Entrepreneurship education

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The influence of entrepreneurship education on the entrepreneurial intentions of UKZN female entrepreneurship students.

The influence of entrepreneurship education on the entrepreneurial intentions of UKZN female entrepreneurship students.

The 2018/2017 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Report, reported that the proportionality of male to female early-stage entrepreneurship involvement differed throughout the Global Entrepreneurship Monitoring (GEM) countries, based on the cultural and custom differences on female participation, however males were still more likely to be involved in entrepreneurial activity than females across all GEM countries. (GERA, 2018; Herrington, Kew & Mwanga, 2016). In addition, various studies indicated that women experience relatively more challenges in becoming entrepreneurs than men (Derera, 2011; Adeel Anjum et al., 2012) These challenges include: more domestic demands; lower education (particularly in developing countries); fewer businesswomen to look up to; limited access to business-orientated networks; limited access to assets and capital; socially undermined and undervalued, as well as a lack of assertiveness and confidence in their entrepreneurial ability (Herrington, Kew & Mwanga 2016). A key part to enabling greater participation of females in entrepreneurship in South Africa, will be to overcome the above-mentioned barriers. According to (Bae et al., 2014) entrepreneurship education improves the entrepreneurship activity of a society. This study investigates the influence of entrepreneurship education on the entrepreneurial intentions of UKZN female entrepreneurship students.
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ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION REQUIRED IN THE FUTURE

ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION REQUIRED IN THE FUTURE

Entrepreneurship tops most political agendas and therefore entrepreneurship education has become the focal point in many industrially developed countries (Matlay, 2005). Although entrepreneurship ranks high on the policy agendas of many countries, little research is available that assesses the impact of entrepreneurial education, which means that the effects emanating from it are still poorly understood, despite much promotion of the discipline (Von Graevenitz et al., 2010). Most empirical studies show that entrepreneurship can be taught and that education can beneficially ignite and foster entrepreneurship (Kunene, 2009). According to Drucker (1985), Freeman (2000) and Timmons & Spinelli (2007) entrepreneurship can be taught and learnt, which justifies the need for entrepreneurship education as the solution to South Africa’s economic and social problems. Herrington & Wood (2003) added that entrepreneurship education is still one of the major factors limiting the growth of the South African economy. Rwigema & Venter (2004) and Wickham (1998) supported this by affirming that entrepreneurship education can affect the entrepreneur’s development. The Umsobomvu Youth Fund (2002) recommended the integration of entrepreneurial education in the school curriculum to trigger, build and enhance a strong entrepreneurial culture. Nchu (2015) argued that entrepreneurship programmes which aim to develop entrepreneurship are numerous in South Africa; however, tangible results are difficult to obtain, more so in respect of sustainability.
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A Holistic Design Perspective on Entrepreneurship Education

A Holistic Design Perspective on Entrepreneurship Education

philosophical, autonomous and emancipative spirit and the controlling and regulative management logic in the entrepreneurship literature. Likewise Pittaway & Edwards [13] have identified four different forms of entrepreneurship education: ”about,” ”for,” “through” and ”embedded” and points to research that shows most entrepreneurship education is undertaken through teaching ”about” and includes more traditional pedagogic forms of educational practice in which students are passive receivers of knowledge. Entrepreneurship cannot be taught as a conventional academic topic [14]. Nonetheless, like in all other classes, students are not involved in activities or tasks that enable them to acquire entrepreneurial skills. Traditional (entrepreneurship) education is detached from practice and does not allow students to get a real-life experience [13]. In traditional education life stops when we learn. But learning is continual and needs to be “in sync with life” [15]. In other words, we need to have a stronger connection between practice and real life [15].
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Analysis of Entrepreneurship Education in India-An Overview

Analysis of Entrepreneurship Education in India-An Overview

Entrepreneurship education seeks to provide students with the knowledge, skills and Motivation to encourage entrepreneurial success in a variety of settings. Variations of entrepreneurship education are offered at all levels of schooling from primary or secondary schools through graduate university programs.Entrepreneurship education is significant for the development of entrepreneurship and the economy. Through entrepreneurship courses students can increase the business opportunities and decrease the unemployed graduates.This research paper aims at reviewing how entrepreneurship education affects students and the problems related to entrepreneurship education. The paper is based on literature review. The finding of the research is that entrepreneurship education has provided the essential change in research and teaching process. But there is an urgent need to improve and change the curriculum according to market conditions and transferring to practical teaching rather on theoretical teaching so that employment opportunities can be increased. Students should contact to experienced entrepreneurs rather depending on faculties only. Entrepreneurship education focuses on the development of skills or attributes that enable the realization of opportunity, where management education is focused on the best way to operate existing hierarchies. Both approaches share an interest in achieving "profit" in some form (which in Non-profit organizations or government can take the form of increased services or decreased cost or increased responsiveness to the customer/citizen/client).
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Expanding entrepreneurship education ecosystems

