Entrepreneurial Behaviour

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Differences in Age, Gender, Social Norm and Education as Determinant of Entrepreneurial Behaviour in Southern Nigeria

Differences in Age, Gender, Social Norm and Education as Determinant of Entrepreneurial Behaviour in Southern Nigeria

This was due to the belief that higher educated persons may be less likely to become entrepreneurs because of their higher earnings expectations and therefore will consider that business activity is not an intellectual activity (the educated entrepreneur may become wearied because of the tedious task associated with the day to day running of the business) but only for the less academically successful to earn high income (Storey, 1994). However, in recent years, education is considered a key constituent of the human capital needed for business success (ibid.) as it enables the individual to organize a business by providing skills, training and knowledge required for such activities (Raijman, 2001; Barkham, 1994). Studies have proposed that highly educated individuals are more likely than less educated individuals to found new businesses (Lee et al., 2004). Empirical evidence to support this premise is somewhat mixed (Davidsson, 1995) for instance, some studies have found a relationship between educational level on entrepreneurial intention (Brice and Nelson, 2008), behaviour (Beugelsdijk and Noorderhaven, 2004; Crant, 1996), firm success (Gray et al., 2006), performances (Roper, 1998) and growth (Cooper et al., 1994) while others have found no such relationship (Fitzsimmons and Douglas, 2010; Brice and Nelson, 2008). Therefore, considering the above review and the importance of education in supporting ones inclination to innovate (Minniti et al., 2005), it is pertinent to differentiate those whose level of intention may not actually lead to entrepreneurial behaviour on the basis of their educational level in other to harness government resources in the right direction for the effective attainment of their objective of fostering Entrepreneurship.
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Enabling entrepreneurial behaviour in a land-based university

Enabling entrepreneurial behaviour in a land-based university

The rationale, often used in education when disseminating entrepreneurial principles, is that in order to drive entrepreneurial behaviour and outcomes, students must study and acquire appropriate entrepreneurial knowledge and information (EKI), and that this will then influence their EA then EI i.e. the willingness to start a new business when they leave university (Mat et al., 2015). These learning informed steps will then in turn through exhibiting entrepreneurial behaviour drive increasing entrepreneurial competence. Entrepreneurial competence is “the totality of an individual's personal abilities, qualities and skills that ensures successful entrepreneurship” (Bikse and Riemere, 2013: 511). Entrepreneurial competence as a characteristic involves the capability of introducing creativity and innovation, abilities and skills such as effective communication, organisation, project management, action planning and risk-taking as well as the knowledge and skills needed for establishing and developing a new enterprise (Bikse, 2011). By contrast, the student can be seen as a passive recipient of EKI or conversely, the student can be determined as a co-creator of EKI, by actively constructing their own knowledge and meaning (Mueller and Anderson, 2014). This suggests there is a role within the learning process to embed EKI through specific learning opportunities, thus promoting EI, entrepreneurial competence and subsequently entrepreneurial behaviour either during their studies and/or when they exit university into the wider economy. Indeed, in a multiple co-creation process the capital value of EKI is increasing not only just within the student body, but also within the academic body. The themes outlined here have been drawn together (Figure 2) into an entrepreneurial behaviour model (EBM).
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IMPACT OF GROUP INTERACTIONS ON FARMERS’ ENTREPRENEURIAL BEHAVIOUR

IMPACT OF GROUP INTERACTIONS ON FARMERS’ ENTREPRENEURIAL BEHAVIOUR

of the farmers was not prominent in vegetable cultivation. Decision making ability and planning ability of farmers were at a high level. Risk orientation of farmers’ was fairly low. Farmers’ entrepreneurial behaviour enhanced with socio-economic status and social participation. Group interactions of the farmers were high in seasonal planning, and selecting of crops. In selling, group interactions were very low. Relatively small proportionate of members in the more entrepreneurial Sinha farmer group (in comparison to the Mahasen group) indicates the effectiveness of relatively smaller groups. Attitudes of the farmers on group interactions can be improved through awareness program- mes on mutual benefits, team building activities, and workshops. Group leaders could encourage the members to value healthy interpersonal relationships with the help of advisers of choice. Mechanisms to improve small group formation activities through Farmer Organi- zations could be focused.
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Entrepreneurial Behaviour Revisited: Linking Self-Efficacy with Effectuation

