dual economy

Top PDF dual economy:

Wage Inequality in a Dual Economy and International Mobility of Factors: DO Factor Intensities always matter?

Wage Inequality in a Dual Economy and International Mobility of Factors: DO Factor Intensities always matter?

Abstract: The paper develops a three-sector specific factor model with Harris-Todaro type unemployment to examine the consequences of international factor mobility on the skilled- unskilled wage inequality and urban unemployment of unskilled labour in a small open dual economy. The theoretical analysis shows that the consequences of international factor mobility on wage inequality may not necessarily depend on the difference in the factor intensity condition. Only when the unskilled wage in the low-skill urban sector is positively related to the rural wage, factor intensity conditions do matter. An emigration of skilled labour or an inflow of foreign capital may move the wages in favour of the unskilled labour and lower the magnitude of urban unemployment only if the low-skill urban sector is capital-intensive (in a special sense). But, an immigration of unskilled labour produces exactly the opposite effects. The paper argues that provided the government undertakes supplementary measures to curb trade union power and prevent illegal immigration of unskilled labour, abundant inflows of foreign capital might be a solution to both deteriorating wage inequality and increasing unemployment of unskilled labour in the liberalized regime.
Show more

21 Read more

The Dual Economy in Long run Development

The Dual Economy in Long run Development

David (2005), in his re-examination of the data on real income in the early years of the United States, finds evidence of a dual economy. In 1840, the relative labor productivity of agricultural workers (narrowly defined) was only 40% of non-agricultural workers. Even on a per man-hour basis, the ratio is still 77%. Over the whole period of 1790-1860, David concludes that the average product of labor was relatively low in the agricultural sector, but that this was primarily accounted for through fewer hours of work rather than lower productivity per hour. This difference between the agricultural and modern sectors will arise endogenously within the model presented here, and just as David documents for the U.S., a portion of the increase in output per capita will result from an increase in hours worked by all individuals as well as a shift of workers from agriculture to manufacturing.
Show more

29 Read more

Applying the lewis model in industrialized countries: W. Arthur Lewis and the Dual Economy of Manchester in the 1950s

Applying the lewis model in industrialized countries: W. Arthur Lewis and the Dual Economy of Manchester in the 1950s

industrialised countries has been much less discussed. Still less is it known that Lewis, in the midst of constructing his model, was at the same time campaigning to improve living standards and attack racial discrimination amongst the Afro-Caribbean community of the city of Manchester where he worked, and thereby seeking in a practical way to offset, in the context of the urban environment of industrialised countries, one of the potential social problems which he saw as being latent in his own analysis of the dual economy. In this paper, we tell the story of how this process worked itself out in Manchester in the 1950s, and illustrate the relevance of the story to external policy interventions in labour markets more generally. In Manchester, as in many cities across the industrialised world, low-cost labour was from the late 1940s onward being imported from developing countries in order to ease labour shortages and reduce the cost of production. Especially if accompanied by racial discrimination, as it was in Manchester and many other places, the process of importing labour caused severe distress and deprivation for immigrant populations. In the second section of the paper, we describe the experience of racial discrimination in Manchester in the 1950s against the background of New Commonwealth immigration, race relations legislation and economic and social policy at the national level, and we make the case for a part of the city, Moss Side, to be seen as a Lewis-type dual economy, in which discrimination could be used as a strategy for keeping the cost of labour low and augmenting their profits. But we also show, at the same time, that an aspect of the dual economy
Show more

28 Read more

Policy Making, Industrial Structure and Economic Growth in a Dual Economy

Policy Making, Industrial Structure and Economic Growth in a Dual Economy

I stands for the influence of basic factors on the productivity. But to our regret, Jones hasn’t gone further to illustrate for us clearly that what the I stands for. In all, for these scholars who devote to institution haven’t characterize the institutional factors clearly and still debate on the issue that whether the institutional factors can be added into a production function and how to handle with it. In conclusion, these three research directions, in which the first neglect the dual economy in the real world, the second only focus on the factor of labor force narrowly, the last one haven’t formed an specific growth model and haven’t considered the case of dual economy.
Show more

20 Read more

Endogenous skill formation, foreign capital and education subsidy in a dual economy

Endogenous skill formation, foreign capital and education subsidy in a dual economy

