Entrepreneurial Intention

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The Relationship of Entrepreneurial Competencies and Entrepreneurial Intention of Disabled Youth: A Study on Behavioural and Managerial Competencies

The Relationship of Entrepreneurial Competencies and Entrepreneurial Intention of Disabled Youth: A Study on Behavioural and Managerial Competencies

Background: There are about 445,006 disabled people in Malaysia, who were registered in 2012 The figure marked an increased by 71.87 percent from 283,204 in the year 2009. However, these figures do not reflect the real numbers, as in Malaysia, registration is not compulsory. Alarmingly, majority of them were not employed due to their disabilities and social stigma. They should be given equal rights, as the disabled would also be able to contribute to the economic growth of a country. One of the ways for effective economic empowerment for the disabled is by encouraging and supporting them in activities of their communities such as entrepreneurship - in order for them to be able to be independent and able to generate income on their own. Objective: To study the relevant behavioural and managerial entrepreneurial competencies that influence entrepreneurial intention for the disabled youth. Results: For behavioural entrepreneurial competencies, only opportunity seeking influence entrepreneurial intention positively whilst the other competencies; initiative, persistence and assertiveness do not influence entrepreneurial intention. Whereas for managerial entrepreneurial competencies, persuasion influences entrepreneurial intention positively, whilst problem solving and information seeking influence entrepreneurial intention negatively. Conclusion: This study proves that the competencies related to entrepreneurial intention differs from people with disability and those who are without disability. Though many of the entrepreneurial competencies in this study were the predictors for entrepreneurial intention for the common, it is not the case for the disabled. As little to none research has been done on the disabled in regards of entrepreneurial competencies and entrepreneurial intention, this study fills the literature gap and extends the literature on the particular field.
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Attitude and Entrepreneurial Intention Among Rural Community: the Mediating Role of Entrepreneurial Opportunity Recognition

Attitude and Entrepreneurial Intention Among Rural Community: the Mediating Role of Entrepreneurial Opportunity Recognition

The intent to become entrepreneur does not depend only on attitude. Recently, researchers have shown an increased interest in subjectivity theory of entrepreneurship that focuses on individuals, knowledge, resources and skills, and the processes of discovery and creativity (Linan et al., 2011). This study suggests process of discovery or opportunity recognition as a plausible underlying mechanism which could help to further explain the relationship between attitude and entrepreneurial intention. Opportunity development occur when potential entrepreneur seek to convince, engage, or organize other social actors such as discussion and interpretation with others to develop their ideas (Dimov, 2007). On the other hand, entrepreneurship requires opportunities that lead to individual action and therefore intention can be regarded as a catalyst to action (Zainuddin, 2012). Besides, Hunter (2013) argues that opportunity is related to environmental forces and individual factors. Applying theory of planned behavior, this research intends to provide new findings which reflect relationship among attitude, opportunity, and entrepreneurial intention among Malaysian rural community.
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A STUDY ON THE INFLUENCE OF ATTITUDINAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTION

A STUDY ON THE INFLUENCE OF ATTITUDINAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTION

The result of the study indicates that student’s attitude towards money and attitude towards entrepreneurship have a significant relationship with their entrepre- neurial intention. However, student’s attitude toward change and attitude towards competitiveness was found to have no significant relationship with their en- trepreneurial intention. But all the environmental factors i.e. students college environment, environmental support and environmental barrier were found to have a significant relationship with their entrepreneurial intention. Hence this study concludes by recommending universities and colleges in Kerala to start more entrepreneurial educational programs for students. Apart from theoretical subjects entrepreneurial education should give importance to practical sessions. It is also recommended to have interactive sessions with entrepreneurs, which will help the students to clear their quires regarding small start ups. Incubators in colleges can play an important role in developing student’s interest in venture ownership. Students with innovative ideas should be encouraged at school level itself. Autonomy should be given to students for free thinking and for decision making. Schools in Kerala should promote role models and should organize business idea competitions with attractive awards. This can develop entrepreneurial intention and competiveness attitude in young people. Attitude towards money also showed a significant relationship with entrepreneurial intention; this finding shows that students are motivated by having good standard of living. Environmental support and environmental barriers also have a significant relationship with entrepreneurial intention, this findings shows the importance of environmental factors on entrepreneurial intention. This finding clearly mentions that if environmental support is less and environmental barriers are more than it will be very difficult for students to start an enterprise of their own.
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Entrepreneurial Intention of Young Generation in Metropolis

