Drug Courts

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Drug Courts Effects on Criminal Offending for Juveniles and Adults

Drug Courts Effects on Criminal Offending for Juveniles and Adults

Most recently, Wilson, Mitchell, and MacKenzie (2006) synthesized the findings of 55 drug court evaluations. These authors tentatively concluded that drug court participants have lower rates of recidivism (drug and non-drug offending) than similar offenders who did not participate in drug courts. These findings held for evaluations that measured recidivism during and after program participation. Like the earlier reviews, these findings were tempered by the generally weak methodological rigor of the evaluations. Taken together, existing reviews of drug court evaluations reveal growing support for the effectiveness of drug courts, especially during the period of program participation. Many questions, however, remain unresolved. First, it is still uncertain whether drug courts’ effects reliably persist beyond the period of program participation. Second, it is unclear whether juvenile drug courts and DWI drug courts are effective in reducing recidivism. Third, and most important, it is unclear which drug court features are associated with greater effectiveness in reducing recidivism. Drug courts differ in approach and structure and these differences may influence effectiveness. Longshore et al. (2001) provide a useful conceptual framework for thinking about variation in drug courts. They
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A Guiding Hand or a Slap on the Wrist: Can Drug Courts be the Solution to Maternal Opioid Use?

A Guiding Hand or a Slap on the Wrist: Can Drug Courts be the Solution to Maternal Opioid Use?

identified or reported until after the birth, jail is inappropriate because treatment is still the primary concern, and the newborn may benefit from interacting with its mother. If states want to protect children and families, keeping the woman with her newborn while providing her treatment may be the best solution. Thus, following the opioid court in Buffalo, women should enter treatment immediately, with the drug courts focusing on health needs rather than punishment. Immediate entry into treatment also avoids the disparate impact that exists in the criminal justice system through bail or bond. 220 Whereas in traditional drug courts, a defendant might not appear
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Drug Courts Are Not the Answer: Toward a Health-Centered Approach to Drug Use

Drug Courts Are Not the Answer: Toward a Health-Centered Approach to Drug Use

A health-centered approach would ensure that drug use or the perceived need for treatment should never be the reason that people enter the criminal justice system, and that the criminal justice system should never be the primary path for people to receive such help. Individuals’ drug problems can be addressed, families and communities preserved, public health and safety improved, and money saved by providing assistance to people not only after but before drug use becomes prob- lematic, before families fall apart, before disease spreads, before crimes are committed and before drug use becomes fatal. While there is no basis in principle or evidence-based policy for bringing people into the criminal justice system (whether to jail or drug courts) solely for a drug possession offense, drug courts may be appropriate for people who have commit- ted other offenses that require accountability, restitution and possibly incarceration. With this in mind, this report includes several relevant findings and recommendations.
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American University s Drug Court. Rediscovering Rehabilitation: Drug Courts, Community Corrections and Restorative Justice DRUG COURTS

American University s Drug Court. Rediscovering Rehabilitation: Drug Courts, Community Corrections and Restorative Justice DRUG COURTS

Prison should be a last resort. When in- mates are released they often lack voca- tional skills, are more distanced than ever from society’s values and have been trained at the ‘‘ultimate crime school.’’ Drug courts, community corrections and restorative jus- tice can provide more meaningful, just and beneficial resolutions for society, victims and offenders. Rediscovering rehabilita- tion is not about being soft on crime; it is about using our economic and human re- sources wisely. 䡲

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JUVENILE DRUG COURTS? 1

JUVENILE DRUG COURTS? 1

Dr Wodak warned, there is a real risk that drug courts might lead to the development of a perverse incentive such that people who come forward to drug treatment services on their own volition are unable to gain admission because voluntary treatment services have been swamped by coerced persons. He said, the very long history of severe under resourcing of alcohol and drug treatment in Australia and other countries suggests that this risk may be close to a certainty. It is also possible, he said, that drug courts might have the unfortunate effect of consolidating Australia’s commitment to law enforcement approaches even though these have proved so expensive, ineffective and counterproductive.
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Know. need to. Research Update on Adult Drug Courts. Effectiveness

Know. need to. Research Update on Adult Drug Courts. Effectiveness

Research clearly demonstrates that judicial status hearings are an indispensible element of Drug Courts (Carey et al., 2008; Festinger et al., 2002; Marlowe et al., 2004a, 2004b, 2006, 2007). The optimal schedule appears to be no less frequently than bi-weekly hearings for at least the first phase (first few months) of the program. Subsequently, the frequency of status hearings can be ratch- eted downward; however, it appears that status hearings should be held at least once per month until participants have achieved a stable period of sobriety and have completed the intensive phases of their treatment regimen.
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Position Paper: Drug Courts in Victoria: evidence & options

Position Paper: Drug Courts in Victoria: evidence & options

The Victorian Drug Court can sentence an individual to a Drug Treatment Order (DTO) for up to two  years. They would also  be simultaneously sentenced to a  custodial  term  of imprisonment  which  is  held in abeyance but can be reactivated if the conditions of the DTO are breached (Magistrates Court  of  Victoria  2013).  The  Drug  Court  details  various  conditions  of  the  DTO  which  includes  providing  samples  for  drug  testing,  reporting  to  the  Court  and  attending  various  treatment  programs.  The  Court  uses  a  number  of  sanctions  or  rewards  depending  on  treatment  engagement  or  behaviour  change. This can result in the participant serving a brief period of incarceration if enough sanctions  have been accrued.  
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Drug Courts and the De Facto Legalization of Drug Use for Participants in Residential Treatment Facilities

Drug Courts and the De Facto Legalization of Drug Use for Participants in Residential Treatment Facilities

