early modern

Top PDF early modern:

Redrawing the Map of Early Modern English Catholicism

Redrawing the Map of Early Modern English Catholicism

It is not so much the stance Gallagher takes that is troubling, but rather his failure to mention or even reference the debates that have characterised the field for almost 40 years. Even if scholars do not wish to rehash the old and by now tired Bossy/Haigh debates – whether English Catholicism during this period was a remnant of late medieval Catholicism (Haigh) or something different (Bossy) – Gallagher needs to explain when he and his contributors see ‘(Early Modern) English Catholicism’ beginning. Most recent scholars, and indeed some of Gallagher’s contributors, have chosen to view ‘early modern’ English Catholicism as a complex blend of sorts – with nuances that defy periodization as much as they define it – and this should have been clear from the outset.
Show more

6 Read more

Archival transformations in Early Modern European history

Archival transformations in Early Modern European history

This special issue addresses a double transformation. The first is the historical process that saw a dramatic increase in the production of documents and a susbtantial improvement in their management and preservation throughout Europe between the fifteenth and the eighteenth century. The early modern period, inclusively conceived, is often described as the age of print, but it was also the great time of archives, understood as both the physical repositories and organised offices established by institutions or collectivities to store handwritten documents produced in the course of continuous functions with a view to long-term use. For many European historians, the process of centralisation, expansion, and (more or less successful) rearrangement of archives is symbolised by the establishment of the great Simancas and Vatican archives respectively in 1540 and 1612. But, as the articles collected here demonstrate, smaller states too enacted reforms in record-keeping, and the changes concerned more archives than those of central institutions. The second transformation is interpretive and methodological. Archives have long been at the centre of historians’ research, but over the last ten-fifteen years an ‘archival turn’ in disciplines ranging from history to literature, anthropology and the social sciences has turned archives from sites of research into objects of enquiry in their own right. These works study the evolving processes of selection, ordering and usage that produced archives not as neutral repositories of sources but as historically constructed tools of power relations, deeply embedded in changing social and cultural contexts.
Show more

11 Read more

War and inquisition : repression in early modern Spain

War and inquisition : repression in early modern Spain

The Spanish Inquisition was officially founded in 1478 by means of a papal bull of Sixtus IV, who ceded its control to the Spanish Crown. Since then until its definitive abolition in 1834, the Spanish Inquisition conducted more than 100,000 trials that featured Jews, Muslims, Lutherans and other assorted “heretics”. 7 Its relevance in Spanish history is twofold. First, it lasted for more than three hundred years, since its creation at the beginning of the Spanish Empire to its abolition when Napoleon invaded Spain in 1808. 8 Second, it was the first institution that had uniform de facto power over the entire Spanish territory. For this reason, General Council of the Inquisition became the second most important political institution in early modern Spain. 9
Show more

47 Read more

Brewing cultures in early modern towns : an introduction

Brewing cultures in early modern towns : an introduction

on recent doctoral work to exemplify the growing interest in the social and cultural history of the trade. James Brown and Katja Lindenau offer general surveys for Southampton and Görlitz in Upper Lusatia, Masatake Wasa reconstructs the operations of the university brewery of Frankfurt an der Oder in the late 1600s and Tim Reinke-Williams examines ale- house sociability in London from a gender perspective. Extrapolating from a wide range of archival materials (like brewery records, council minutes, government mandates, fiscal registers, court proceed- ings, wills, inventories and travel reports) as well as visual and material evidence, the articles provide both specific and more general conclusions. Some of the latter shall be briefly discussed here. On the production side, we learn much about the economic and social status of the people who worked in the trade. At Görlitz, brewing was a fiercely defended prerogative of the urban elite who simul- taneously monopolized town government, quite in contrast to Southampton, where humbler members of the middling sort and even women continued to play notable roles. Another difference between England and eastern Germany was the existence of formal monopolies, convey- ing individual brewers the exclusive right to supply certain areas. 'Tied' houses emerged in early modern England as well, but as a result of the commercial power of leading firms, not legal privi- leges granted by secular authorities. 10
Show more

