The Fitzroy basin covers a very large area and it would be impractical to apply this preliminary investigation over the full extent of the basin. By analysing catchment properties for certain criteria and comparing those properties with features of the Hunter River catchment, a case study sub-catchment was identified. Subsequent technical investigations were then applied to the identified sub-catchment only. As a first step in determining technical feasibility, a comparison of the physical catchment properties of the chosen sub-catchment and the Hunter River was undertaken. Qualitative observations made regarding those comparisons formed the basis to the conclusions of this project. Secondly, the capacity of the system to accommodate discharge salt loads, and the frequency of which this could occur was investigated. And, finally, the properties of streamflow event travel times in the Fitzroy basin case study sub-catchment were investigated in relation to the timing issues involved with the real-time operation of a salinity trading scheme.
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There are four major upstream rivers Isaac-Connors, Nogoa, Comet, and Dawson and one downstream river Mackenzie. All of these upstream and downstream rivers pass through the Fitzroy river. The Fitzroy river floodplain has narrowed by hills in the reach from where Mackenzie and Dawson rivers join to form the Fitzroy to downstream of the Gap gauge station. For the available insufficient opening, the upstream and downstream flood water takes time to come to the Fitzroy river in Rockhampton region. In 1988 flood happened due to heavy rainfall occurred from the tropical Cyclone „Charlie‟, in the Connors-Issac sub-catchment, which comprises only 16% of the Fitzroy basin. The rainfall in other sub-basins was limited in that time. In 1918 and 2011,
ordering of questions to ensure that concepts which potentially impact upon the valuation issue were introduced in a logical sequence. The questionnaire also contains behavioural, attitudinal and socio-economic questions that can be used for internal validation of individual responses to the WTA question. The questionnaire is structured as follows: Section one provides a background about why the survey is being conducted, how the respondents are selected, and what is involved in completing the survey. In section two, questions are asked about a number of property details, such as the size of the property, stream order passing through the property, ownership, land use and profitability. In section three, the key tradeoffs of interest are described to respondents. This provides information on land use and water quality issues in the Fitzroy Basin and explains why there is interest in changing management practices. This section also provides references for additional information, with web addresses to make access convenient.
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The objective of the present study is to estimate the rainfall runoff discharges for the large Fitzroy Basin by using a conceptual rainfall runoff model, the MIKE 11 NAM, considering the multi-objective calibration. The multiple objective criteria are described in the “Material and Method” section. The model simulation was carried out for the period from 1972 to 2011. The automatic calibration was performed and hydrological model parameters were determined for each sub-catchment. The simulated and observed discharge hydrographs show a reasonable match. The output of this hydrological model was used to develop a full one-dimensional hydrodynamic module to calculate flow propagation for the complex and long river system of the Fitzroy Basin.
determinant for the changes in water quality have been attributed to grazing, with beef production the largest single land use industry comprising 90% of the land area (Karfs et al., 2009). The beef industry contributes more than one third of the value of Queensland’s primary industries and is the largest agricultural commodity in the State (Karfs et al., 2009). The Fitzroy Basin has undergone extensive changes though the clearing of brigalow (Acacia harpophylla) for the purpose of grazing and cropping (Packett et al., 2009). Catchments with high levels of clearing for cattle grazing and cropping show the largest increases in sediment exported compared with natural conditions (McKergow et al., 2005). It is also recognised that increased ground cover and improved land condition can prevent excessive amounts of sediments entering streams and rivers (Karfs et al., 2009). Excessive sediment loads from grazing lands can impact corals through smothering when particles settle out, by decreasing light availability, coral photosynthesis, and growth. This can result in changes to the coral population, structure, colony size, decreased growth and survival (Haynes et al., 2007).
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Irrigated agriculture does not cover a large area in the Fitzroy Basin (see Section 2.1), but the intensive use of inputs, means there are significant impacts on water quality. Inland cotton cropping is dependent on large-scale water storage, irrigation and significant levels of fertilizer and pesticide use. Furnas (2003:69) notes “the withdrawal and storage of irrigation water from inland reaches of rivers can have a major effect on catchment environmental flows and the downstream movement of eroded soils, nutrients and pesticides”. There are opportunities for further agricultural expansion in the Fitzroy Basin, particularly in irrigation where 300,000 megalitres of further water allocations is available in the lower Fitzroy River (QNRM 2002). Sugarcane, a land use with a significant influence on water quality in other GBR catchments is not grown in the Fitzroy Basin.