Expanding entrepreneurship education ecosystems

university’s contribution to society and economic development more directly, through turning the university into an Entrepreneurial University (Markuerkiaga et al. 2016). What, however, constitutes this Entrepreneurial University? Are all Entrepreneurial Universities composed of the same factors?entrepreneurship education plays in facilitating university–industry and university–industry –government collaborations (Tether and Tajar, 2008) as well as development of institutional framework in regions where universities, students, scientist, entrepreneurs and government benefit from knowledge spillovers. This institutional framework includes universities, regional culture, mobility, formal and informal networks, market size, regulation and forms of knowledge-transfer collaborations, spin-offs and becomes a powerful conduit of knowledge commercialization (Giunta et al. 2016). The reason for greater attention to the role of entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurship ecosystem being that university teaching and research or spin-off (Fetters et al. 2010;
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Women Entrepreneurship Education Need for Today

Women Entrepreneurship Education Need for Today

In order to meet the global demand and the new challenges thrown to the Indian industry and also to generate employment, entrepreneurship development has to be given a priority. The entrepreneurs should possess required skills, ability to grasp opportunities which offer economic advantages, orientation towards applying knowledge to maximize gains, business skills, and leadership qualities and above all confidence that one can make things happen. In this context a trained entrepreneur has a number of advantages. In order to accelerate the growth of industries generate employment and utilities the national human potential there is a need to channelize the youth and women of the country for useful and productive purpose. There is also a need to motivate the guide the youth to enable them to take a step forward and take up a carrier of self employment and setup a small or micro enterprise as an entrepreneur. There is very few formal college degree programs specifically geared towards the budding entrepreneur. Like all other things in life, the entrepreneur may have to put together his or her own savvy education, which is not necessarily a bad thing. Entrepreneurship education should build confidence, motivate progress, strengthen the entrepreneurial mindset, foster a desire to achieve and inspire action.
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A Review of Entrepreneurship Education and Entrepreneurs' Skills

A Review of Entrepreneurship Education and Entrepreneurs' Skills

The study reviewed how entrepreneurship education impacts the level of several skills of entrepreneurs which are technical skills, business management skills and personal entrepreneurial skills. Based on the general review of the study, the following points shall help in improving the entrepreneur market through building solid grounds for entrepreneur to excel and succeed in their businesses. However, improving the entrepreneurial education plays a crucial and important role in providing the necessary skills for an entrepreneur to operate their daily business requirements, and how to face obstacles and challenges that will face them during their entrepreneurial live. In addition, supporting educational institution to provide the necessary support from the government to the educational institutes to introduce programs, specialized for entrepreneurs; as such will improve the quality of education and will then create awareness that are focused on showing the importance entrepreneurship education and skills. The effect of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial skills, the discussion presented in this study show that (technical skills, business management skills and personal entrepreneurial skills) are affected by the level of entrepreneurship education.
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ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION IN MALAYSIA:  A CRITICAL REVIEW

ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION IN MALAYSIA: A CRITICAL REVIEW

Broadly, entrepreneurship education should be able to provide students with an understanding of a business purpose, structure and how the business interrelates with society and the economy. It should be able to impart skills that can be imparted through the educational system that enable individuals to develop new, innovative plans (Lundstro¨m and Stevenson, 2001; Klapper, 2004). A group of researchers have suggested that entrepreneurship education should start early within the education system (Kourilsky and Walstad, 1998; Stevenson and Lundstro¨m, 2002; Kroon and Meyer, 2001). At school level, a study by Waldmann (1997) indicated that entrepreneurship education increases the number of students seriously considering starting a business after graduation. In Hong Kong, entrepreneurship education programmes at secondary schools level were found to be effective in increasing awareness about business and in developing personal attributes (Cheung, 2008). In view of the positive association between entrepreneurship education and positive factors associated with entrepreneurship development many countries have started to introduce entrepreneurship education at all levels of the education system - schools, colleges and universities (Fayolle and Klandt, 2006; Matlay, 1999).
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Learning Approaches for Entrepreneurship Education