Entrepreneurial Behaviour Revisited: Linking Self-Efficacy with Effectuation

Entrepreneurial behaviour explains what entrepreneurs do and how they embrace the entrepreneurial process (Fisher, 2012; Gartner, 1989; McMullen & Shepherd, 2006). Their behaviour needs to be analysed in order to understand how they create and grow new ventures and generate economic growth (Fisher, 2012; Gartner, 1989). Entrepreneurial behaviour goes beyond rigid profiles of character traits and skills. These can hardly explain the magnitude of different individuals and how they make decisions and address the challenges encountered by their ventures (Gartner, 1989). A character trait's fixed state of existence is unlikely to account for the dynamic nature of entrepreneurship, learning and growth (Gartner, 1989). For deeper insights into entrepreneurial behaviour, the two research streams of entrepreneurial self- efficacy (e.g. Bandura, 1997, 1982, 1977; Kasouf et al., 2015; Read et al., 2009) and effectuation (e.g. Chandler et al., 2011; Chandler et al., 2007; Perry et al., 2012; Read et al., 2009; Sarasvathy, 2001) need to be examined. In line with Gartner's (1989) observation of the explanatory limits of static character traits, this article shows that self-efficacy and effectuation go beyond that and focus on the actual behaviours needed in order to cope with the dynamic environment entrepreneurs encounter every day. These behaviours help them to identify opportunities, acquire knowledge, make decisions, learn from mistakes, establish in partnerships and grow the venture.
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The Effect of Social Entrepreneurial Behaviour Towards Organizational Performance: A Study on Bumiputera Entrepreneurs in Malaysia

The Effect of Social Entrepreneurial Behaviour Towards Organizational Performance: A Study on Bumiputera Entrepreneurs in Malaysia

This research employs a survey using standard questionnaire as a primary data collection technique. The questionnaire was presented in both languages, Bahasa Malaysia and English. 7-point Likert scales ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree was used. Both measures were adopted from previous studies, social entrepreneurial behaviour from Helm (2007) and organizational performance from Gold et al. (2001). The samples in this study are the Bumiputera SME owners all over Malaysia. 384 respondents participated in this study by implementing the systematic random sampling technique from a total of 645,136 SME owners in Malaysia. Frequency, descriptive, reliability, correlation and multiple regression analysis were tested in this study. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of social entrepreneurial behaviour towards organizational performance among the Bumiputera SME owners in Malaysia.
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Exploration of active citizenship, entrepreneurial behaviour and calling in career

Exploration of active citizenship, entrepreneurial behaviour and calling in career

The convergence of globalization, technological innovations, knowledge-based economies and demographic trends has led to an increased focus on the effects and importance of entrepreneurship (Volkmann et al., 2009; Cullen, Johnson, & Parboteeah, 2014; Fayolle, Gailly, & Lassas-Clerc, 2006; Martin, McNally, & Kay, 2013). Entrepreneurship is seen as a driving force of economic development, structural change and job creation. Kirchoff in his seminal 1989 paper defined that entrepreneurs are key drivers of economic and social progress. Rapidly growing enterprises (or gazelles as they are commonly called) are important sources of innovation, productivity growth and employment (small and medium-sized enterprises account for a high percentage of all jobs in emerging economies). Entrepreneurial aspirations are of key importance in addressing the (socio-) economic impact of entrepreneurial behaviour. Amongst the typical activities of entrepreneurs where they contribute to economic growth and to the improvement of communities’ lives is job creation, involvement in international trade and/or offering new or improved products and services. Acknowledging the services rendered to economy and society, governments globally are actively engaged in promoting entrepreneurship through various forms of support.
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Cultural Factors Effecting Entrepreneurial Behaviour Among Entrepreneurs. Case Study of Multan, Pakistan

Cultural Factors Effecting Entrepreneurial Behaviour Among Entrepreneurs. Case Study of Multan, Pakistan

The present research concentrates to explore the cultural factors effecting entrepreneurial behavior. Main research question was to study the impact of culture on entrepreneurial behavior. Besides this, the researcher also examined the role of family, peer group and education in developing entrepreneurial behavior. The universe for the present study consisted of all enterprises registered with Trade of Chamber and Commerce (Multan). Five entrepreneurs were selected for interview through convenient sampling. In depth interview method was used for data collection. The data thus collected, were analyzed using critical analysis procedure. From the analysis it was concluded that culture has stronger impact on developing entrepreneurial behaviour i.e. Family and friends, play a strong role as source for developing entrepreneurial behaviour. Their moral and financial support helps entrepreneur to take risks and inculcate new ideas in their business. It is recommended that entrepreneurial education should be included at all educational level which develop entrepreneurial intention and can contribute in socio-economic development of entrepreneur as well as the country.
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Entrepreneurial Behaviour of Rural Women on Bamboo Handicrafts in Tripura, North-East India