Our dual economy consists of three sectors: a rural sector and two urban sectors. The rural sector (sector 1) produces an agricultural commodity with the help of unskilled labour and capital. Sector 2 is an urban sector that produces a manufacturing commodity by means of both unskilled and skilled labour and capital. The unskilled labour market in sector 2 is imperfect. Here unskilled workers are organized and receive a higher unionized wage than what their counterparts receive in the agricultural sector. Due to the existence of a rural-urban wage gap some unskilled workers migrate to the urban sector to get jobs in the higher-paid sector 2. But all of them do not get jobs so that some of them remain as unemployed and hang around the urban sector with the hope that they would obtain jobs in the unionized sector in period 2. The skilled workers, however, receive a competitive wage. Sector 3 is the service sector that produces a non-traded high-skill product (services) by means of skilled labour and capital. So, unskilled labour is imperfectly mobile between sector 1 and sector 2. Skilled labour is mobile between sector 2 and sector 3 while capital is perfectly mobile among all the three sectors of the economy.
Show more

20 Read more

Can International Factor Mobility lessen Wage Inequality in a Dual Economy?

Can International Factor Mobility lessen Wage Inequality in a Dual Economy?

Findlay (1974)) there are only two factors of production: labour and capital. But, the distinction between two types of labour with respect to their productive skills has gained extreme significance during the liberalized regime and some of the developing countries including India have become exporters of high-skill commodities e.g. computer software. Unfortunately, in the theoretical literature on trade and development no major attempts have been made to extend the HT model to include three mobile factors. A notable exception is, however, Yabuuchi (2006), who has employed a three-sector HT model to examine the effects of international labor mobility and other policies on the urban unemployment problem of unskilled labour and welfare in a small open economy. But to study the consequences of international factor movements on the skilled-unskilled wage inequality is equally important. This is exactly what the present note purports to do. The three-sector HT framework, as developed by Yabuuchi (2006), is employed for the purpose of analysis because it includes three intersectorally mobile factors of production: unskilled labor, skilled labor and capital.
Show more

16 Read more

Foreign Direct Investment, Child Labour and Unemployment of Unskilled Labour in a Dual Economy

Foreign Direct Investment, Child Labour and Unemployment of Unskilled Labour in a Dual Economy

Proposition 1: An inflow of foreign capital leads to i increases in both adult unskilled wage and skilled wage; ii a decrease in child wage rate; and, iii an expansion of the low-skill u[r]

20 Read more

Fighting discrimination: W. Arthur Lewis and the dual economy of Manchester in the 1950s

Fighting discrimination: W. Arthur Lewis and the dual economy of Manchester in the 1950s

Elliott, Chief Education Officer, Manchester Education Committee, to Lewis, 7 April 1955; also Greater Manchester County Record Office: Manchester City Council Education Committee minute[r]

58 Read more

Foreign direct investment and emergence of a dual economy

Foreign direct investment and emergence of a dual economy

significant differences between firms of different nationalities in relation to labour turnover, American and British firms having the highest labour turnover followed by the older Irish[r]

25 Read more

Problems of transition in a dual economy : the case of Western Samoa

Problems of transition in a dual economy : the case of Western Samoa

Meanwhile, in the traditional economy, the New Zealand Administration set about improving the social services (health and education) and the general infrastructure (mainly roads). In the fields of economic development, it substituted active encouragement for compulsion in promoting the expansion of copra production. It promoted a greater diversification of the traditional economy by introducing such crops as limes, peanuts, cacao, rubber and cotton. However, only banana production for export found favour amongst the Samoans who were already growing this crop as a staple food under long fallow cultivation. The expansionary "wave” of banana plantings (which provided a valuable catchcrop for financing the
Show more

265 Read more

Structural change, marginal land and economic development in Latin America and the Caribbean

Structural change, marginal land and economic development in Latin America and the Caribbean