Learning Approaches for Entrepreneurship Education

Entrepreneurship*education*is*one*important*topic*for*all*European*countries* preparing*people*who*can*contributes*to*the*ability*of*an*economy*to*innovate,* to*create*new*businesses*and*new*ideas.*In*both*higher*education*as*well*as*in* vocational* education* and* training* (VET),* suitable* learning* methods,* special* education* modules* oriented* to* entrepreneurial* competences* including* traversal* skills* and* attitudes* as* well* as* more* specialized* knowledge* and* business*skills*are*necessary*and*could*be*supported*by*mentors.*More*options* and* opportunities* for* European* and* international* exchanges* are* necessary.* This*paper*will*give*information*about*entrepreneurship*education,*mentoring* and* suitable* learning* methods* for* entrepreneurs,* particularly* problem* based* learning*–*PBL,*conclusions*and*recommendations.**
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Entrepreneurship education in sports: Issues and challenges

Entrepreneurship education in sports: Issues and challenges

Entrepreneurship education is defined by The Centre for Entrepreneurial Leadership Clearinghouse on Entrepreneurship (refer to www.celcee.edu) as the process in which an individual receives the knowledge and skills required for opportunity discovery, and the insight and capability to act and implement what is necessary to pursue that discovered opportunity which was overlooked by others. The definition of entrepreneurial education given by GEM 2012 Global Report (Xavier et al., 2012, p.35) is: “The extent to which training in creating/managing new, small or growing business entities is incorporated within the education and training system at all levels”. However, Fayolle et al. (2006) explain, entrepreneurship education programs (EEP) are defined from various aspects, mainly as pedagogical courses that aim to increase entrepreneurial knowledge, skills and attitude and also development of certain personal qualities. Therefore, producing entrepreneurs might not be the main objective of an entrepreneurship education program. Although the EEP literature is growing, however the empirical evidence that support its effect on new businesses and entrepreneurial activities is still insignificant (Cox et al., 2002; Matlay, 2008). Scholars (Peterman and Kennedy, 2003; Shepherd, 2004; Tan and Ng, 2006) believe recent development in entrepreneurship education methods and application are improving entrepreneurial skills and life goals among young nascent entrepreneurs (Peltier, Scovotti and Pointer, 2008).
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The Impact of Entrepreneurship Education: An Evaluation of the Berger Entrepreneurship Program at the University of Arizona,

The Impact of Entrepreneurship Education: An Evaluation of the Berger Entrepreneurship Program at the University of Arizona,

In the past 15 years entrepreneurship education has grown dramatically throughout the United States and other parts of the world. This growth is reflected in the inauguration of numerous international intercollegiate business plans competitions, new entrepreneurship curricula and programs, and endowed professorships in entrepreneurship. Approaches to entrepreneurship education have varied across colleges and universities from offering single courses in new business development or business plans preparation to integrated curricula that include marketing, finance, competitive analysis, and business plan development. In some institutions, majors in entrepreneurship have been adopted and specialized programs for undergraduates, MBA students, as well as for students from engineering, medicine and other technical colleges, have been implemented. Intercollegiate business plans competitions have been established at Arizona, Texas, Nebraska, San Diego, Miami of Ohio, and elsewhere to compare the quality and viability of the plans developed on college campuses.
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Entrepreneurship Education at Tertiary Level in Bangladesh

Entrepreneurship Education at Tertiary Level in Bangladesh

The majority of newly founded ventures collapses within the first years of existence or fail to grow in long-term and often remain small and less profitable compared to existing businesses. One of the main reasons is that founders often do not have the capabilities of managing a company and lack relevant business expertise and competences (Brinckmann et al., 2010; Peters, Rice and Sundararajan, 2004). The percentage of failing start-ups fluctuates between 40% and 90% depending on the region and sector (Brinckmann, 2010; Peters, Rice and Sundararajan, 2004). As especially new firms have high potential to grow and to create employment opportunity, their success is an important factor of economic growth and welfare. Under these conditions, entrepreneurship education is essential to the region's and the firm's development and the creation of new jobs (Brinckmann, 2010).
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A Contemporary Approach to Entrepreneurship Education and Training