Entrepreneurial Behaviour of Rural Women on Bamboo Handicrafts in Tripura, North-East India

Women entrepreneurship development is an essential part of human resource development. Any strategy aimed at economic development will be lop-sided without involving women who constitute half of the world population. Entrepreneurship enhances financial independence and self esteem of women which empower them socially and economically. The hidden entrepreneurial potentials of women have gradually been changing with the growing sensitivity to the role and economic status in the society. The present study has been conducted to know the entrepreneurial behaviour of rural women of Tripura. Being one of the major bamboo growing states in India, bamboo handicrafts providing self employment to many rural women and in order to understand the intricacies associated with the bamboo handicrafts, this enterprise has been selected purposively for the study. The study has been conducted in Sepahijala and West Tripura district in 2015-16. Total sample size for the present study was 80. Result shows that 58.75% rural women belong to medium entrepreneurial behaviour category followed by 25% low and 16.25% belong to high entrepreneurial behavior category. The study also indicated that investment on enterprise, annual income, credit orientation, extension participation, mass media participation and level of aspiration have positive and significant relationship with entrepreneurial behavior. The entrepreneur are solely dependent on the middlemen for marketing of their product which ultimately reflected in the marketing orientation as it is evidenced negative significant relationship in the study. Therefore, to promote women entrepreneurship and improve their socio-economic condition adequate institutional, financial support should be given by the Govt. for sustainable livelihood besides the development of infrastructure on marketing.
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CAPABILITIES AND ENTREPRENUERIAL BEHAVIOUR OF EMPLOYEES IN NIGERIAN BEVERAGE INDUSTRY

CAPABILITIES AND ENTREPRENUERIAL BEHAVIOUR OF EMPLOYEES IN NIGERIAN BEVERAGE INDUSTRY

entrepreneurial skills among employees. It is therefore imperative for managers to acknowledge and understand the capabilities of employee’s entrepreneurial skills and their effect on firms existing capabilities this was based on the perception that successful entrepreneurial skills might be the game changer for such firms. On the other hand, extant literatures in the past two decades have highlighted various dimensions (Zhang et al.2009; Alegre and Chiva 2009; Wang, 2008; Dimitratos and Liouka ;Winter 2002) of capabilities such as managerial, adaptive, absorptive, innovative, marketing, networking, technical, financial, operational and dynamic capabilities. Several studies (Aldrich and Zimmer, 1986; Conviello and Munro, 1997; Johnson and Mattson, 1988; Loane and Bell, 2006; Meyer and skak, 2002; Mort and Weerawardena, 2006) affirmed the influence of business and social networks on opportunity recognition. Related study by Alegra and Chiva (2009) confirmed the significant role played by learning capability in determining the effect of entrepreneurial orientation on innovation performance. Tampkin (2007) concurred that management capability makes a difference on individual performance. More recently, Morgan et al (2009) concluded that market orientation and market capability are complementary assets that contribute to superior firm performance. The question then is how these capabilities (managerial, learning, networking and marketing) influence entrepreneurial behaviour (innovativeness, pro- activeness and risk seeking) of employees in Nigeria beverage industry. Arising from this, the study examined the relationship between entrepreneurial behaviour of employees and firm’s capability deployed to create an ecosystem that facilitates the development of the entrepreneurial traits.
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Conditions for the successful transfer of community care by Policy Entrepreneurs   The case of Buurtzorg in the Netherlands and China

Conditions for the successful transfer of community care by Policy Entrepreneurs The case of Buurtzorg in the Netherlands and China