Essentially, the concentration of rural populations on less favored, or marginal, agricultural land is the barometer of economy-wide development. As long as there is abundant marginal land for cultivation, it absorbs rural migrants, population increases and displaced unskilled labor from elsewhere in the economy. Moreover, the economy is vulnerable to the type of ‘‘Dutch disease’’ effects of a booming primary products sector first analyzed by Matsuyama (1992), and also observed for LAC economies (Astorga 2010; Barbier 2004; Lo´pez 2003; Maloney 2002). Rising commodity prices will cause manufacturing employment and output to contract while the primary sector expands, until complete specialization occurs. Avoiding such an outcome and combating the inherent dualism of the economy require both targeted polices for the modern sector and traditional agriculture on marginal land. The paper is organized as follows. The next section provides evidence on the two key stylized facts of land use and rural poverty in LAC countries. The subsequent section develops a dual economy model, with the rural sector displaying Ricardian ‘‘land surplus’’ conditions. The influence of primary product price booms and the implementation of targeted policies for the modern sector and traditional agriculture on marginal land are then analyzed. Finally, the paper includes an empirical analysis of long-run growth over 1990–2011 for 35 LAC economies to test some of the predictions of the dual economy model.
Show more

29 Read more

Impact of tourism in Indian economy

Impact of tourism in Indian economy

This paper coins how tourism sector is significant for Indian economy. Developing country like India tourism has become one of the major sectors of the economy, contributing to a large proportion to GDP and employment opportunities. Tourism is one of the fastest growing service industry in the country with great potentials for its further expansion and diversification. Tourism industry plays a major role in any country’s economic development. It helps significantly to the country for creating the employment opportunities to the large number of people. Moreover, it is also one of the important engines to attract more foreign exchanges with its potential. We need to concentrate to have liberal policies, relaxation in taxes, comprehensive package and so on to influence tourist and foreign investment. There is also a need to increase the government’s role to make India flourishing in tourism and established in the global market. India has rich source in tourism for the establishment of the brand. Of course India has been launched the Incredible India to make tourism better.
Show more

5 Read more

Coreceptor Tropism Can Be Influenced by Amino Acid Substitutions in the gp41 Transmembrane Subunit of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope Protein

Coreceptor Tropism Can Be Influenced by Amino Acid Substitutions in the gp41 Transmembrane Subunit of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope Protein

CXCR4, albeit inefficiently, represent a possible evolutionary intermediate between R5-tropic variants and dual-X or X4- tropic variants and provide a context that is better suited to tolerate V3 mutations that confer more efficient CXCR4 uti- lization. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by exchanging the V3 regions of subtype B R5-tropic and CXCR4-using env clones to evaluate the impact of V3 and non-V3 env regions on coreceptor tropism. Chimeric env clones with R5-like V3 se- quences in the context of dual-X and X4-tropic env backbones utilized CCR5 efficiently while retaining their ability to use CXCR4. Conversely, chimeric env clones with X4-like V3 se- quences in the context of an R5-tropic env backbone utilized both CXCR4 and CCR5 inefficiently. These observations are consistent with our proposed hypothesis and demonstrate that the determinants of CXCR4 use can reside outside of V3 and improve the efficiency of CXCR4 entry. Our results extend the previously reported findings that mutations in other regions of SU, such as V1/V2, can play a role during coreceptor switching (35, 36).
Show more

10 Read more

Vol 3, No 2 (2012)

Vol 3, No 2 (2012)

Boolean algebra is a homomorphic image of the algebra C X ( , 2 ) of all continuous functions mappings of a compact Hausdorff and totally disconnected topological space X onto the discrete two element Boolean algebra 2. In place of the algebra 2, if we take a dense bounded distributive lattice D , then C X D ( , ) and its homomorphic images represent a special class of pseudo-complemented distributive lattices, namely Stone lattices. A pseudo-complemented distributive lattice A is said to be a Stone lattice if x * ∨ x ** = 0 * for all x ∈ A . The concept of Almost Distributive Lattice(ADL) was introduced in [5] as a common abstraction of the most of the existing ring theoretic generalization of a Boolean algebra on one hand and the class of distributive lattice on the other. Later, in [6], pseudo-complementation in an ADL was introduced and the properties of Stone ADL were studied in [7]. Unlike in lattices, the dual of an ADL in not an ADL in general. For this reason, we introduced the concept of dual pseudo- complemented ADL (Dual PCADL) in [3] and studied its properties. In this paper, we define the concept of dual Stonity is a dual PCADL and derive the inter-relation between different dual pseudo-complementation in an ADL A and observe that the dual Stonity of A under different pseudo-complementations is same. We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for an ADL become a dual Stone ADL.
Show more

