as the radiation field impinging upon the earth atmosphere has an azimuthal symmetry with respect to outward normal, the quasi-diffusion method based on ray-tracing technique (Cassinelli and Hummer, 1971; Hummer and Rybicki, 1971; Leung, 1975, 1976) is an efficient tool for getting numeri- cal solutions to the problem. We have developed a quasi- diffusion radiative code, which uses the Henyey-Greenstein function as the scattering phase function. (Details of the code are beyond the scope of this paper, and will be reported else- where.) With the code we calculated the ADL brightness as a function of ζ .
The finite difference approximation for the system of linear algebraic equations with respect to z using the staggered grid method was applied (see paper ) pro- viding second order accuracy approximation. This scheme is used for FD approximation within the compu- tation domains in the atmosphere and in the elastic half-space, the fitting conditions at the interface being exactly satisfied. As a result of the above transformations, we obtain N 1 systems of linear algebraic equations, where N is the number of harmonics in the Fourier transform with respect to the coordinate y .
the vapor tension determined from the temperature of the air. Almost all are related to the wind speed. It is thus clear that these two factors play a determining role in this method. Last, the exploitation of these formulas may be performed by personnel with elementary knowledge. Their realization requires only knowledge of three parameters, namely the temperatures on the acting surface and of the air, and the wind speed. And these parameters are observed in many stations of our developing countries although their time series are not always regular in certain localities. This explains why the authors of this article based their analysis on the method of mass transfer to estimate the minimal value of the index of the hydrous deficit of the Earth-Atmosphere system in order to compute the evapotranspiration in the localities of the zone of study. As E s –E a is given starting from the temperatures of two
The research in this article focus that fundamental Neutrinos can’t exist on Earth Surface, atmosphere of Earth. It shall be considered as existing only in “Upper Region” of universe say thousands of kilometers above atmosphere of Earth due to Zero mass (or) Negative mass and having strong Gravitational binding with Centro mere of Cosmo Universe. The so called Neutrinos classified in modern quantum physics such as Electron, Muon, Tau, quarks, supernova and other thousands of unidentified particles shall be considered as “Species Neutrinos” to the fundamental neutrinos. It is speculated that the underground Neutrino observatory centers can’t catch hold of fundamental Neutrinos (2 nd generation radiation) but it may catch only the species neutrinos, through detector.
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Currently reentry of USA Space Shuttles and Command Module of Lunar Ships burns a great deal of fuel to reduce reentry speed because the temperatures are too high for atmospheric braking by conventional fiber parachutes. Recently high- temperature fiber and whiskers have been produced which could be employed in a new control rectangle parachute to create the negative lift force required. Though it is not large, a light parachute decreases Shuttle speed from 8 km/s (Shuttle) and 11 km/s (Apollo Command Module) up to 1 km/s and Space Ship heat flow by 3 - 4 times (not over the given temperature). The parachute surface is opened with backside so that it can emit the heat radiation efficiently to Earth-atmosphere. The temperature of parachute is about 600-1500 o C. The carbon fiber is able to keep its
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At first it is shown that a heterogeneous grain model according to Maxwell-Garnett mixing rule as small water- soluble (WS) inclusions in an oceanic (OC) matrix is available to interpret ADEOS/OCTS and POLDER data observed over the Arabian Sea. Our algorithm is based on an idea that aerosol characteristics can be estimated in terms of scattering behavior in the polarization field. Then atmospheric correction, which is based on radiative transfer process in an atmosphere-ocean model involving the retrieved aerosol model, is applied to ocean color data given by ADEOS/OCTS. Finally our atmospheric correction provides an expected chlorophyll map near the sea surface.
The present paper demonstrates that the known system of gas-dynamic (hydrodynamic) equations is also satis- factory only for homogeneous (isotropic) media and re- quires advancement to get feasible for non-homogeneous media. Thereafter, the advanced system of equations is reduced to the generalized equation of gas-dynamic (hy- drodynamic) waves in non-homogeneous medium. Ap- plication of this equation to perturbations of the Earth atmosphere with frequency bandwidth corresponding to the sound frequencies of range (10 - 104) Hz, shows that the equation of sound wave in the Earth atmosphere is in the form of plane wave with the only difference that the square of sound speed in it coincides with the value de- termined in the paper , i.e., in con- trast to currently accepted .