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the GBR and the grazing industry can co-exist. The Fitzroy Basin and Burdekin Basins have also undergone extensive changes by clearing of Brigalow (Acacia harpophylla) for the purpose of grazing and cropping (Packett 2009). Catchments with high levels of clearing for cattle grazing and cropping show the largest increases in sediment exported compared with natural conditions (McKergow et al. 2005). Recent estimates of modelled post- development, long-term annual suspended sediment export from the Fitzroy River Basin to the GBR lagoon range from three to four and half million tonnes per year (Packett et al. 2009). Karfs (2009) also recognised that increased ground cover and improved land condition can prevent excessive amounts of sediments entering streams and rivers. Sediment loads from such a large industry can impact corals through smothering when particles settle out, by decreasing light availability, coral photosynthesis, and growth. This can result in changes to the coral population, structure, colony size, and decreased growth and survival (Haynes et al. 2007).
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A new range of policy tools, known as market-based instruments, are currently being developed to try and achieve environmental outcomes more efficiently and in the most cost effective way for society. The research outlined in this paper is being conducted as one of the pilot projects in the National Market-Based Instruments Pilots Program funded under the National Action Plan for Salinity and Water Quality. The main aim of the project is to examine the potential for quantity-based water quality outcomes in the Fitzroy Basin in central Queensland. These may be summarized as cap-and-trade mechanisms, offset trading and bubble schemes (O’Dea and Rolfe 2005). An overview of the environmental issues in the basin and opportunities for offset trading are outlined in Rolfe et al. 2004a.
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This report is focused on the results of a pilot Choice Modelling valuation exercise which was developed to determine the potential supply of riparian buffer rehabilitation by landholders in the Fitzroy Basin, in order to provide essential information to assist in the evaluation and design of a MBI to achieve water quality outcomes in the catchment. The technique has traditionally been applied to environmental valuation issues, but there is increasing use of CM to design agricultural markets (Lusk and Hudson 2004). This study extends that application to markets for environmental actions. It investigates landholders’ preference heterogeneity in willingness-to-accept direct monetary incentives for the rehabilitation/restoration of riparian buffers. By predicting a supply function for riparian vegetation, the design of incentive structure can then be addressed. The demand for water quality improvements in the Fitzroy Basin has been assessed in a series of CM valuations (eg Rolfe et al. 2002; Rolfe and Bennet 2003; Windle and Rolfe 2002; 2004) and is synthesised in Rolfe et al. (2004b).
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Abstract—The sedimentation study on the upstream reach of Pahang River is located in the Bentong River Basin. The detail hydrographic survey for each river in the Bentong River Basin was carried out in May 2016. Nine stations were selected to represent the sediment concentration at Bentong River, Pahang, Malaysia. Bentong River Basin is one of the river catchment in Pahang River Basin, Malaysia. Before this, Bentong River deterioration in water quality, resulting from the sedimentation problems and unsustainable development management around the river basin. This study was implemented to prove the sedimentation problem, especially the formation of Total Suspended Solid (TSS) in the Bentong River. There are two important parameters were quantified in this study such as the concentration of suspended solid (mg/L) and the river discharge (Q) values (m³/s). The method used in this study to analysis the concentration of TSS using Gravimetric Method. The result showed the sedimentation in the Bentong River was unstable and the highest of TSS up to 367.6 mg/L that is categorized under the class V which > 300 mg/L based on the National Water Quality Standard (NWQS) result showed the coefficient correlation between the observed Q and the TSS concentration in the Bentong River is significant R² = 0.919, there are strong positive relationship between TSS concentration production and the river discharge value in the Bentong River. The study found that the contributors to the high sedimentation problems resulting from the sediments generated from the unsustainable land use, which effectively trapping the bed sediments, rainfall intensity, backflow that carries out high sediments as well as sedimentation produced due to the river bank erosion.
