This article shows how a small regional housing association is bridging the digital divide for its customers and their communities by bringing low cost internet connectiv-ity solutions proven in Africa to Dumfries & Galloway through collaboration with a university. The key learning is that small and medium sized third sector organizations should actively engage with universities to work jointly on developing and implement- ing solutions to address both sector and local needs. The joint working gives the third sector organizations access to the global academic networks and funding to bring overseas learning to help create innovative and proven local solutions that can help transform service delivery for customers and communities. Dumfries & Galloway’s Loreburn Housing Association (Loreburn) is working with Strathclyde University to pilot a social tariff broadband service for its customers using TV White Space/Dynamic Spectrum technology proven by Mawingu Networks in Africa.
With a great deal of support from Carlisle College, Pioneer Food Services, DG Food (food sector support body for Dumfries and Galloway) and H&H Auctions and with generous sponsorship from various national and local food businesses we were able to deliver a food show and a food dinner celebrating the wide variety of local food available. The food show attracted 40 stands (including a significant cohort of local Scottish based food producers), a great deal of media attention and some positive leads for the food businesses. The dinner brought together key local and regional
Narayana et al.  studied the variability of the µ-Λ relation using the Joss-Waldvogel distrometer (JWD) data measured at Gadanki, India, under the conditions, reflectivity ≥ 30 dBZ and number of drops ≥ 500. They used 3rd, 4th and 6th moments to fit the gamma model. Recently, Brawn and Upton  fitted the µ-Λ relation for rain rates greater than 1 mm/hr based on their drop size data measured at Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, using the Thies and Parsivel distrometers. The procedure described by Brawn and Upton  to estimate the values of gamma parameters was used. They filtered all the rain rates less than 1 mm/hr from their drop size data to fit the relation. It was concluded that the relation appears to vary with the type of distrometer used. Munchak and Tokay  fitted the µ- Λ relation for different reflectivity ranges for nine different regions and concluded that the µ-Λ relations perform best at high reflectivity (> 35 dBZ). In general, the use of µ-Λ relation is proven to perform well for DSD retrieval [5, 9, 10]. Atlas and Ulbrich  explained that the µ-Λ correlations proposed by [2, 5] appear to be limited to rainfall events which do not include convective rain; they are biased toward stratiform and transition rains. Therefore, in this paper, a rain event is classified according to the rain rate and median volume diameter variations before deriving the µ-Λ relations.
the local authorities were comprised of a small number of data points, for example Orkney Islands, Shetland Islands, and Eilean Siar include less than 10 intermediate geographies. Table 5 shows the regression coefficients for the model in (19). The COM-Poisson coefficients for ν of most covariates are positive which is a sign of overdispersion. Table 5 shows that there is a wide range of values for the coefficients c. They can take negative values (Orkney Islands) and up to greater than 2 (Dumfries & Galloway, Scot- tish Borders). The regression coefficients b 1 , c 1 for the deprivation weights
Trends in major ionic components of bulk precipitation were analysed for two sites, Faskally and Loch Ard forest in Scotland, for the period 1972-2000. The pattern of change was not linear. Large reductions in sulphur deposition occurred in the early 1980s and, to a lesser extent, during 1995-2000, with a period of relative stability between 1988-95. pH increased significantly at both sites but nitrate and ammonia only increased significantly at Loch Ard forest. Long- term chemical data from a total of 37 streams and lochs in four selected regions of Scotland were analysed over three time periods (all available data (mostly 1978-2000), 1988-98 and 1995-2000) to match the deposition patterns. For the whole study period a significant decline in non-marine sulphate was found at all sites while the most consistent increases in pH and alkalinity were recorded at all the high elevation loch sites in the Galloway area. Significant reductions in toxic forms of aluminium were also recorded, mostly at sites where pH had increased. Nitrate trends were equivocal except for catchments with clear-felling operations. For these sites, negative trends were found where felling occurred in the 1980s, while positive trends were found at sites with felling in the 1990s. With the exception of one site, dissolved organic carbon concentrations increased significantly with moorland sites showing smaller increases than forested sites. Associated with this change was a significant increase in complexed forms of aluminium. Trends for the 1988- 98 period were much smaller than those for the whole study period and in many cases were insignificant. This contrasts with the 1995-2000 period when large and significant reductions in sulphate and nitrate were recorded along with increases in marine salts, probably as a result of climatically related events. Qualitative, experimental and monitoring data from lochs in the Galloway area revealed evidence of recovery of fish populations. Interpretation of chemical and biological trends was clearly influenced by the choice of the time series, especially in relation to deposition and climatic changes. Nevertheless, all the fresh waters included in this study are currently in the best ecological condition since the 1970s in the context of recovery from acidification.