A Contemporary Approach to Entrepreneurship Education and Training

Academic scholars continuously debate on the entrepreneurship education curriculum and the teaching- learning approaches. Some argue that entrepreneurship education should mainly focus on practical elements with less conventional classroom approaches that overload theoretical and conceptual contents to the students. Nevertheless, it is absolutely essential to employ methods such as lectures, assignments, class discussion, guest speakers, video clips, individual coaching, role plays, team teaching and teamwork in teaching entrepreneurship. If these methods are used then the intention to disseminate knowledge and groom potential skills of entrepreneurship can be successful. Certain entrepreneurship competencies are believed to be best absorbed when students are engaged in the actual process of inventing new business. The entrepreneurship curricula of the top business schools such as Babson College, Stanford School of Business, MIT Sloan School of Management, The London Business School and the Judge Business School, University of Cambridge embody their entrepreneurship curriculum with action learning mode whereby more teaching-learning activities occur outside the classroom such as internships with start-ups, creating and running small ventures on campus and working on small consulting jobs and so forth aimed to bring students closer to real entrepreneurs. Indeed these universities claim that many students become entrepreneurs immediately after graduation. Thus, considering the overarching issues on entrepreneurship education, two fundamental questions are put forward: (1) How effective are the entrepreneurship courses conducted by HEIs? (2) How can the structures, strategies, systems, leadership and culture be improved to inculcate entrepreneurship among students of HEIs?. The HEIs should constantly strives to embed creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship into education and implement strategies to unleash entrepreneurial and innovative capabilities among the students. More specifically HEIs is encouraged to enhance knowledge and expertise of students in all fields of study through professional programmes, research work, and community service based on moral values and professional ethics. We have proposed a dynamic model for innovative entrepreneurship education to facilitate HEIs to achieve the desired entrepreneurship education agenda. We encourage the HEIs to use the assessment index to score entrepreneurship programme effectiveness which includes both „hard‟ and „soft‟ factors.
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Entrepreneurship Education at the Crossroad in Hong Kong

Entrepreneurship Education at the Crossroad in Hong Kong

School leavers who cannot find a place in a university or other tertiary institutions are most likely required to find jobs. However, there are not many suitable jobs for them, given their low educational background. Although the Hong Kong gov- ernment has spent a lot of money in creating temporary jobs in order to reduce the unemployment rate, this measure has been unsuccessful. People will become jobless again after the tem- porary jobs disappear. In view of this, there have been calls for the introduction of entrepreneurship education into the business curriculum (Cheung, 2008a). However, entrepreneurship edu- cation is not developing in Hong Kong at a rate that it should be. While there is little entrepreneurship taught in the secondary school curriculum, private and public organizations play a sig- nificant role in the development of entrepreneurship education. They give schools support of various kinds including the provi- sion of seed capital and first hand and the latest information about the business sector. Programs like the Business and En- trepreneur Enhancement Programme; the Teen Entrepreneur Competition; the Young Entrepreneurs Development School- Company Partnership; and Junior Achievement Hong Kong, are provided by tertiary institutions and private companies to help students acquire the knowledge and skills related to entre- preneurship education. Although private and public organiza- tions play an important role in entrepreneurship education, relying on them totally may not be the way forward. Cheung’s study (2008) found that while the supporting organizations claimed that they would still play a significant role in the pro- motion of entrepreneurship education, they hoped that schools themselves would be more active in the promotion of entrepre- neurship education. In recent years, schools start to offer entre- preneurship activities with convincing evidence. For example, the study by Cheung and Ng (2010) clearly indicate that con- ducting entrepreneurship activity learning in business subjects created a positive atmosphere, which enhanced students’ moti- vation to learn and develop generic skills. Furthermore, the study by Cheung and Chan (2011) suggest that Entrepreneur- ship Education would have a positive impact on the strength of the students’ entrepreneurial spirit in terms of starting-up a new business, and a high percentage of students acknowledged that the entrepreneurial knowledge they had acquired would be useful to them.
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Assessing the assessment practices in entrepreneurship education in higher education

Assessing the assessment practices in entrepreneurship education in higher education

This scoping review confirms the severe shortage of research on the assessment practices in entrepreneurship education. The literature landscape consists of publications which are published in recent years, with the majority appearing in the period between 2012 and 2017. The authorships emanate mostly from researchers based in the UK and the US (which, together, account for 7 out of the 11 publications i.e. 64%), followed by Denmark, Australia, Sweden and Italy. The assessment issues examined in these studies are diverse including articles with a focus on assessment instruments/methods, experiential learning, learning outcomes, conceptual framework for assessment, assessment for learning, formative assessment, and feedback. The academic disciplines represented are generally limited to business and entrepreneurship-related programmes which account for 7 out of the 11 publications, with the remaining 4 are engineering/IT/technology programmes. As a young and emerging field of study, all the identified studies are exploratory in nature. While there appears to be an increasing research interest as seen in the trickling stream of papers in recent years, it is clear that a critical mass of research on assessment practices in entrepreneurship education is yet to be established.
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Interest in Entrepreneurship : an exploratory study on engineering and technical students in entrepreneurship education and choosing entrepreneurship as a career