Baseline morphometric information at a sub basin level is essential to develop an appropriate strategy for sustainable, socially acceptable, ecologically benign and economically viable development of a river basin. The present study was carried out in one of the less studied Thirumanimuttar river sub basins of Cauvery river in the state of Tamilnadu, India. We used GIS and RS tools to study the morphometric characteristics of the basin. The seventh order main river is formed by several lower order streams forming a dentritic flow pattern. The mean bifurcation ratio is 3.61 indicating the basin is largely controlled by structure. The basin has medium drainage density of 0.996 per km elongated in shape. The length of overland flow values of the basin i
(McGlennon et al. 2000). A weak year‐class/recruitment can be caused by a number of factors including increased predation, reduced health of breeding stocks and reduced river levels, to name a few. River discharge has been shown to be positively correlated with the survivorship of estuarine and freshwater species (Mills & Mann 1985, Drinkwater & Frank 1994), including Freshwater Sawfish in the Fitzroy River between 2002 and 2007 (Whitty et al. 2008). Although no significant relationship was observed between wet season river stage height and CPUE, the significant difference between early and late dry season CPUE, and the correlation between late wet season discharge and proportion of new recruits in our catches does suggest that water level influences survivability of Freshwater Sawfish juveniles. It is reasonable to hypothesise that a sustained increase in water levels would increase the survivability of newborn Freshwater Sawfish by increasing productivity and available habitat as well as decreasing predation (Flores‐Verdugo et al. 1990, Staunton‐Smith et al. 2004, Whitty et al. 2008). It could also be suggested that the drop in CPUE between early and late dry season is due in part to dispersal of the animals through the river. However, as upstream movement of Freshwater Sawfish has been shown to be extremely restricted by low water levels and made impossible beyond the Camballin Barrage during this time (Morgan et al. 2005, Whitty et al. 2008), dispersal is not as likely to be the cause for this decrease. To better understand the exact influences causing this decrease, continued sampling efforts are needed. As this project is in a unique position having monitored CPUE since 2002, the continuance of sampling would also allow for this project to be able to establish a better understanding of what a current ‘typical’ CPUE is for this system.
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perpendicular to the contour, distributed evenly along the basin each 500 m and measured from the valley line to the ridge line, are used. The resulting value is the arithmetic mean of slopes of individual lines perpendicular to the contour. The value of the maximum distance of these lines (500 m) is set with the aim to guarantee an acceptable information capacity of the result. The lower the distance of the lines, the more accurate result we obtain. If we wanted to ascertain a completely accurate value of the average slope of the basin, we would have to calculate the slopes of the lines with inﬁ nitely small distances. This again shows the disadvantageous time-demanding character of the method, or even its unfeasibility, especially for complicated basins with a higher number of partial basins. Therefore, the usage of the DMT of the basin seems to be the most eﬃ cient method for the middle terrain slope determination. One of its features is also the provision of the information on the slope angles of the surface. Moreover, the DMT can be used for graphical visualisation of the slopes (map of terrain classiﬁ cation).
significant in understanding the landform processes, soil physical properties and erosional characteristics. The remote sensing technique is the effective method for morphometric analysis as the satellite images provide a synoptic view of a large extent and is very useful in the analysis of drainage basin morphometry. The fast emerging spatial information technology, remote sensing, GIS, and GPS have effective tools to overcome most of the problems of land and water resources planning and management rather than conventional methods of data process . The present study aims at using the remote sensing and GIS technology to compute various parameters of morphometric characteristics of the study area, a tributary of the river Krishna.
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microbial loads in the contaminated water. The most common type of solar still in use today is the basin type. Some of the basin type solar stills designs are: double sloped symmetrical still with continuous basin, double slope symmetrical still with basin divided into two bays, solar still with single slope and a continuous basin, unsymmetrical double sloped still with divided basin, v-trough type solar still, solar still with plastic inflated cover, solar still with stretched plastic film and divided basin. The distillate output from a solar still depends on many parameters like climatic parameters such as solar Insolation, ambient air temperature, wind speed, atmospheric humidity, sky conditions etc and design parameters such as thermophysical properties of the material use in its construction, orientation of still, tilt angle of cover, spacing between cover and water surface, insulation of the base, vapour tightness, absorptance-transmittance properties of still, etc and operating parameters such as water depth in the basin, initial water temperature, water salinity, etc.  This paper is therefore an attempt to experimentally investigate the performance of a basin type single slope solar still at different water depths in the basin under the prevailing weather condition in Bauchi, Nigeria.
Land suitability analysis for agriculture plays a key role in sustainable agricultural production. The aim of this study is to develop suitability maps for major agricultural crops using multi-criteria spatial analysis for Aiyar basin - a sub-basin of Cauvery basin in Central Tamil Nadu as a case study. The main criteria such as soil, topography, irrigation and socio-economic factors and 18 sub-criteria (soil depth, drainage, texture, pH, salinity, sodicity, CEC, organic carbon, base saturation, slope, erosion, geomorphology, canal, groundwater, irrigation intensity, agricultural labour availability, cultivators and agricultural credit banks) were used for the suitability analysis. All the criteria used for the suitability classification were not equally important; each criterion would contribute towards the crop growth and yield at different levels. Hence, the relative importance of these criteria was formulated on the basis of the guidelines of the National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning (NBSS & LUP) as adapted to local conditions. The Geographic Information System (GIS) based Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method was used to determine the weight and rating for each criterion. Then the criterion layers were classified into four suitability classes which were high
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The use of a strong prior on d results in neutral to pos- itive impacts on skill in most cases shown in Fig. 14. The exception is the very dry Ranken catchment, where the ben- efits of the prior are equivocal. The prior removes the base case’s negative skills in the Ranken catchment in January– March, but also introduces negative skill in the drier months of June, August and December. We note that, on balance, this may have practical benefits: in another study (Turner et al., 2017) we show that FoGSS forecasts can benefit reservoir operations in cases where forecasts are not skilful in very dry months but positively or neutrally skilful at other times of the year. This is because the dry months contribute little to the annual inflow volume, so small positive bias in dry months (the cause of negative skill) does not have a strong influence on the value of forecasts. Conversely, a strong prior is respon- sible for removing negative skill in August in the Herbert catchment, and also removes the strongly negative skills in the Eppalock catchment in January–April. At the same time, the prior has little effect on the good performance of the base case in the Fitzroy, Ringarooma and Goobarragandra catch- ments.
