Early Puberty

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International Adoption, “Early” Puberty, and Underrecorded Age

International Adoption, “Early” Puberty, and Underrecorded Age

Internationally adopted children appear to reach puberty at a relatively young age 1 and to have a high risk of early puberty including very early or precocious puberty (PP), that is, pubertal development at , 8 years of age for girls and at , 9 years of age for boys. 2,3 However, there can be uncertainty over the chronological age of adopted children, raising the possibility that the seemingly elevated risk of early puberty is due to some children having a signi fi cantly under- recorded age, perhaps of up to 2 years or more. If a child ’ s birth date is unregistered and relatives are uncertain, or if the child is aban- doned, an age will need to be determined to complete adoption for- malities. There is no certain method of determining a child ’ s age, which makes errors in either direction possible. However, it may be suspected that underestimates are more likely than overestimates, either to facilitate placement with adoptive parents, who tend to favor younger children, or because neglected and malnourished children will be less advanced and smaller than the typical child of their age.
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Early Puberty and Adolescent Pregnancy: The Influence of Alcohol Use

Early Puberty and Adolescent Pregnancy: The Influence of Alcohol Use

Results of this investigation suggest that, among women who experience an early pregnancy, alcohol use and age of sexual initiation play an important role in determining the timing of first pregnancy, particularly as it relates to early maturation. The findings lend support for the “early-timing hypoth- esis,” which upholds that early pubertal develop- ment is associated with a series of problem behav- iors, which may set girls on long-term negative trajectories. Ultimately, such trajectories can poten- tially lead to multiple poor outcomes including but not limited to early pregnancy. As such, this study yields important implications for preventive inter- vention. Early puberty acts as a risk factor that pro- vides a clear focal point to help guide preventive efforts, particularly efforts targeted to prevent early sexual behavior and adolescent pregnancy.
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Early Puberty, Negative Peer Influence, and Problem Behaviors in Adolescent Girls

Early Puberty, Negative Peer Influence, and Problem Behaviors in Adolescent Girls

In this 5-year prospective study of young adolescent girls, early onset of puberty was associated with persistently ele- vated delinquent behavior and a tran- sient increase in physical aggression. Being an early maturer was not related to deviant behavior of the girls ’ best friend at age 11. However, having a more-deviant best friend was asso- ciated with higher levels of aggression and delinquency at age 11. With the exception of physical aggression, these effects of friend ’ s deviance dissipated by age 16. Additionally, the relationship between best friend ’ s deviant behavior and delinquency at age 11 was stron- ger among early-maturing girls, sug- gesting increased susceptibility to negative peer in fl uence in early matur- ers. A similar pattern was obtained also for relational and nonphysical aggres- sion among girls in the “ other ” racial/ ethnic minority group. However, other relationships among early puberty, friend ’ s deviance, and problem behavior were consistent across race/ethnicity. The lasting association of early puberty with girls ’ delinquent behavior con- fi rms previous fi ndings 4,11 and extends
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Evo devo of human adolescence: beyond disease models of early puberty

Evo devo of human adolescence: beyond disease models of early puberty

Evolutionary analysis highlights the fact that it is the female who is reproductively constrained in terms of the maximum number of offspring she can generate over her reproductive years. In consequence, early maturation affords a potential fitness advantage for females more than males, allowing more time to reproduce. Thus, evolution- ary life-history thinking challenges the prevailing notion that early puberty is exclusively or primarily pathological in origin, viewing it rather as an adaptive response to changing life conditions. Indeed, as we hope to show, evi- dence indicates that since the emergence of homo sapiens there has been much change in the timing of pubertal maturation - and not just in a singular direction - and a variety of contextual factors appear to regulate pubertal development. To our way of thinking, it is a mistake to focus only on environmental toxins or even simply cast changes in pubertal timing in disease terms.
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Early Puberty, Friendship Group Characteristics, and Dating Abuse in US Girls

Early Puberty, Friendship Group Characteristics, and Dating Abuse in US Girls

make an early transition to puberty (32% as compared with 28% of the on-time and 27% of the late-maturing girls based on the subjective rating of pubertal timing; see Supplemental Information) experience dating abuse, but that it is nevertheless worthwhile to be vigilant with this group, particularly when these girls have a greater percentage of boys in their friendship groups. Continued study of the mechanisms underlying the linkage of early puberty, boy friends, and ADA may additionally enhance prevention efforts. FIGuRe 2