Thus, in both cases authors try to define speed of a sound in atmosphere of the Earth from the wave equation for a plane wave with homogeneous phase speed, which depends only on temperature. It is well known, that to this equation satisfy intensity vectors of electric and magnetic fields of electromagnetic wave in vacuum. For which the vacuum is a homogeneous environment for its, consequently the velocity of light in it is homogeneous. Earth atmosphere is essentially heterogeneous medium for sound where all characteristic thermodynamic pa- rameters depend on z coordinate. Since the sound of speed is also characteristic value of the medium, accord- ing to the fundamental principle of physics it must de- pend on z coordinate. Proceeding from the aforemen- tioned, formulation and solution of the problem in the monographs [5,6] look correct, however they have no relation to a sound wave in atmosphere of the Earth. As
The mysterious pathways of origin of life on earth have attracted the attention of great thinkers, philosophers and scientists of different disciplines since ancient times. It is now broadly accepted that in early periods of the earth, life originated from life-less environment without the intervention of divine creation or other supernatural events. Early theories and current findings of scientists have laid special emphasis on the abiotic origin of molecular matrices such as nucleic acids and proteins. During the last few decades biopolymers began to form and accumulate under prebiotic conditions has been speculated, reviewed and experimented upon by scientists 1-10 during the last few decades. Although, results of recent studies have provided important insights in our present day understanding of the basic theories of molecular evolution leading to the origin of life but a number of significant features of these evolutionary pathways are not clear and therefore these unresolved steps are still to be investigated. Richard Lemmon 8 in his review article gave strong arguments in favour of reduced primitive atmosphere and suggested that when mixture of methane , ammonia / nitrogen and water, the principal constituents of earth’s presumed early atmosphere were subjected to available energy sources such as UV-light and ionizing radiations, many biologically important compounds (amino acids, sugars and nucleic acid bases etc.) were formed. As the primitive earth atmospheres were hot enough so that hydrogen could escape into outer space from the atmosphere. Gradually the earth’s primary atmosphere was lost by diffusion and was replaced by secondary atmosphere. The escape of strong reducing agent hydrogen resulted in less reducing and finally in oxidizing atmosphere.
curves (Figure 4с) and by the Sun energy flux (Figure 4d). Horizontal lines on 5 April denote data unavailability. On the second day after the flare, on 4 April, the weather was fine, clear, and sunny. The nighttime temperature increase on 2 April may be explained by bad weather conditions, but on the following days up to 7 April, this increase was possibly associated with solar flare effects. A similar effect was observed during magnetic storms on November 2004 (Smirnov et al. 2013). In light (Danilov and Lastovika 2001) of the possible mechanisms for geomagnetic storm effects on the troposphere, it is a dynamic mechanism associated with the increase of acoustic-gravitation at- mospheric waves at the planetary scale; it is an electric mechanism associated with the global electric circuit and cosmic ray penetration into the atmosphere; it is an optical mechanism associated with atmosphere transpar- ency changes and chemical contents in the stratosphere under the influence of short-wave radiation of the Sun and GCRs. The change of just nighttime temperatures is indicative of the processes slowing heat loss.
is discussed by Judith Lean; indications for a centennial solar effect on the Antarctic atmospheric circulation based on dust records from ice cores are presented by Barbara Delmonte. Volcanic eruptions during the last centuries and their effects on the radiative balance in the atmosphere are the subject of Erich Fischer’s contribution; Joël Savarino proposes a new method to identify and possibly quantify the amount of sulphur injected in the stratosphere by volcanic eruptions. Emiliano Castellano and co-authors use high-resolution continuous ﬂow methods on new Antarctic ice cores to reconstruct past changes in volcanic activity, and discuss the possible interaction between this activity and ice sheet extent. Similarly, continuous methods enable new reconstructions of atmospheric dust deposition in Greenland over the last glacial cycle, owing to the NorthGRIP ice core. Fortunat Joos reviews the concept of radiative forcing and climate sensitivity, and the orders of magnitude of current perturbation of the atmosphere radiative balance due to anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Ulrike Lohmann describes the complex role of natural and anthropogenic aerosols on the radiative balance. Even before industrialisation, human activities could have affected the climate system through land use. This issue is addressed by Sandy Harrison.
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The presence of boundaries is not the only condition that can limit the energy of the evanescent mode. If the equal- ity a = 1/2H holds for these modes, then their energy does not vary with height in an isothermal atmosphere. For an in- finite atmosphere, this solution does not seem to be phys- ical, but it can make sense for a real atmosphere of finite height. As follows from Eq. (11), for the ND and AE modes, as well as their pseudo-modes, the condition a = 1/2H per- formed at the point k x = 1/2H . Also, at this point, the ND
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There are no serious doubts that total solar irradiance in the Marinoan was around 94% of its present-day value (Pier- rehumbert, 2010; Gough, 1981). In contrast, Marinoan at- mospheric carbon dioxide values are poorly, if at all, con- strained (Peltier, 2003). Moreover, the comparison of the Snowball Earth bifurcation point between models is rendered difficult by the use of different continents and albedo val- ues. Despite these issues, our study demonstrates that Snow- ball Earth initiation for Marinoan total solar irradiance (94% of the present-day value) in the most sophisticated climate model hitherto applied is possible at similar or even higher carbon dioxide levels than in simpler models without ocean dynamics (Donnadieu et al., 2004; Micheels and Montenari, 2008; Chandler and Sohl, 2000; Pollard and Kasting, 2004). This implies that models that calculate ocean heat transport dynamically are not necessarily more resistant to Snowball Earth initiation than models that do not incorporate ocean dynamics but use a specified ocean heat transport.