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Community presentations were conducted in partnership with local Aboriginal leaders at various meetings around the Fitzroy Valley to obtain community approval and con- sent for The Picture Talk Project [4, 5]. Meetings included 8–40 people, for example the Fitzroy Valley Futures Forum attendees included local community representatives as well as local and visiting service representatives from govern- ment and non-government organisations . Other pre- sentations were given directly to key organisations as approved by their CEO or to families who wanted to know more about the project. The Picture Talk Project was named by Marmingee Hand who is a local Aboriginal leader, after the locally adapted process of using pictures to help explain the Lililwan Project consent forms. A logo was designed with local artists Neil Carter and Com- munity Navigator Sandra Nugget to represent the spirit of the project . This was used as visual identity on research uniforms, posters, car magnets, presentations and information sheets/consent forms . The project was advertised through posters that included the pro- ject logo, pictures of the research team and logos of supporting organisations, namely Nindilingarri Cultural Health Services, Marninwarntikura Women ’ s Resource Centre, Kimberley Aboriginal Law and Culture Centre
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The old saying ‘you reap what you sow’ is very pertinent to forage production. The planting and establishment phases are the most critical to the success of forage production—get this wrong and production will only be a fraction of the plant’s potential, and weed and grazing management will be very difficult. Patchy establishment encourages weeds to take over and the forage will be uneven in height or maturity making it difficult to ascertain the optimal timing of grazing or cutting. Rainfall in the Fitzroy River catchment of Queensland, while summer dominant, is highly variable. Also, temperatures above 35 ° C can occur for days and potentially weeks on end, depleting valuable soil water during long fallow periods, or when young forage crops are establishing. To minimise the risk of establishment failures in dryland situations, only sow when there is greater than 75 cm of wet soil and a chance of follow-up rainfall. Sowing summer forages should occur between December and late February, depending on the forage species and intended use. Sow winter forages such as oats, forage wheat or barley no earlier than April in central Queensland and March in southern Queensland, and on 90 cm of soil moisture due to the lower probability of receiving in-crop rainfall.
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In this study we did not examine land management strategies to improve land condition. One assessment based on remotely sensed ground cover time series (1996-2012) suggests ca. 48% of the Fitzroy NRM grazing land is in A condition (Beutel et al. 2014; scale A-D, Quirk and McIvor 2003; DAF 2011). A more recent 2017 assessment of land condition based on a different model suggests this value is around 40%, although qualitative expert assessments suggest the newer model may not fully account for the negative effects of invasive Indian couch on land condition rating (T. Beutel, pers. comm.). However, there is little field research to indicate rates of degradation and recovery across land types and regions in northern Australia. There is a particular paucity of data for effects of utilisation rate on the productivity of buffel grass pastures (or any sown tropical grasses under comparable rangeland conditions) and, hence, on land condition rating. Grazing management guidelines recommended by Scanlan et al. (2014) and Hunt et al. (2014b) are yet to be tested experimentally. Recent field experiments with two native pasture systems in central and north Queensland, respectively, failed to improve land initially in C condition with wet season spelling strategies, over a 3 or 5-year period (Jones et al. 2016). Additionally, there are practical difficulties in implementing land recovery strategies such as pasture spelling on commercial properties as cattle from rested paddocks are necessarily spread across the remainder of the property, increasing the short-term stocking rate on non-rested paddock over the growing season when pastures are most vulnerable to heavy grazing pressure. Some land condition aspects have been previously examined, for effects on profitability of beef businesses in the Fitzroy NRM region, in a scoping study examining a range of outcomes (Bowen and Chudleigh 2017; Bowen and Chudleigh 2018a). These publications identified a positive financial and economic incentive to apply high stocking rates, even under
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