9 Read more

Representing the body of law in early modern England

Representing the body of law in early modern England

It is axiomatic of any discussion concerning the early modern body politic that reference is made to Ernst H. Kantorowicz’s magnum opus: The King’s Two Bodies. Respectful though I am of the depth of scholarship exhibited by Kantorowicz, of the magisterial scope of the book, and of its lasting influence over the work of subsequent generations of scholars, I must take issue with some of the claims made by Kantorowicz in the interests of discerning the true balance between temporal and spiritual powers, and in configuring the constitutional relationship between governor and governed. Kantorowicz quotes from Fortescue’s De Dominio Regali et Politico 19 in support of his thesis that the Lancastrian Chief Justice was proposing that the king shared with “the holy sprites and angels” certain mystical powers. Kantorowicz claims that “Elizabethan jurists ‘borrowed’ from Fortescue,” in elucidating the theory that the king was possessed of two bodies: the body natural and the body politic. 20 In particular he makes
Show more

16 Read more

The place of African slaves in early modern Spain

The place of African slaves in early modern Spain

Velázquez’s portrait of Juan de Pareja was built from the availability of a black model (Pareja) and the visual template of the more realistic representation of black people produced in the Netherlands in the early decades of the seventeenth century, when the presence of African slaves from the Iberian Empire increased in their territories. 75 The embedded notions of Africans and their place in early modern Spanish society are represented in visual and literary forms. The authors of the Golden Age paid some attention to black slaves only from the second half of the sixteenth century: Mateo Alemán, Lope de Vega and Cervantes. 76 The Spanish visual production that represents black slaves is rare compared to its European counterpart, especially if we consider that the African presence during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries was higher in Iberia than in the rest of Western Europe. The disproportion between the high visibility of African slaves in urban centres and their low invisibility in the art produced in the Crowns of Castile and Aragon is a feature of “slave-owning societies”. 77 The Spanish case is however more extreme. Anonymous Flemish artists from the Spanish empire in northern Europe executed few depictions of slaves in early modern Spanish urban views and those like the Flemish painter Joris Hoefnagel (1542- 1600) and the German goldsmith and sculptor Christoph Weiditz (c. 1500-1559) who codified the iconography of chained Afro-Hispanic slaves. 78 The latter made drawings of these subjects fulfilling their social functions, with his written comments. This work was put together in his costume-book
Show more

25 Read more

Women and the Performance of Libel in Early Modern Devon

Women and the Performance of Libel in Early Modern Devon

domestic and communal order most of the time but the secrecy and mystery that this afforded meant that when she was seen with the door ‘half shutt’ in the presence of another man her behaviour needed to be admonished in a public and performed way to maintain the patriarchal hierarchy of the community. The case of Reade v. Peter demonstrates that one aspect of women’s roles in early-modern performed libel certainly was to be the target for accusations of moral transgression by men in order to maintain society’s norms and we should not overlook this as a key to understanding some of the life experiences of women in early-modern provincial communities. Whilst the damage done to Alice herself by this libel was mentioned in the bill of complaint, her husband was still the main complainant and the court process was focused on compensating him for what he had suffered.
Show more

12 Read more

Early Modern Guildhalls : Habitus in transition?

Early Modern Guildhalls : Habitus in transition?

So far this section has emphasised the parallels between guildhalls and domestic buildings in order to discuss the shift in habitus which occurred during this period. However, it is not the contention of this thesis that this reflected a shift from Gemeinschaft - an organic form of community characterised by intimacy, kinship networks and stability- to Gesellschaft - a society characterised by ego-focused, discontinuous relationships and social tension (Tonnies 1955; Johnson 1993a, 107-9). Neither can the shift in habitus observed archaeologically within the guildhall be seen to reflect the emergence of urban oligarchies, or an ideology of individualism. Guildhalls were being used to refashion both the social identities of the craft community through the discourses of social order, humanist civility and moral discipline, but the purpose of this was to distinguish these communities from those on the margins of urban society, particularly the poor. This interpretation supports Barry’s (1994, 91) contentio n that rather than encouraging the development of individualism, the socio-economic fluidity of early modern towns and the fear of social disorder actively encouraged the middling sort to forge a sense of civic identity based on communal, or collective, association. It is significant that these shifts occurred precisely at the same time as the mercers and tailors re-fashioned their communal identities through charters of incorporation and amalgamation (see p. 72; 90). In the contemporary understanding of a humanist such as Starkey it might have seemed that the guildhall was being used to structure the ideal common weal:
Show more