First, the belief system is essential to the Policy Entrepreneurs as it “will determine the direction in which an Advocacy Coalition (or any other political actor) will seek to move” (Sabatier, 1988, p. 143). Moreover, the literature on belief systems does not only directly identify the belief system as the steering element of Advocacy Coalitions, but also links the belief system to the behaviour of the actors within the Advocacy Coalition. Accordingly, it was found that “the primary driver of activity within subsystems stems from the behaviour of actors within policy subsystems attempting to map their beliefs into public policy” (Jenkins-Smith et al., 2014). Hence, it can be assumed that the beliefs of Policy Entrepreneurs within the Advocacy Coalition determine the degree of activity and the content of their entrepreneurial behaviour. However, the ACF also provides a clear differentiation within the belief system and structures the different beliefs according to their likelihood to change. Sabatier (1988) introduces three kinds of beliefs, namely the deep (core) beliefs, the near (policy) core beliefs and the secondary aspects. Deep (core) beliefs are the least likely to change. They consist of a set of value principles, comparable to a paradigm, and Sabatier describes them as a “part of a personal philosophy” with religious impressions (1988, p.145). Usually, the actors within an Advocacy Coalitions agree on their deep (core) beliefs as they display the general basis of conviction for all kinds of policies, whereas near (policy) core beliefs are more restricted to the policy area of interest (Sabatier, 1988). Near (policy) core beliefs are covering normative and core elements of individual policy beliefs, but they can be subject to change, if the policy “reveals serious anomalies” (Sabatier, 1988, p.145). Thus, it is still unlikely that near (policy) core beliefs of Policy Entrepreneurs change, but it can occur if the reality proves them wrong in their policy decision. The last type of beliefs are the secondary aspects, which consist of administrative procedures or the policy performance. The beliefs in the secondary aspects are easy to change and they are solely referring to the policy of interest and the connected issue area (Sabatier, 1988).
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Understanding Motivation Factors of Tourism Entrepreneurs in Tasik Kenyir

Understanding Motivation Factors of Tourism Entrepreneurs in Tasik Kenyir

This study contributes to the literature by adding motivational factors that stimulate ecotourism operators to engage in ecotourism businesses. The results shows that majority of the ecotourism operators are towards ‘life- style’ entrepreneurship where majority the ecotourism operators in Tasik Kenyir reflects their managerial decisions are based highly on personalised criteria mainly it involves in satisfying their personal and family goals. It can be associate that entrepreneurial behaviour of ecotourism operators is characterised by the lack of motivation to pursue the goal of maximising economic gain which reflects the definition of tourism entrepreneur, although not well established, where they reject economic factors as the reason for them to be in the ecotourism businesses.
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Contrasts and similarities in economic performance of migrant entrepreneurs

Contrasts and similarities in economic performance of migrant entrepreneurs

Our study primarily addresses the entrepreneurial behaviour of migrants in the city of Amsterdam – with a focus on their personal characteristics, socio-cultural bonds and managerial skills – from a multicultural urban perspective, in order to perform a quantitative assessment of the critical success factors (CSFs) for migrant entrepreneurs in a cultural network context with the aim of improving business performance in a competitive urban environment. Figure 2 shows the relationship between culture and social networks with a view to the identification of critical success factors (CSFs) for the business performance of migrant entrepreneurs. Those factors are linked to their success and entry into new business markets of migrant entrepreneurs of different ethnic origin in Dutch cities. To that end, it is important to specify relevant input factors that may explain quantitatively the performance (output factors) of these entre- preneurs. Our approach will be applied to an extensive data set on the motives, CSFs, and cultural background of a sample of migrant entrepreneurs in Amsterdam. The methodology for examining such an analytical model in a quantitative sense, based on DEA, is briefly explained in Section 4.
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STRATEGIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN UGANDA

STRATEGIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN UGANDA

Zahra &Dess (2001) put forward that strategic orientation is an extra dimension on top of entrepreneurial orientation for those that start up schools. Strategic orientations whose key areas in this study are strategic leadership style, networking and resource strategy have been key in the performance of private secondary schools (Mugimu et al., 2002; Ssekamwa, 1997). Strategic leadership in schools provides long-term strategic vision while networking may lead to social capital. Hitt et al.(2001) adds that social capital could be a useful resource both by enhancing internal organizational trust through the bonding of actors, as well as by bridging external networks in order to provide resources which in turn enhance the internal exploitation of resources. The critical resources to create and operate in the private schools are usually obtained through network ties. Strategic networks help private schools develop resources and capabilities that are difficult to imitate, leading to a competitive advantage(Zahra &Dess, 2001; Ajagbe, 2007;Ogbari et al., 2016b). However, Performance has been seen in geographical expansion, student enrolment and introduction of new services. Nonetheless, strategic entrepreneurship which is an interaction of strategic orientation and entrepreneurial orientation behaviour, could be attributed to contribute to the difference in performance of the private secondary schools though entrepreneurial behaviour, (opportunity seeking) and strategic behaviour (advantage seeking) have been practiced independently. This study sought to establish the relationshipsamong the various facets of strategic entrepreneurship and performance of private secondary schools in Wakiso district with a view to understanding the interaction of entrepreneurial and strategic behaviour leading to difference in performance of the schools. Figure 1 reveals the research conceptual framework.
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Entrepreneurial intentions among students: towards a re focused research agenda