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Familial early puberty: presentation and inheritance pattern in 139 families

Familial early puberty: presentation and inheritance pattern in 139 families

Understanding the causes of PP is important since it is reported to be linked with increased risk of other dis- eases including polycystic ovaries, metabolic diseases and cancer [8, 9]. In addition, the cause of early puberty may possibly determine the evolution of the condition and also help with the therapeutic indications [10]. Known genetic causes of PP are rare. Although muta- tions involving kisspeptin and its receptor and more re- cently MKRN3 are associated with PP, other rare genetic variants in genes implicated in the regulatory mechan- ism of GnRH secretion such as TAC3 , TACR3 , LIN28B , GABRA1 and NPY are difficult to link with PP since unaffected family members can carry the variant or functional studies fail to show altered biological activity of the mutant proteins [11–13].
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Evo-devo of human adolescence: beyond disease models of early puberty

Evo-devo of human adolescence: beyond disease models of early puberty

Evolutionary analysis highlights the fact that it is the female who is reproductively constrained in terms of the maximum number of offspring she can generate over her reproductive years. In consequence, early maturation affords a potential fitness advantage for females more than males, allowing more time to reproduce. Thus, evolution- ary life-history thinking challenges the prevailing notion that early puberty is exclusively or primarily pathological in origin, viewing it rather as an adaptive response to changing life conditions. Indeed, as we hope to show, evi- dence indicates that since the emergence of homo sapiens there has been much change in the timing of pubertal maturation - and not just in a singular direction - and a variety of contextual factors appear to regulate pubertal development. To our way of thinking, it is a mistake to focus only on environmental toxins or even simply cast changes in pubertal timing in disease terms.
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Early Puberty: Rapid Progression and Reduced Final Height in Girls With Low Birth Weight

Early Puberty: Rapid Progression and Reduced Final Height in Girls With Low Birth Weight

Conclusion. The timing of menarche and the level of final height in Catalan girls with early onset of puberty was found to depend on prenatal growth. Girls with normal birth weight tend to progress slowly through puberty with a normal timing of menarche and normal final height. In contrast, girls with low birth weight tend to progress relatively rapidly to an early menarche and to a reduced final height. If these findings are confirmed in other ethnic and/or larger groups, then a subgroup has been identified that will most likely benefit from any therapeutic intervention aiming at a delay of pubertal development and/or an increase of final height. Pediatrics 2000;106(5). URL: http://www.pediatrics.org/ cgi/content/full/106/5/e72; early puberty, final height, low birth weight.
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Evaluation and Referral of Children With Signs of Early Puberty

Evaluation and Referral of Children With Signs of Early Puberty

Concerns about possible early pubertal development are a common cause for referral to pediatric medical subspecialists. Several recent studies have suggested that onset of breast and/or pubic hair development may be occurring earlier than in the past. Although there is a chance of fi nding pathology in girls with signs of puberty before 8 years of age and in boys before 9 years of age, the vast majority of these children with signs of apparent puberty have variations of normal growth and physical development and do not require laboratory testing, bone age radiographs, or intervention. The most common of these signs of early puberty are premature adrenarche (early onset of pubic hair and/or body odor), premature thelarche (nonprogressive breast development, usually occurring before 2 years of age), and lipomastia, in which girls have apparent breast development which, on careful palpation, is determined to be adipose tissue. Indicators that the signs of sexual maturation may represent true, central precocious puberty include progressive breast development over a 4- to 6-month period of observation or progressive penis and testicular enlargement, especially if accompanied by rapid linear growth. Children exhibiting these true indicators of early puberty need prompt evaluation by the appropriate pediatric medical subspecialist. Therapy with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist may be indicated, as discussed in this report.
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Higher prevalence of obesity and overweight without an adverse metabolic profile in girls with central precocious puberty compared to girls with early puberty, regardless of GnRH analogue treatment

Higher prevalence of obesity and overweight without an adverse metabolic profile in girls with central precocious puberty compared to girls with early puberty, regardless of GnRH analogue treatment