Interest in Entrepreneurship : an exploratory study on engineering and technical students in entrepreneurship education and choosing entrepreneurship as a career

entrepreneurship is the best responds to the realities (Kuehn 1998). The clear message from the results is that technical students are respond to the changing environment and they wanted the “value added” in the programmes. Such an environment also points to greater need for entrepreneurial activity (Henderson and Robertson 1999). From the findings in this research, entrepreneurship education should be incorporated into the non- business disciplines where business and product ideas emerge. Further more, at the student or graduate level, it crucial that students seek to develop the core skills on which employers are placing increasingly greater emphasis. Entrepreneurship is the answer and Kotter (1995) found that nearly 50% Harvard MBA graduates (some of them from technical background) from the class of 1974 were either entrepreneurs or actively moving in that direction.
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Entrepreneurship Education for Persons with Disabilities in Nigeria

Entrepreneurship Education for Persons with Disabilities in Nigeria

Mba (1995) asserted that disability is a gross impairment of body function. It may be physical, sensory, emotional or mental. If a man has been crippled to the extent that he no longer walks upright because he had a motor accident, then he is disabled. If he is still able to get around performing his normal duties without assistance, he is not necessarily handicapped by accident. Ajobiewe (2002) averred that disability is any restriction or lack from an impairment of ability to perform an activity normal for a human being. By implication there is need to educate them on skills that can make them self reliant securing their place amongst the working class. This is why entrepreneurship education is essential because, it helps them to be independent and at the same time make them to contribute to economic growth.
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ENHANCING ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN LEARNERS – AN IMPLEMENTATION AND EVALUATION OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION THROUGH MUSIC EDUCATION

ENHANCING ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN LEARNERS – AN IMPLEMENTATION AND EVALUATION OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION THROUGH MUSIC EDUCATION

When it comes to the reliability of the study, the teacher’s position in the research is probably the most important issue. the need for this study emerged from the teacher’s desire to develop music education into a more pupil-oriented direction. the ideas of entrepreneurship education seemed to correspond to this need. the study proceeded from careful operationaliza- tion of the core concept of entrepreneurial ways of acting and how they could be implemented in practical music education. the written curriculum was analyzed for this purpose. it appeared that the concepts used in the national core curriculum were quite wide and left room for the researcher’s interpretations (see e.g., Krippendorf, 2004). these pedagogical solutions are de- scribed in this article in detail. each lesson was documented rigorously by the teacher and also the pupils were asked to write diary in which they evaluated their action and kept records of their learning. these were to support the teacher’s observations and provide information about pupils’ perceptions of entrepreneurial ways of acting. as the study proceeded, it seemed that the teacher-pupil instructional conversations should have been documented better (for example by an outsider) in order to be able to evaluate the influence of teacher’s instructions. In all, the teacher’s action has been critically reflected, and the reliability of the study was enhanced by data triangulation (e.g., silverman, 2010) and careful reporting of the learning environment. in all, the study provided a rich description of one example of pupil-centered, entrepreneurial learning environment.
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ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION IN POLAND

ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION IN POLAND

The situation in higher education looks differently. The education on academic level in Poland similarly to different European countries is decentralized and at currently introduced higher education standards for economic and managerial majors reflect the recommendations of the European Commission in scarce degree. In distinguished 12 majors for economic and managerial majors valid in Poland the obligatory qualifications of graduate of given major in four of them very narrowly understood entrepreneurship (as running own business) is taken into account, however only in one case (the major "management”) the academic course in entrepreneurship is an obligatory subject at master studies level (compare tables 2 and 3). Moreover the content of entrepreneurship education is not introduced in the standards of none of non-economical majors. However, most public universities offers entrepreneurship as optional courses.
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Entrepreneurship Education: Engineering a Pracademic Approach

Entrepreneurship Education: Engineering a Pracademic Approach

Indeed, as Streveler and others note, “topics might include learning where and how to collect important business intelligence necessary to create a business plan, as well as the essential elements for producing a viable business plan”; for determining important to know items such as, “what are the few critical actions or understandings – at a tactical level, that my students must take with them from the class?” is both salient and vital. 18 Further this prompted the authors to start the discussion about incorporating aspects of out-of-classroom elements as well as quality, one author’s sub-specialties’, into the entrepreneurship education for engineers and was central to the motivation behind starting this research.
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