Entrepreneurial Intention of Young Generation in Metropolis

The intention of youth entrepreneurs in urban and metropolitan areas is unique because urban communities have different characteristics, more, the environment and metropolitan complexity have an effect on the characteristics of society including young people in urban areas. The urban community tends to be instant and practical. It is predicted to have an effect on entrepreneurial intention among urban youth. This study explores the various factors that are suspected as a driver for youth in entrepreneurship. The three variables used as predictors are attiude, social norm and behavior. Attitude variable is the variable that gives the highest contribution to entrepreneur intention, hereinafter is variable of social norm and variable of behavior give the least contribution to intention of young entrepreneur in Surabaya and its surroundings. However, all variables make a positive contribution in shaping the intention of young entrepreneurs. Respondents are at least 17 years old and a maximum of 28 years old, the average age is 19 years old, so that the average study respondents were very young. Respondents from male sex is 30.7% and women is 69.3%, so the majority of respondents are women.
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Effect of Entrepreneurship Education on Entrepreneurial Intention

Effect of Entrepreneurship Education on Entrepreneurial Intention

Literature suggests that the past two decades have witnessed significant growth in entrepreneurship education programs in most countries (Neck et al., 2014; Singer, Amoros, & Arreola, 2014). In their view, Neck et al., (2014) attribute this significant growth of entrepreneurship education programs to global belief in the positive impact that entrepreneurship can have on the socio-economic and political infrastructure of a nation. Public policy makers recognize the importance of entrepreneurship as promoter of economic development and hence support entrepreneurship education programs to increase entrepreneurial activity (Ambad & Damit, 2015). The European Commission, for example, reports that the primary purpose of entrepreneurship education is to promote entrepreneurial attitudes, develop entrepreneurial intention and influence mindsets of potential entrepreneurs (European Commission, 2010) and recommends integrating entrepreneurship fully into higher education curricula.
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Factors affecting entrepreneurial intention among postgraduates

Factors affecting entrepreneurial intention among postgraduates

Entrepreneurial intention among students has been getting attention from numerous of researchers. It has been considered as an important phenomenon that becomes very famous among today‘s youth and students in most countries across the globe. This study aims to revisiting the effect of a number of internal and external factors revealed in previous studies on entrepreneurial intention, and examining the importance of conducive business environment at the university that affecting the entrepreneurial intention among postgraduate students. The total number of respondents chosen randomly to participate in this study was 357 postgraduate students from Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM). Using questionnaires, the data is collected from students in classes, in the library, and online. The Smart-PLS 3 as one of the leading software tools for partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was utilized to test the hypotheses. The study results display that self- efficacy is the only factor from internal factors that has a positive and significant effect; while, in term of the external factors, financial support, family support; likewise, role model and entrepreneurial education, as the dimensions of the university environment, have positive and significant relationships with entrepreneurial intention. The results suggest that entrepreneurial intention has the potential to be supported more in the universities to create the supportive environment that promotes intention of postgraduates to choose their future career in entrepreneurship sectors.
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Factors affecting entrepreneurial intention levels

