971; “The Donkey Owner’s Revolt”) and Dīwān al-Zanj (1973; “The Zanj Collection”).
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Languages of theatre shaped by women

Languages of theatre shaped by women

The conventional wisdom promoted by theatre historians from Chambers to Wickham was that the origins of modern western drama can be traced to the Quem quaeritis trope of the Easter Mass, which used four priests and the altar to re-enact mimetically – albeit in rudimentary form – the encounter between the three Marys and the angel at Christ’s tomb after the crucifixion. In four meticulously researched and rigorously argued chapters – what he calls ‘fragments’ – Kobialka deconstructs this evolutionary approach. He does so by showing how representation in the early Middle Ages has little to do with a mimetic attempt to stage Christ’s passion, but, on the contrary, is bound up with anxieties about how Christ’s body, the body that disappeared during the resurrection, could be best performed and thus made visible.
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Eclecticism in the Plays of Girish Karnad

Eclecticism in the Plays of Girish Karnad

in Sirsi, a small village in Karnataka. At that time there were two theatre forms going on in Sirsi. One was Natak Company performance and the other Yakshagana. Natak Company performance was the offshoot of the Parsi theatre. Karnad‘s parents considered Yakshagana performance inferior to their taste, yet Karnad used to go to see such performances with his family servants. Karnad was deeply influenced by the technical aspects of these two types of performances. Karnad went through diverse influences during his formative years. He had three distinct dramatic traditions ̶ classical Sanskrit, regional or folk theatre and Western theatre to learn and experiment various new theatrical techniques. Karnad is a great contributor to the development of Indian drama. He has taken Indian drama to a new height by employing new trends of modern theatre. Karnad‘s approach to drama is modern and eclectic in terms of plot construction and exploration of technical aspects of drama. He has taken plots of his plays from Indian myths, legends and history. However, he has made it almost new and unique by interpreting them in modern perspectives.
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Telling It Through A Mask: The Mask of Vrita in Girish Karnad’s The Fire and the Rain.

Telling It Through A Mask: The Mask of Vrita in Girish Karnad’s The Fire and the Rain.

It clearly acknowledges the importance of stage property that constitutes the dramatic spectacle in any representation. The mask, if we consider the classical as well as the popular performance genres of India, is one of the powerful stage properties that constitute the ‘preksa’ or the ‘spectacle’. However, in modern Indian drama that has witnessed experimentation at every possible level, ranging from subject matter to form, from the thematic to the theatric, the mask becomes an interesting stage devise that not only adds an element of ornamentation to the stage but also carries subtle political and psychological bearings that are otherwise difficult to project through the actor’s bare face. Quoting Peter Brook in The Empty Space, Karnad says that unlike modern western drama where the ‘mask is used only as a contrast to the actual face… in Indian traditional theatre, as in the Greek, the mask
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