35 Read more

EDUCATION AND THE EARLY MODERN ENGLISH SEPARATISTS

EDUCATION AND THE EARLY MODERN ENGLISH SEPARATISTS

investigating in detail the evidence relating to the early modern English Separatists and their attitudes to education. Interest in, and.. It has sometimes erroneously b[r]

360 Read more

Tagging the Bard:Evaluating the Accuracy of a Modern POS Tagger on Early Modern English Corpora

Tagging the Bard:Evaluating the Accuracy of a Modern POS Tagger on Early Modern English Corpora

In this paper we focus on automatic part-of-speech (POS) annotation, in the context of historical English texts. Techniques that were originally developed for modern English have been applied to numerous other languages over recent years. Despite this diversification, it is still almost invariably the case that the texts being analysed are from contemporary rather than historical sources. Although there is some recognition among historical linguists of the advantages of annotation for the retrieval of lexical, grammatical and other linguistic phenomena, the implementation of such forms of annotation by automatic methods is problematic. For example, changes in grammar over time will lead to a mismatch between probabilistic language models derived from, say, Present-day English and Middle English. Similarly, variability and changes in spelling can cause problems for POS taggers with fixed lexicons and rule- bases. To determine the extent of the problem, and develop possible solutions, we decided to evaluate the accuracy of existing POS taggers, trained on modern English, when they are applied to Early Modern English (EModE) datasets. We focus here on the CLAWS POS tagger, a hybrid rule-based and statistical tool for English, and use as experimental data the Shakespeare First Folio and the Lampeter Corpus. First, using a manually post-edited test set, we evaluate the accuracy of CLAWS when no modifications are made either to its grammatical model or to its lexicon. We then compare this output with CLAWS’ performance when using a pre-processor that detects spelling variants and matches them to modern equivalents. This experiment highlights (i) the extent to which the handling of orthographic variants is sufficient for the tagging accuracy of EModE data to approximate to the levels attained on modern- day text(s), and (ii) in turn, whether revisions to the lexical resources and language models of POS taggers need to be made.
Show more

14 Read more

'Angelic Death in Early Modern Hispanic America'

'Angelic Death in Early Modern Hispanic America'

One final paradox remains, however, in our comparison of the Tzotzil narrative with religious reality in early modern Hispanic America. If angels became associated with the rites and practices of sacrifice (whether Catholic or indigenous) as onlookers and participants, there is still the question of how angels might have become the object of sacrifice themselves. In Central Mesoamerica the notion of divine sacrifice was by no means unfamiliar, as according to Nahua myth the fifth sun had been created by the self-immolation of the crippled god Nanahuantzin who rose again resplendent and burning as the new sun. Spurred on by his bravery, his brothers also leapt into the fire and rose again as the moon and the stars. 48 On the north coast of Peru, meanwhile, Moche iconography depicted the journey of a hero-god across the water and his struggle against the gods of darkness and night. The hero-god, in fact, loses this struggle and is sacrificed before descending into the world of the dead. But this is not the end, as the hero-god is able to escape into the heavens by ascending a ladder made from a spider’s web. As such the story is representative both of the daily solar cycle, but also of the cycle of life, death, and regeneration. Peter Kaulicke suggests that the connection in the Moche cosmovision between spiders and sacrifice goes further than simply helping the sun-god to escape the underworld by spinning him a ladder with his web-silk. In
Show more