Drug court statutes typically provide that a drug court judge will monitor a participant's progression through treatment, returning recalcitrant offenders to criminal court if necessary.[r]

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ST. LOUIS DRUG COURTS

ST. LOUIS DRUG COURTS

defendant’s willingness to sign the necessary forms to participate in the drug court; the defendant’s ability to fully meet all drug court requirements; and any other relevant information. In pre-plea cases, the Assistant Circuit Attorney recommends eligible participants for drug court admission. In post plea cases, the Drug Court Operations Committee determines whether the defendant is eligible for drug court admission. Defendants should wait in the Division 25A courtroom, Room 516 during the admission staffing process. Upon concurrence at the staffing and an offer of admission made to defendant’s counsel, a defendant may voluntarily elect to enter the drug court program. Post Plea participants who receive tentative approval for admission from the Drug Court Operations Committee will be provided a date 30 days in the future to appear in Division 25A for the orientation docket once they have received the permission of the referral judge, entered a plea of guilty, and provided all necessary orders for admission including orders not to report, if applicable. Post Plea participants who face probation violation proceedings must have at least 48 months of time remaining for drug court program supervision.
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Best Practice Assessment and Treatment for Juvenile Drug Courts

Best Practice Assessment and Treatment for Juvenile Drug Courts

Marriage and Family Therapy (MFT) Programs Director, ULM Ouachita & Morehouse Parishes: Models for Change Project. Director.[r]

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Measures of success : capturing the impact of drug courts

Measures of success : capturing the impact of drug courts

Jurisprudence and the Tasmanian Court Mandated Diversion Program' , available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=1992734 National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers 2009 , 'America's Probl[r]

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Family/Dependency Drug Treatment Court Programs. Office of Problem- Solving Courts

Family/Dependency Drug Treatment Court Programs. Office of Problem- Solving Courts

Competing timelines exist between the statutory mandates of the Adoption and Safe Families Act (ASFA) of 1997, and a course of successful addiction treatment and recovery. Courts and stakeholders are charged with the task of determining a permanency plan for a child found a Child In Need of Assistance (CINA) and committed to the department of social services no later than 11 months after the child enters an out of home placement. (see Maryland Courts and Judicial Proceedings Article, Section 3-823 (b)). ASFA and Maryland law require that reasonable efforts be made to reunify the family unless the child has been subjected to aggravated circumstances. In addition, ASFA requires states to initiate termination of parental rights proceedings if a child under the age of ten has been in foster care for eighteen of the previous twenty-two months, while the length of time for addiction treatment can last over a period of years. If the child has been in foster care or placed with a relative for eighteen of the prior twenty-two months, the court must find “compelling reasons” to excuse the filing of a petition for termination of parental rights. “Obviously, there is a tension between these deadlines and the course of recovery for most persons from a serious drug or alcohol addiction. If it takes a minimum of one year in most drug courts before we can reasonably say that a person has achieved sobriety, and since the permanency decision must be made within the same 12 months, the parents are under considerable pressure; indeed, they are caught in the rip tide of competing legal currents.” 1
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Prisoners of Their Own War: Can Policymakers Look Beyond the War on Drugs to Drug Treatment Courts?

Prisoners of Their Own War: Can Policymakers Look Beyond the War on Drugs to Drug Treatment Courts?

State legislatures and Congress have acted as silent partners in drug treatment courts, continuing to fund them without offering any leadership. As a result, there has been little centralized management of drug treatment courts, and procedures are disparate, varying widely from court to court, even within a single state. 11 While advocates of drug courts have made some efforts to bring court procedures closer together, there has not been a real push to unify practices or develop common goals. Legislators have remained hands-off, letting the judiciary take primary responsibility for a movement that has involved hundreds of millions of dollars 12 and hundreds of thousands of
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Better Courts Case-study: West London Drug Court. By Ben Estep

Better Courts Case-study: West London Drug Court. By Ben Estep

One response to drug related offending is drug courts. Drug courts seek to use the court process to both support and coerce drug users into successfully engaging with treatment for their addictions, while holding them accountable for their behaviour. The Drug Rehabilitation Requirement, implemented as part of the Criminal Justice Act 2003, grants criminal courts in England and Wales the power to place offenders on compulsory drug treatment, accompanied by court supervision. However, this represents only a partial embrace of the full drug court model.
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Recidivism and the Courts

Recidivism and the Courts

If the law will substitute for its present theory of maximum criminal sentences the conception that societies right to be protected from crime is paramount to any abnormal individual's r[r]

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Criminologist and the Courts

Criminologist and the Courts

As a result we find that in this group will occur cases belonging to the various other classifications, as there are undoubtedly feebleminded individuals who present this behavior, there[r]

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Courts Martial

Courts Martial

As an example of snap-judgment, a member of a general court told counsel, after only one witness in a long case testified, that he thought this witness was a liar and he was going to vot[r]

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ROLE OF THE COURTS

ROLE OF THE COURTS

thing, I will know that you dont really un- derstand the limitations of court procedure. It is not because the judge is more sympa- thetic to a parent who is abusing a child. It is becau[r]

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THE STATE OF THE COURTS

THE STATE OF THE COURTS

immediately follow after that. Make sure to mark calendars for this event, as well as the rest of the fourth Wednesdays in every month, as this is when we have our monthly meetings. The[r]

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Courts and Accountability: Public Interest Litigation in the Indian High Courts

Courts and Accountability: Public Interest Litigation in the Indian High Courts

alternative of repealing the legislation if it wished.' In Umed Ram Sharma the Supreme Court said it was acceptable (just) to require the state government to consi[r]

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