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Abstract. The relationship between terrestrial water storage (TWS) and atmospheric processes has important implica- tions for predictability of climatic extremes and projection of future climate change. In places where moisture availabil- ity limits evapotranspiration (ET), variability in TWS has the potential to influence surface energy fluxes and atmospheric conditions. Where atmospheric conditions, in turn, influence moisture availability, a full feedback loop exists. Here we developed a novel approach for measuring the strength of both components of this feedback loop, i.e., the forcing of the atmosphere by variability in TWS and the response of TWS to atmospheric variability, using satellite observations of TWS, precipitation, solar radiation, and vapor pressure deficit during 2002–2014. Our approach defines metrics to quantify the relationship between TWS anomalies and cli- mate globally on a seasonal to interannual timescale. Met- rics derived from the satellite data were used to evaluate the strength of the feedback loop in 38 members of the Commu- nity Earth System Model (CESM) Large Ensemble (LENS) and in six models that contributed simulations to phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). We found that both forcing and response limbs of the feedback loop in LENS were stronger than in the satellite observations in tropical and temperate regions. Feedbacks in the selected CMIP5 models were not as strong as those found in LENS, but were still generally stronger than those estimated from the satellite measurements. Consistent with previous studies conducted across different spatial and temporal scales, our analysis suggests that models may overestimate the strength of the feedbacks between the land surface and the atmo- sphere. We describe several possible mechanisms that may contribute to this bias, and discuss pathways through which
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Understanding of earth’s climates and climate change is governed by radiative processes in the earth- atmosphere system; in which aerosols with other particulates play a major role. The radiative properties of atmospheric aerosols are critically dependent on their refractive indices as a function of wavelength and also on their size. Theoretical modelling of light scattering by spherically assumed aerosol particles is always desired not only to gain insight to radiative transfer process but also to supplement ground based experiments. In the present study, we attempt to compute extinction efficiency (Q e ), scattering efficiency (Q s ) and absorption
megathrust slip processes and earthquake intensity to be in- vestigated on human timescales. Drilling oceanic crust will reveal the nature of poorly known microbial communities and their potential role in processes related to the alteration of igneous crust, sedimentary diagenesis, hydrocarbon and mineral deposit formation and destruction. These processes will help reveal e ff ects of microbes on subduction zone geo- chemistry, and potential influences of microbes on paleao- ceanographic records. This region has also significant eco- nomic potential for mineral and petroleum resources. Collab- oration among regional geological survey organisations and industry with the IODP through complementary drilling pro- posals will likely yield insights into deep and shallow earth processes.
Although there are powerful models that couple human activity with elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and global warming, the relationships are still based upon correlations rather than causation. Consequently, there is always the probability of a third factor that produces both. Ana- lyses of the diminishing magnetic dipole moment of the earth and the increased carbon dioxide levels and global temperature within the last 40 years revealed correlations of −0.99 and −0.90, respectively. This powerful association has been reported by other researchers. Why it has been ignored by the scientific community is not clear. The sources of the shift in average geomagnetic (magnetic dipole) intensity have not been identified but these relatively rapid decreases and in- creases have occurred historically with onsets of periods of warming and cooling, including glacier formation. If the long-time quasi-periodicity of the earth’s magnetic dipole moment is coupled to alterations in solar activity as the system moves around the galactic center, then attribution of elevated carbon dioxide-temperature to human sources rather than actual etiologies can be coun- terproductive to adaptation.
Deforestation is the second main reason of atmospheric carbon dioxide. It is also responsible for a large amount of carbon entering the atmosphere, and resulting from the burning and cutting of about millions of trees each year which refer to the human activities in order to get their needs from wood, While Methane is the second principal greenhouse gas and more than 20 times as effective as carbon dioxide at preventing heat from escaping in the atmosphere, it is the other solid sediments at the ocean which can be classified as natural cause for the global warming. The increase of the ocean floor temperature leads to the melting of this icy solid causing methane bubbles that released into the atmosphere in order to change the climate.
Since human body is a part of this universe, whatever is available in the universe, those are also present in the human body. Ayurveda is a life science. It has many own principles, among them Panchamahabhut principle is base for Ayurveda, and it is accepted worldwide. It is seen that there is a strong similarity between the Panchamahabhut and components of the earth. Like Panchamahabhut earth also contains five components. I.e. atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, mantle and core. Prithvi mahabhut contains properties of all previous mahabhuta, similarly lithosphere interacts with other components of earth. On close observation it is seen that predominance of properties and action of Akash and Vayu mahabhut are seen in atmosphere, Jala in hydrosphere, Agni in mantle and core, Prithvi in lithosphere and Vayu makes motion in all strata of the earth. It shows similarity of panchamabhut and earth. Till date total no. Of elements discovered are 112. Out of them, only 26 elements are responsible for cent percent constitution, physical structure, as well as chemical and biological functions of the human body. These 26 elements present in the earth as well as in the human body are classified into Panchamahabhut.
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d) The length of day and rotation of earth: The earth rotated about the sun in 365.25days and rotated by itself in 24hours and the seasonal variation produce according to the inclined angle of earth axis rotation. The length of the days vary the amount of radiation received per days, then for long day the earth receive more radiation, more than short day .