Factors affecting entrepreneurial intention levels

From a third perspective, since the decision to become an entrepreneur may be plausibly considered as voluntary and conscious (Krueger et al., 2000), it seems reasonable to analyze how that decision is taken. In this sense, the entrepreneurial intention would be a previous and determinant element towards performing entrepreneurial behaviours (Fayolle & Gailly, 2004; Kolvereid, 1996). In turn, the intention of carrying out a given behaviour will depend on the person's attitudes towards that behaviour (Ajzen, 1991). More favourable attitudes would make more feasible the intention of carrying it out, and the other way round. In this sense, this “attitude approach” would be preferable to those used traditionally in the analysis of the entrepreneur, such as the traits or the demographic approaches (Robinson et al., 1991; Krueger et al., 2000). Thus, attitudes would measure the extent to which an individual values positively or negatively some behaviour (Liñán, 2004).
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Antecedents of Entrepreneurial Intention among Undergraduate Students in Sudan

Antecedents of Entrepreneurial Intention among Undergraduate Students in Sudan

In order to connect the social factors on the relationship to entrepreneurial intention .We find that some of the previous studies have confirmed that the desire of many students to create their own business, but the realization of these dreams hampered by improper preparation. As well as the lack of sufficient knowledge of this type of decision. Noel (1998) found that entrepreneurship education is strongly influence with entrepreneurial intent, with entrepreneurs expressing higher intentions to start their own businesses. Social factors are the most important factors influencing in the decision to adopt entrepreneurship to the background of the family in entrepreneurship. Self-employed parents. Scott and Twomey (1988) reported that students whose parents own a small business shown the highest preference for self-employment and least work in large companies than people whose parents have no entrepreneurship preference.
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Students’ personal factors as a determinant of entrepreneurial intention

Students’ personal factors as a determinant of entrepreneurial intention

Ajzen’s (1985), theory of planned behaviour posits that students’ way of thinking or feeling about something that reflected their behavior. This idea is in line with the literature related to motivational factors. For example few studies that using a direct effects model to examine the relationship between personal attitude and entrepreneurial intention using different samples, such as 355 final year commerce students from two universities in South Africa (Malebana & Swanepoel 2015), 291 Chinese tourism students from two major universities in South China (Mei et al. 2015) and 247 commerce students from two universities in Western Cape (Gird & Bagraim 2008). These studies proved that the personal evaluation (e.g., good or bad, like or dislike) of the students toward entrepreneurship will influence their entrepreneurial intention to being an entrepreneur (Ajzen & Fishbein 2000). Thus, it was hypothesized that:
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The Effect Of Educational Factor On Entrepreneurial Intention

The Effect Of Educational Factor On Entrepreneurial Intention

A study was conducted to determine the relationship between educational support and entrepreneurial intention of Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka students. The psychological model based on Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behaviour was used to identify the factors influencing the entrepreneurial intention of these students. The study analyzes the relationship between educational supports on entrepreneurial intention. Data were collected via questionnaire from 133 students from different batch of Technopreneurship program offered in Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka. The study utilized correlation, regression statistics and independent T- test analyses to analyze the data. The finding of the survey shows that there is a significant relationship between syllabus factor (r=0.666), teaching style factor (r=0.459) and co- curriculum factor (r=0.709) towards entrepreneurial intention. The T- test analysis shows that only in the syllabus aspect there is significant difference between undergraduate and graduate students of Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka. It is suggested co- curriculum through educational support in this university is an efficient way of obtaining necessary knowledge about entrepreneurship. The result of the study has valuable implications for policy makers in Higher Education Division, university administrators and educators.
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An Empirical Study on Entrepreneurial Intention and Dimension Affecting the Entrepreneurial Intentions

An Empirical Study on Entrepreneurial Intention and Dimension Affecting the Entrepreneurial Intentions

The Government and the various stakeholders like educational institutions have taken measures to improve entrepreneurial growth in the country. In general, entrepreneurs have altered the direction of economies, industries and markets. They have reallocated the resources from existing users to new users and more productive users that has transformed the society and created new industries in various sectors. Thus this study focuses on entrepreneurial intention and dimension affecting the entrepreneurial intentions.