was assumed to follow the sequence described by the Warren Springs Laboratory (1983), adjusted regionally to take account of observations since 1980. Other ions in deposition are assumed to remain constant throughout the simulation unless the catchment has undergone a change in land use. In the British uplands, large-scale commercial afforestation is the main land management practice. Conifer plantations significantly exacerbate the acidification status of soils and surface waters and, given that forest uptake, dry deposition and runoff are influenced by the age and forest cover at a site, historical sequences and future forecasts are constructed for the key driving variables (Harriman and Morrison, 1992). Evapotranspiration was assumed to vary between 10% for a moorland catchment to 20% for a fully forested catchment. At forested sites, runoff yield is assumed to decrease linearly with increasing area of mature canopy cover. The enhancement of acid input through dry deposition mechanisms increases deposition in forested catchments (Mayer and Ulrich, 1977). Net uptake of ions in biomass was modelled relative to the age and spatial coverage of forest within the catchment during the historical reconstruction and forecast simulation (Ferrier et al., 1995). Surface water chemistry data from 54 sites in the Galloway
Hawking’s singularity theorem concerns matter obeying the strong energy condition (SEC), which means that all observers experience a nonnegative effective energy den- sity (EED), thereby guaranteeing the timelike convergence property. However, there are models that do not satisfy the SEC and therefore lie outside the scope of Hawking’s hypotheses, an important example being the massive Klein–Gordon field. Here we derive lower bounds on local averages of the EED for solutions to the Klein–Gordon equation, allowing nonzero mass and nonminimal coupling to the scalar curvature. The averages are taken along timelike geodesics or over spacetime volumes, and our bounds are valid for a range of coupling constants including both minimal and con- formal coupling. Using methods developed by Fewster and Galloway, these lower bounds are applied to prove a Hawking-type singularity theorem for solutions to the Einstein–Klein–Gordon theory, asserting that solutions with sufficient initial contrac- tion at a compact Cauchy surface will be future timelike geodesically incomplete. These results remain true in the presence of additional matter obeying both the strong and weak energy conditions.
What’s interesting here is how badly Galloway misrepresents Schiller’s play-drive. As Terry Eagleton adroitly points out in The Ideology of the Aesthetic, in the ‘Letters on the Aesthetic Education of Man’, Schiller actually interposes the play-drive as a hegemonic term, mediating between the ‘form-drive’ of rationality, and the ‘sense-drive’ of irrationality – historicized by Eagleton as Schiller’s horrified response, in 1794, to the unholy alliance of the philosophies and the mob in the spectacle of the French Revolution. And play as display and performance – the active and shaping ‘aesthetic education’ that would provide for an integrated model of citizenship and social involvement – was very much Schiller’s ideal, what he called the ‘aesthetic state’. It’s extremely tempting in the age of Big Brother to revive Schiller’s notion: could the concepts of ‘aesthetic’ and ‘state’ ever be brought more appropriately together? And it’s an easy step to identify the hegemonic aspects of Big Brother as a form of performative play. Just as immaterial labour (in the Italian autonomists’ sense) becomes aware of itself as a driving force in the development of society, the spectacle moves into to depoliticize, privatise, and trivialise it. Even more hegemonically, we can see Big Brother as orchestrating movements across the dividing line between passive spectation and active participation with consummate ease – a simulation of the opening-up of the spectacle. Slavoj Žižek (1989) has called this ‘interpassivity’ as opposed to interactivity – a simulation of interaction, guided by existing yet subtle commercial scripts for behaviour.
As the details of form and surface came together in the work, one of the last things in need of resolution was the content of the text. The text was first a graphic element, but the content is an opportunity to further invest my own identity into that of the work. The content of the text reflects the text itself. The large block letters on the pieces spell out the names of the pieces – “CUP” on the cups, “BOWL” on the bowls, and “PITCHER” on the pitchers. The handwritten text started as a record of my thoughts at the time of writing, but these thoughts lacked a cohesive relationship to the body of work. The pieces came together one day when Professor Julia Galloway happened to look at my work and remark in passing that it seemed like I was “talking to the pots.” Immediately, the content of the text became clear: I was talking to the pots, and the text is a record of my communication with each piece.