49 Read more

Protestant Evangelicals and Addiction in Early Modern English

Protestant Evangelicals and Addiction in Early Modern English

This changed in 2008 when Deborah Willis published a chapter on ‘Doctor Faustus and the Early Modem Language of Addiction’. 10 Willis set out to explore the role of an emerging early modern addiction discourse in Christopher Mar- lowe’s Doctor Faustus, noting that ‘it is a discourse that has affinities with, but also crucial differences from, our own contemporary ideas about addiction.’ 11 Willis identifies various threads in this discourse, but is primarily interested in the idea of addiction as ‘sinful habituation’ – the notion, dating back to Augustine, that ‘the voluntary repetition of sinful acts impairs the will and produces a sense of power- lessness.’ 12 In 2016 Rebecca Lemon, building on Willis’s work, argued that sinful addiction in Faustus was actually the distortion of ‘beneficial and even laudable’ addiction; it is the very qualities that make addiction good which, when misdir- ected, can lead one to damnation. 13 Lemon identifies two strands to this positive addiction: in early modern translations of Seneca and Cicero (in 1614 and 1576 respectively); and in the late sixteenth-century work of Protestant reformers Jean Calvin, John Foxe, and William Perkins. Where Seneca praises addiction to philos- ophy, Calvin praises addiction to scripture. 14 Early modern addiction emerges from the work of Willis and Lemon as a concept wholly distinct from modern addiction, yet deeply varied and controversial. It could embody both laudable and sinful behaviour, and contributed to ideas surrounding free will and constraint; because of this, it can shed light on early modern attitudes to habitual behaviour.
Show more

18 Read more

Burial of the plague dead in early modern London

Burial of the plague dead in early modern London

This brief survey of plague burial in early modern London prompts two queries or speculations. The first concerns the attitude of city government. The New Churchyard was established in 1569, and there was then no further major civic initiative in this field for a hundred years. Is it significant that the 1563 plague - a very severe one admittedly - which prompted this action was also the last to strike the city centre more heavily than the periphery? Were the seventeenth-century aldermen less sensitive to a problem whose worst effects were felt in the suburbs (even though some of these were within the City's jurisdiction) than their predecessors had been to a problem in the city heartland? If so, was there another change in attitude in 1665, which led to the establishment of Bunhill Fields, or was this just a panic response to the exceptionally high mortality - within and without the city - of the first major plague for 30 years?
Show more

13 Read more

Researching memory in early modern studies

Researching memory in early modern studies

A relatively recent arrival in periodization, the very concept of the early modern to describe the period between about 1500 and 1750 identifies it both as part of the longue durée of the modern, and as a period with distinctively pre-modern qualities. The question of when early modern becomes modern is not straightforward. It is frequently pinned to the idea of a transformative rupture: the world of modernity is inaugurated by the upheavals of the period at the end of the eighteenth century when political, agricultural and industrial revolutions transformed cultures and societies in Europe and the Atlantic world (Baggerman, Dekker and Mascuch, 2011; Trouillot, 1995). But early modern Europe went through its own great ruptures, from the Reformation to the Civil Wars in seventeenth-century Britain and Ireland: war and political upheaval constantly rewrote and reimagined both history and the future. As in our own age, new technology (in this instance print culture) transformed the memorial relation between past and present. Tracking memory’s travels in the Anglophone Atlantic world and the British colonies of New England and the Chesapeake highlights originary narratives of trauma and genocide in a way that challenges memorial cultures and demands that we read early modern history in terms of ethics and violent rupture. Scholarship such as Saidiya Hartman’s Lose Your Mother (2008), and cultural productions such as Selina
Show more

24 Read more

Attending to Early Modern Women: Conflict and Concord

Attending to Early Modern Women: Conflict and Concord

The first thematic section, ‘Negotiations’, contains essays that illustrate cases of women who employed negotiating tactics in an environment that belonged, traditionally, to men. In chapter one, Craig Harline examines the Rolondus siblings and how Maria Rolaondus used her agency to negotiate on her parent’s behalf to bring her brother back to the ‘true religion’. The essay titled ‘Big sister as intermediary: how Maria Rolaondus tried to win back her wayward brother’ constructs a captivating historical story of the Rolandus family and how the son Jacob converted to Catholicism despite his father being a Reformed preacher. This conversion both shocked and devastated the family because of their devout belief in and adherence to their faith. Harline’s essay not only demonstrates the profound effects of the religious tensions within this period but also the fluidity and ease with which conversion could happen. More telling and more important is the role Maria Rolandus played in this early modern drama. She served as not only a representative for the family but acted as a negotiator on the family’s behalf to try and bring Jacob back to what was in her eyes, the ‘true religion.’
Show more