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Factors That Influence Entrepreneurial Intention Among UTeM Students

Factors That Influence Entrepreneurial Intention Among UTeM Students

The objective of this research study is to examine factors that influence entrepreneurial intention among UTeM students. This chapter consists of research background, problem statement, research objective, research questions, scope, limitation & key assumptions of the study, importance of this study and conclusion.

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Examining the entrepreneurial intention of university students: the role of entrepreneurial education and attitudes

Examining the entrepreneurial intention of university students: the role of entrepreneurial education and attitudes

In order to develop students’ entrepreneurial intentions, it is necessary to consider some background variables relating to the influence of The Theory of Planned Action. These variables will be those included in this model and presented in the theoretical review: the attitude of the person with respect to starting a business venture, the subjective norm and the perceived behavioral control with respect to entrepreneurship. The rest of the variables that we will include in the model are of a socio-demographic type, and these will be the age, gender, work experience and degree that the student is studying. In addition, entrepreneurship training is another one of the aspects to be analyzed as a precedent of entrepreneurial intention, especially in terms of the analysis of university students. It is a specific variable to determine to what extent entrepreneurial education affects the intentional antecedents of the attitude of the person with respect to entrepreneurship and the perceived behavioral control linked to entrepreneurship, and therefore to the entrepreneurial intention.
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Entrepreneurial intention of university students and the affecting factors

Entrepreneurial intention of university students and the affecting factors

Entrepreneurship education was the only external variable from students as individuals that had the greatest support in predicting entrepreneurial intention of students, with the acceptance rate of the hypothesis being tested at 80 percent. It indicated the important role of entrepreneurship education to foster aspiring young entrepreneurs in the future. The research findings supported the study of Frimpong (2014), which showed that entrepreneurship education had a positive impact on students’ intentions to establish business partnership after graduating from college. The findings of Raposo and do Paço (2011) had provided some indications about a positive link between entrepreneurial education and subsequent entrepreneurial activity. The findings of Wahidmurni, et al. (2019) found that in higher education institutions that succeeded in creating founders of startups in Indonesia, entrepreneurship education was set as compulsory courses and/or elective courses. Several courses of study programs were also integrated with entrepreneurship, support from extracurricular activities, guidance from business incubator institutions, and facilitation of universities that provide information on entrepreneurial events.
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The Impact of Entrepreneurial Culture Dimensions on Entrepreneurial Intention: A Cross Cultural Study

The Impact of Entrepreneurial Culture Dimensions on Entrepreneurial Intention: A Cross Cultural Study

Indeed, for the Moroccan sample, our results indicate that there is no significant impact of these four variables; taking responsibility, fear of managing business, entrepreneurial traits and entrepreneurial motivation on entrepreneurial intention of Moroccan engineering students. Hence, we reject hypothesizes 2, 3, 4 and 6 (P > 0.05). However, we approve that “managerial skills” and “looking for opportunities” influence the entrepreneurial intention of Moroccan engineering students (P < 0.05). Moreover, we confirm the positive correlation between these two independent variables; “managerial skills” and “looking for opportunities” with the entrepreneurial intention (1> Pearson correlation >0.5). Hence, we confirm hypothesizes 1 and 5.
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Entrepreneurial education and students' entrepreneurial intention: does team cooperation matter?

Entrepreneurial education and students' entrepreneurial intention: does team cooperation matter?

Entrepreneurship as a planned and purposeful act (Bird, 1988; Curran & Stanworth, 1989; Katz & Gartner, 1988) is popular with many stakeholders including policymakers, academician, and students (Mwasalwiba, 2010). Entrepreneurial education is defined as a whole education and training activity (whether it is an educational system or a non-educational system) that try to develop participants’ entrepreneurial intention or some factors that affect the intention, such as knowledge, desirability, and feasibility of the entrepreneurial activity (Liñán, 2004). Since Harvard Business School opened its first education program in 1945, entrepreneurial education has been spreading over the few decades at a fairly rapid pace (Liñán, 2004), attracting intensive research inter- est among entrepreneurship scholars (Mwasalwiba, 2010). Researchers have found that entrepreneurial education is related to career choice and personal skills. For example, research finds that entrepreneurial education is positively related to entrepreneurial attitudes and skills (Fiet, 2014). Audia, Locke, and Smith (2000) indicate that entrepre- neurship is an important factor for the development of an economy. Hindle and Rush- worth (2002) established that entrepreneurship is a driver of economic growth and national prosperity.
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Understanding the entrepreneurial intention among international students in Turkey