17. Magiakou MA, Manousaki D, Papadaki M, Hadjidakis D, Levidou G, Vakaki M, Papaefstathiou A, Lalioti N, Kanaka-Gantenbein C, Piaditis G, Chrousos GP, Dacou-Voutetakis C: The efficacy and safety of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog treatment in childhood and adolescence: a single center, long-term follow-up study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010, 95(1):109 – 117. 18. Chiavaroli V, Liberati M, D'Antonio F, Masuccio F, Capanna R, Verrotti A, Chiarelli F, Mohn A: GNRH analog therapy in girls with early puberty is associated with the achievement of predicted final height but also with increased risk of polycystic ovary syndrome. Eur J Endocrinol 2010, 163(1):55 – 62.
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White matter development in early puberty: a longitudinal volumetric and diffusion tensor imaging twin study.

White matter development in early puberty: a longitudinal volumetric and diffusion tensor imaging twin study.

White matter volume in 8 and 9 year old children is highly heritable [18][57]. We show here for the first time that white matter surface area is also strongly influenced by genes. There are only two studies investigating genetic influences in white matter microstructure during puberty and adolescence: our previous study in the same cohort of 9-year olds showed moderate genetic influences in several of the major fiber bundles [19]. A recent cross-sectional study comparing adolescents (12 and 16 year olds) to adults showed larger influences of genetic factors on fractional anisotropy in the younger group, indicating that heritability of white matter microstructure decreases with age, or environment increases its influence during life [58]. In our longitudinal study we did not find this decrease in heritability, possibly due to our younger age, and much shorter time interval. The developmental changes in white matter volume and microstructure were explained by some (unknown) unique environmental factor.
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Early Puberty-Menarche After Precocious Pubarche: Relation to Prenatal Growth

Early Puberty-Menarche After Precocious Pubarche: Relation to Prenatal Growth

OBJECTIVE. Girls with precocious pubarche (PP; pubic hair at ⬍ 8 years of age) as a result of an early or amplified adrenarche (high dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate [DHEAS]) tend to be hyperinsulinemic, in particular when born with low birth weight (LBW). The objective of this study was to assess the interrelationship among prenatal growth, PP, the timing of puberty-menarche, and adult stature.

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Breastfeeding and timing of pubertal onset in girls: a multiethnic population-based prospective cohort study

Breastfeeding and timing of pubertal onset in girls: a multiethnic population-based prospective cohort study

EHR data, including prospectively-collected pubertal stage data assessed objectively by pediatricians and clin- ically measured BMI, we were able to examine the asso- ciations of breastfeeding and pubertal onset in a large number of girls. Second, we did not have information on potential confounders or mediating factors such as girls’ body composition, maternal psychosocial factors such as stress or depression, parenting styles and breast milk composition. Lastly, we were only able to examine these associations amongst girls due to funding constraints. Early-life risk factors for pubertal onset are vastly under- studied in boys. These are exciting areas for future re- search, and results from future studies may shed more light on the racial/ethnic differences in the timing of pu- bertal onset. Despite these limitations, our study ex- tended the knowledge in the area of risk factors of early puberty by using a diverse and large cohort of mother- daughter pairs, enabling us to explore racial/ethnic dif- ferences, which had never been done in previous studies.
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An empirical study on impact of puberty among children in young age with special reference to Tiruppur

An empirical study on impact of puberty among children in young age with special reference to Tiruppur

Many explanations and definitions of Early Puberty can be observed. According to the article Denise R. Tate. of the ages to define the onset of puberty, precocious puberty, and early puberty are debtable with in the medical community. Early puberty as less than 12 years for research purpose. It is more commonly found in girls, with African American girls maturing on average one year earlier than the Caucasia/Hispanic counterparts.