7 Read more

Impact of Demonetisation on Indian Economy

Impact of Demonetisation on Indian Economy

The government of India announced the demonetization of ₹500 and ₹1000 bank notes of Mahatma Gandhi series on November 8, 2016. Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced this move in his speech. Demonetization refers to the act of taking off and retiring a current form of currency and is often followed by replacing it with a new one. This was done so as to reduce the corruption, to beat terrorism and to get rid of the menace of black money. Stimulating India towards a cashless economy was another important objective. It has been observed that this whole episode had mixed outcomes for different sectors of the Indian economy. By this paper, the impact of demonetization 2016 on the different sectors of the economy is described.
Show more

7 Read more

Indian SMEs and their uniqueness in the country

Indian SMEs and their uniqueness in the country

Small businesses today are being variously described as the backbone of the industrial economy or as the drivers of the economy or even as the drivers of the economy or as the drivers of the economy or even as the drivers of the economy or even as the engine of the growth for industry . Though individually small . Collectively the small sector has emerged as a dominant player in most economies , be they developing or developed . Performance of the small sector therefore, has a direct multiplayer impact upon the growth of the national economy. The sector has been consolidating over the years . What is new is the articulation and recognition of this process and its pump priming role.
Show more

14 Read more

INFORMAL ECONOMY AND MONEY LAUNDERING IN ALBANIA

INFORMAL ECONOMY AND MONEY LAUNDERING IN ALBANIA

Poverty is the result of economic, social, political and cultural factors, which affect each other, exacerbating and worsening further the situation. Poverty is associated not only with insufficient income and consumption, but also with the inadequacy of health services, food, education services, lack of social relations, insecurity, and lack of poker and lack of reliability. A person is considered poor if the level of income or consumption drops under the necessary level to meet its basic needs.3 The private sector may reduce poverty by contributing to economic growth, creating new jobs and increasing incomes of poor people. It can also help the poor by providing a wide range of products and services with lower prices. Poverty in Albania appears multidimensional in the following aspects: - Low or very low income level; - High vulnerability of disease and inability to access appropriate medical services; - Illiteracy or low level of education; - High level of exposure to risks and weak voice in governmental decision-making institutions. According to various studies and statistics about 12.4% of Albanians are poor, while 1.2% of this category lives in extreme poverty. Consequently, the response of this layer of population to this phenomenon is the hidden employment. When people are unemployed and cannot generate enough money for their living, then they rely on alternative sources of informal economy.
Show more

12 Read more

Design and Analysis of Dual-Frequency Modified 3-Way Bagley Power Dividers

Design and Analysis of Dual-Frequency Modified 3-Way Bagley Power Dividers

Abstract—In this paper, different topologies of dual-frequency modified 3-way Bagley polygon power dividers are designed and analyzed. Equal split power division is achieved at arbitrary design frequencies. In the first structure, two-section transmission line transformer is used to realize the dual-frequency operation. In the second and third structures, dual-frequency T-shaped and π-shaped matching networks are used. For the sake of simplicity, closed form design equations are presented for each matching network. To validate the design procedure, three examples are designed, simulated, and fabricated. The three matching networks are explored through these three examples. The design frequencies are chosen to be 0.5 GHz and 1 GHz.
Show more

15 Read more

EAI TR 10 Brochure pdf

EAI TR 10 Brochure pdf

Pre-wired Cabinet Reference System Power Supply Dual Coefficient Setting Potentiometers Type 42.187 Dual Operational Amplifiers Dual Integrator Networks Dual Tie-Point Panel Service Shel[r]

12 Read more

Dual Orlicz Harmonic Mixed Quermassintegrals

Dual Orlicz Harmonic Mixed Quermassintegrals

Theorem 6.8. With the same assumptions of Theorem 6.1. The dual Orlicz-Minkowski inequality (37) (or (38)) ⇐⇒ the dual Orlicz-Brunn-Minkowski inequality (42) (or (43)). Proof. We have proved the dual Orlicz-Brunn-Minkowski inequality (42) (or (43)) by the dual Orlicz-Minkowski in- equality (37) (or (38)). Thus, we only need to prove the dual Orlicz-Minkowski inequality (37) by the dual Orlicz-Brunn- Minkowski inequality (42), the remainder of the argument is analogous to that in the first part and is left to the reader.

13 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...