Entrepreneurial intentions among students: towards a re focused research agenda

antecedents of entrepreneurial behaviour (e.g., attitudes about entrepreneurship, perceived self-efficacy, entrepreneurial intention). The framework provides indicators or characteristics of the EEP such as: type of EEP (e.g., awareness raising, education for start-up); contents of the EEP (e.g., know-what, know-why, know-how, know- who); and teaching approaches (e.g., real-life immersion, case studies, role-model talks, lectures). This could be cumulative and valuable nationally. Although ambitious, it should allow for a more appropriate, structured and comparative framework as to what works, pedagogically, to enhance entrepreneurial potential. Built on a robust theory-driven approach and based on validated measures, such a quantitative approach could allow for an empirical and longitudinal analysis.
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Annual review article: Is it time to rethink the gender agenda in entrepreneurship research?

Annual review article: Is it time to rethink the gender agenda in entrepreneurship research?

15 have entered a postfeminist era. The conceptual basis of postfeminism suggests that the twenty-first century Western woman no longer needs feminism as gender equality has been enshrined in law, so she can achieve her personal desires and fulfil her career potential through agency and opportunity (McRobbie, 2009; Lewis, 2014). Taken together, these themes reflect the contemporary neo-liberal turn (Ahl and Marlow, 2017) which made the current global phenomenon of entrepreneurship desirable and possible. The concept of an atomistic, agential female entrepreneur also aligns well with an emergent neo-liberal version of feminism in which individual women are encouraged to ‘lean in’, strictly manage their time and regulate their and their families’ lives in order to succeed as high-achieving working mothers (Fraser, 2013; hooks, 2013; Sandberg, 2013). When neoliberal and postfeminist perspectives are combined, the female subject is conceptually removed from context and structural constraints; the effect is that she is urged to seize the opportunities offered by entrepreneurship while at the same time still disproportionately constrained by gendered structural challenges impeding her agency (Ahl and Marlow, 2017). This friction is then articulated as feminised deficits, exit and failure issues, risk aversion accusations and in particular, is transposed to the policy debate regarding how to ‘encourage’ women to exploit their agency (Marlow et al., 2008). Thus, critical evaluations of the potential promise of entrepreneurship as a pathway to postfeminist freedoms hold significant scope to inform a much wider critique of the benefits and welfare functions of entrepreneurial behaviour in society.
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The effect of an entrepreneurial leadership style on employees' sustainable behaviour

The effect of an entrepreneurial leadership style on employees' sustainable behaviour

of the importance of sustainability. Entrepreneurial leaders can influence their employees to behave sustainably by raising awareness of the topic. This can be done by communicating its importance and emphasizing sustainability is of everyone’s interest. It is useful to communicate a clear aim and expectations otherwise uninterested employees might not take action. Theme 4: Support. While giving support the importance of acting as an advisor was mentioned. Support should not come in the form of strict guidelines of how to behave more sustainable. Strict guidelines could evoke the opposite of acting sustainable because employees have the feeling of being forced to it, even though that is a topic where employees have the choice of going for it or not. It is rather helpful to give advice but emphasizing that the responsibility is still on the employee’s side. In the context of a project the entrepreneurial leader can point out financial savings which result from a more sustainable use of resources. As the entrepreneurial leader most likely has more expertise in this field he can give support to the employee which helps to develop an understanding of the sustainable usage of resources on the employee side and to financial savings which are beneficial for the organization. Theme 5: Autonomy. It was reported that entrepreneurial leaders stimulate entrepreneurial behaviour in their employees by giving them room to learn by not specifying in detail what they have to do. This means employees have the autonomy to think of a solution to the problem themselves and develop their skills by doing so. Certain employees have a very high enthusiasm about sustainability themselves. They might show this by coming up with ideas for sustainable projects or by treating resources sustainably. If employees show this behaviour entrepreneurial leaders can support their ideas and granting them work-time from their daily work hours to accomplish a sustainable project or spreading sustainable ideas throughout the rest of the organization. Accordingly, an entrepreneurial leadership style stimulates employees to give their own input about problems, solutions and to come up with creative ideas. Employees are challenged to come up with innovative ideas, to take risk and to
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Role of entrepreneurial motivation on entrepreneurial intentions and behaviour: theory of planned behaviour extension on engineering students in Pakistan