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Psychological assessment of mothers and their daughters at the time of diagnosis of precocious puberty

Psychological assessment of mothers and their daughters at the time of diagnosis of precocious puberty

There are speculations that girls with early puberty are likely to suffer from teasing, embarrassment, and social isolation due to looking different from their peers [7]. Although the girls with CPP in our study were physically different from the vast majority of their peers, it is re- assuring that they reported normal physical competence and social acceptance. Even within the normal range of puberty there is much interindividual variation in puber- tal timing, resulting in same-aged girls significantly dif- fering physically [3]. It is also reassuring that normal psychological scores were found in our girls with ENP. Since more of this cohort had already achieved menar- che, they might have been expected to exhibit greater psychological distress than the other groups. In contrast to other studies, no evidence of psychological problems were found in our girls with PA. However, mothers of girls with PA in our study reported increased levels of depression and stress. Whether the psychological differ- ences seen in the mothers of girls with PA are specific to their daughters’ early puberty or due to other factors is unknown.
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Body mass index in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty during and after treatment with GnRH analogues

Body mass index in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty during and after treatment with GnRH analogues

Colmenares et al. analyzed 37 girls with ICPP and 34 girls with early puberty under GnRHa treatment, com- pared to a heterogeneous control group of untreated girls (3 with CPP who refused treatment, 2 with slowly progressive CPP and 20 with early slowly progressive pu- berty). In this study 72.9 % of the girls with ICPP were OW or OB, a percentage significantly higher than that of OW/OB girls with early puberty (35.3 %). The entire group of treated ICPP girls showed no changes in BMI at one and two years of treatment, whereas an increase at year three was observed compared to the control Table 2 Auxological characteristics in girls who reached adult
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The Influence of GnRH Analog Therapy on Growth in Central Precocious Puberty

The Influence of GnRH Analog Therapy on Growth in Central Precocious Puberty

Some studies have shown that GNRHa ther- apy was effective in improving final height only in girls with CPP onset under the age of 6 [5, 15]. Lazar et al. concluded that height gain after treat- ment was higher in CPP girls who were treated being under the age of 6  [5]. The results of the present study are consistent with these observa- tions: The CPP girls who started GnRH therapy under the age of 7 had a  better height progno- sis after GnRHa treatment. Chiavaroli et al. ana- lyzed the effect of GnRHa therapy on adult height in girls with early puberty (onset between the ag- es of 8 to 10) and found that the treatment had no positive impact on the girls’ final height. Ad- ditionally, they noted that girls with early puber- ty have an increased risk of polycystic ovarian syndrome [16].
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Typology and Etiology of Precocious Puberty in Sub Saharan Africa: Report of 8 Cases in Abidjan, Ivory Coast a

Typology and Etiology of Precocious Puberty in Sub Saharan Africa: Report of 8 Cases in Abidjan, Ivory Coast a

We conducted a cross-sectional study between 2015 and 2017 from all cases of children admitted to early puberty in the unique Endocrinology Service of Ivory Coast. Patients in whom the diagnosis of PP was suspected or posed by the pe- diatrician or general practitioner were referred to us for management.

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Impact of fetal and neonatal malnutrition on the onset of puberty and associated noncommunicable disease risks

Impact of fetal and neonatal malnutrition on the onset of puberty and associated noncommunicable disease risks

The importance of ensuring the health and well-being of mothers and young children should not need more evi- dence to compel rational careful and humane policy creation efforts. Nonetheless, the long-term health ramifications of poorly fed mothers and neonates necessitate more serious investment. The connections are many, and the associated mechanisms have been well explored. The underlying issue of poor maternal capital leading to poor health in adulthood can be mitigated in two ways. First, maternal and early life food security should be carefully protected and paired with early child growth monitoring cheaply and effectively to ensure that vulnerable populations will have a fighting chance to correct the various socioeconomic conditions that perpetuate the cycle of poverty, including depleted mater- nal capital. Second, further prospective research should be performed to determine whether the onset of puberty can be monitored and local thresholds established for use as an indicator of NCD risk, as both stem from maladaptive early life trauma to the epigenome. If proven, early puberty onset should be met with targeted prevention measures to lessen the growing NCD burdens faced by groups undergoing rapid nutritional transition.
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RASopathies Are Associated With Delayed Puberty; Are They Associated With Precocious Puberty Too?

RASopathies Are Associated With Delayed Puberty; Are They Associated With Precocious Puberty Too?

stimulation of sex steroid production by the gonads. Therefore, genetic abnormalities in this pathway could theoretically lead to either delayed or precocious pubertal development. However, it is important to note that the etiology of the precocious puberty in our cases is not fully defined. It remains possible that, in children with developmental delay, precocious puberty might occur as an indirect result of the gene mutation and derive from disease-associated hypothalamic dysfunction, which could occur even without causative structural brain abnormalities. 28

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