Understanding the entrepreneurial intention among international students in Turkey

confidence to start their own business. This circumstance is triggered by their belief that formal education is still considered as the most important path for the students. Therefore, even though the respondents fundamentally know about the rudiments and the essence of entrepreneurship, but most of the respondents give the best priorities to education instead of focus on starting a business. Perceived behavioral control is also argued to be an important predictor of the entrepreneurial intention. As pointed out by Boukamcha (2014) the project feasibility perception can be relied on to predict the probability of entrepreneurial intention. In this regard, Boukamcha (2014) conjectures that individuals are more likely to develop an intention to create their own start-up businesses. It can only happen if they have favorable attitudes toward entrepreneurship. Table 7 shows the mean score of entrepreneurial intention among international stu- dents in Turkey. Based on the overall mean score, the result pertaining to the readiness of respondents to start their business is relatively high, in which the mean score of entrepreneurial intention (EI) is around 3.22 on average. Also, even though not all re- spondents have strong willingness to start their own business, but generally they give the highest score to the fourth instrument. Otherwise, for the current time, most of the respondents are not ready to start their own business yet. It is proven by the lowest mean score as indicated by the first instrument (3.02). It denotes that after completing their focus major in education, they tend to consider entrepreneurship as the activity that can boost their future life.
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The Impact Of Internal And External Factors On Student Entrepreneurial Intention

The Impact Of Internal And External Factors On Student Entrepreneurial Intention

I declare that this project paper entitled “The Impact of Internal and External Factors on Student Entrepreneurial Intention” is the result of my own research except as cited in the references. The project paper has not been accepted for any degree and is not concurrently submitted in candidature of any other degree.

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The Impact Of Entrepreneurial Education And Training On Student’s Entrepreneurial Intention

The Impact Of Entrepreneurial Education And Training On Student’s Entrepreneurial Intention

Alhamdulillah. Thanks to Allah, whom with His willing giving me an opportunity to complete this research paper entitled “The Impact Of Entrepreneurial Education and Training On Students’ Entrepreneurial Intention” to fulfil the compulsory requirements of Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM) and the Faculty of Technology Management and Technopreneurship (FPTT). I would like to thank, without implicating, to my fellow classmates, supervisor, lectures, family and friends for helping me working on this research project.

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Effect of Entrepreneurial Education on Entrepreneurial Intention of Indian Students

Effect of Entrepreneurial Education on Entrepreneurial Intention of Indian Students

Hypotheses were tested using regression analysis through SPSS 20.0 in two stages. In the first run Personal Attitude, Social Norms, Entrepreneurial Capacity and Entrepreneurial Education were taken together as independent variables while Entrepreneurial Intention as dependent variable. In the first model of regression Social Norms was found to be insignificant thus eliminated. In order to check whether there will be any differences in the results, second run of regression was performed with the rest variables. First model of regression produced the value of R 2 as 0.616. Thus, 61.6% of variance is explained by the independent variables. The result from the first regression model is not in support of second hypothesis i.e. Social Norms significantly influences Entrepreneurial Intention. Second model of regression showed up results similer to the first regression model exibited 61.4% of total variance with R 2 Value of .614 which is somewhat similar to R 2 revealed by first regression model. These results can be rated as highly satisfactory since previous studies which used linear regression could explain upto 40% of total variance (Linan and Chen, 2009).
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