Role of entrepreneurial motivation on entrepreneurial intentions and behaviour: theory of planned behaviour extension on engineering students in Pakistan

Despite the contributions to existing body of knowledge, this study is not without limitations. Results of the study will be difficult to generalize over all engineering stu- dents in Pakistan due to high variation in the quality of instruction at different engin- eering institutions. Few engineering institutions are equipped with state of the art labs and qualified instructors are available; however, many engineering institutions are less equipped with quality labs and quality of instruction in not good. Though this study at- tempts to address an under-researched area of entrepreneurial behaviour, yet re- searchers have not reached a conclusion to measure entrepreneurial behaviour besides longitudinal studies, which in the case of engineers is difficult to handle due to varied employment and role in industry during early years of professional career. Hence, this study still considers entrepreneurial intention-behaviour gap an under-researched area considering it a limitation of TPB. Study used sample selection non-randomly. Hence, generalization of findings on entire population of engineers in Pakistan is not appropri- ate. Further, inherent variability due to engineering specialities have not been consid- ered in this study.
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Predicting the Entrepreneurial Intentions of University Students: Applying the Theory of Planned Behaviour in Zambia, Africa

Predicting the Entrepreneurial Intentions of University Students: Applying the Theory of Planned Behaviour in Zambia, Africa

In the context of entrepreneurship, intention would reflect an individual’s wil- lingness or plan to engage in new venture creation or growth [44]. It is a self- acknowledged conviction by an individual that he or she will and plans to start a new venture at some point in future [45]. This means that while intention represents a future course of action, it is not simply an expectation or prediction of future actions but a proactive commitment. The major premise for the TPB is that most goal-directed behaviours are planned and therefore preceded by inten- tion. Nevertheless, a few scholars indicate that there may be exceptions to this premise, for example, when an individual drifts into starting up a business after stumbling on an opportunity serendipitously [44] [46] [47]. On the whole, in- tentionality is a state of mind directing a person’s attention, experience and ac- tions toward a specific goal/path. Scholars indicate that intention is the most immediate antecedent of a given behaviour [48] [49]. Even though some entre- preneurial ideas begin with inspiration, intention is required for sustained atten- tion and action. Entrepreneurs’ intentions guide their goal setting, communica- tion, commitment, organisation and other efforts in the entrepreneurial process [50] [51].
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Understanding the Relationship between Entrepreneurial Spirit and Global Competitiveness: Implications for Indonesia

Understanding the Relationship between Entrepreneurial Spirit and Global Competitiveness: Implications for Indonesia

Indonesia is an efficiency-driven economy and has a lower global competitiveness level compared with other ASEAN countries, except with the Philippines and Vietnam (considered to be factor-driven). Nevertheless, Indonesia has encouraging entrepreneurial attitudes, such as high levels of social value and personal attribute, but low levels of goal orientation. But interestingly, it is goal orientation that has a positive and significant relationship with global competitiveness. One may theorize that, in the long run, countries like Indonesia need to think about their goal orientation related to entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurs in Indonesia may need to be encouraged to have higher levels of aspiration towards the economic impact of entrepreneurship to the society, through job creation, income generation, internationalization, and competitiveness. Further, compared to other countries in the ASEAN region, Indonesia has a high level of total early entrepreneurial activities but a low level of established business ownerships. This may mean that Indonesia is on its way towards being more globally competitive. Further investigations about how entrepreneurial activities would causally influence global competitiveness are called for.
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When is Entrepreneurial leadership most effective

When is Entrepreneurial leadership most effective

Based on the literature review we expect that Entrepreneurial leaders differ from managers. Therefore I decided to include entrepreneurs and managers in this study to eventually compare the results. Criteria in order to compare entrepreneurs and managers, the same interview protocol, comparable sectors and size of the company are necessary to come up with reliable results. This type of sampling is called purposive or judgmental sampling: “A type of nonprobability sampling in which the units to be observed are selected on the basis of the researcher’s judgment about which ones will be the most useful or representative” (Babbie, 2007, p. 193). Further criteria are a minimum of one years of entrepreneurial experience and 3 direct reports. Given the time frame, only entrepreneurs will be interviewed. Managers are interview by a bachelor group of the University of Twente using the same interview protocolIn snowball sampling the researcher collects data on the few members of the target population
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