5 Read more

Spanish Fashion at the Courts of Early Modern Europe

Spanish Fashion at the Courts of Early Modern Europe

Overall, the anthology is well-suited for undergraduate study and advanced research in art history, material culture, and fashion history. Because of the number of essays included and the variety of topics addressed, it would have been helpful to have included an extended introduction to synthesize the ideas presented in the essays, explain the organizational choices and framework, and address more fully the interdisciplinary scope of the anthology. In order to situate the anthology’s place within an existing body of literature, a short historiography would have also been useful. In addition, it would have been beneficial to have some concluding remarks. For example, how did early modern fashions shift in later periods? How were certain garments or styles transformed, discarded, refashioned for new collective or individual purposes, and
Show more

5 Read more

Women, Work and Sociability in Early Modern London

Women, Work and Sociability in Early Modern London

underexplored latter half of the period. What impact, if any, did shifts such as the so-called ‘industrious revolution’, or what Hindle has termed a ‘growth of social stability’ have on women’s working lives? This reviewer would also highlight a further distinguishing feature of this monograph. Reinke-Williams’ discussion of ‘sociability’ offers a broader range of contexts and locations for this particular social practice, which recent scholarship has largely confined to drinking in the alehouse. Drinking in this particular space remains key to Reinke-Williams’ work – indeed, one of his major findings may be found in his discussion of women’s engagement in drinking pledges. However, it is highly encouraging for social historians to see the scope of early modern sociability being widened to encompass a range of social interactions in a variety of spaces.
Show more

5 Read more

Law, Lawyers and Litigants in Early Modern England

Law, Lawyers and Litigants in Early Modern England

Overall, Law, Litigants, and Lawyers successfully handles its tricky brief of celebrating the work of the pre- eminent scholar of the field whilst inviting further research. The volume treads the familiar ground of elite jurisdictional disputes and local microhistories as well as the more unexpected, emerging avenues of architectural study and the interconnection of law and religion. In all, the inherent humanness of early modern English law-in-society comes to the fore. To the editors’ enquiry into ‘how law was understood and used in early modern England,’ the contributors respond with a multitude of answers. Their research shows that the execution and experience of the law might be shaped by a variety of short- and long-term factors, and by local and national contexts. This open-ended conclusion itself seems a fitting tribute to Brooks’ inquiring mind and pioneering work. With the task of synthesising these findings perhaps still to be achieved, Brooks’ extraordinarily comprehensive scholarship will surely continue to set the standard.
Show more

5 Read more

A Gold Standard Corpus of Early Modern German

A Gold Standard Corpus of Early Modern German

ManC corpus aims to provide the following linguis- tic annotations: 1.) Normalised spelling variants; 2.) Lemmas; 3.) POS tags. However, due to the non-standard nature of written Early Modern Ger- man, and the additional variation introduced by the three variables of ‘genre’, ‘region’, and ‘time’, au- tomatic annotation of the corpus poses a major chal- lenge. In order to assess the suitability of existing NLP tools on historical data, and with a view to adapting them to improve their performance, a man- ually annotated gold standard subcorpus has been developed, which aims to be as representative of the main corpus as possible (GerManC-GS). To re- main manageable in terms of annotation times and cost, the subcorpus considers only two of the three corpus variables, ‘genre’ and ‘time’, as they alone were found to display as much if not more varia- tion than ‘region’. GerManC-GS thus only includes texts from the North German dialect region, with one sample file per genre and time period. Table 2 provides an overview of GerManC-GS, showing publication year, file name, and number of tokens for each genre/period combination. It contains 57,845 tokens in total, which have been manually annotated as described in the following sections.
Show more

5 Read more

Reformations: The Early Modern World, 1450 1650

Reformations: The Early Modern World, 1450 1650

concentrating his narrative on the history of religion. The central event of his book is the Reformation, the splitting of Western Christianity into Protestant and Catholic churches that began in 1517 with Martin Luther’s Ninety-Five Theses. But one of Eire’s key contentions is that the whole of early modern history in Europe can be seen as a series of reformations that either flowed into or out of that of Luther. This

5 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...