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Determination of vinyl chloride monomer in food contact materials by solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

Determination of vinyl chloride monomer in food contact materials by solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

The conventional headspace method was applied for the determination of VCM migrated into various food-simulating solvents (K��������� et al. 1985). The aim of this work was to use the solid phase microextraction for determination of VCM in food contact materials. The solid phase microextraction (SPME) was developed by Pawliszyn and co-work- ers (A����� & P�������� 1990). It appeared as an alternative technique for the isolation of volatile compounds – it is a rapid and solvent-free method (Z���� & P�������� 1996; G������ & P�������� 1997). As concerns the SPME analyses of plastics, only few papers were published on this subject. The principle is partitioning between an aqueous phase (direct SPME) or a gas phase (headspace SPME) and a polymeric organic phase (a station- ary phase). SPME procedure consists of two steps – the first one is sorption and the second one is desorption. The sorption is realised by the fused
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Microbial contamination of paper based food contact materials with different contents of recycled fiber

Microbial contamination of paper based food contact materials with different contents of recycled fiber

Recycled paper is commonly used in food packaging industry, especially for disposable products. The material coming into direct contact with food products must not represent a source of contamination for food in accordance with the Framework Regulation (EC) No. 1935/2004 containing the general requirements on all food contact materials. In the present study, the microbial purity of 31 paper-based materials with different contents of recycled matter (0–100%) was evaluated using a standard method based on the disintegration of paper. The results of the present study indicate the existing relation between the use of recycled fibers and the content of microorganisms. The increased amount of recycled fibers significantly increased the amount of bacteria in the paper samples. The highest content of microorgan- isms was observed in the case of paper with the highest recycled fiber content. Total counts of bacteria ranged from 5.0 × 10 1 to 1.2 × 10 5 CFU/g. Moulds were detected only in three paper samples. As the microorganisms present in
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Migration of aluminum from food contact materials to food—a health risk for consumers? Part I of III: exposure to aluminum, release of aluminum, tolerable weekly intake (TWI), toxicological effects of aluminum, study design, and methods

Migration of aluminum from food contact materials to food—a health risk for consumers? Part I of III: exposure to aluminum, release of aluminum, tolerable weekly intake (TWI), toxicological effects of aluminum, study design, and methods

aluminum were considered luxury goods; however, with reductions in the cost of production, the scope of applica- tion was greatly expanded. Due to the material properties mentioned above, eating and drinking utensils as well as pots and pans have been manufactured out of aluminum since the end of the 1900s. The first widespread applica- tion was in the military, for use as eating utensils, pots, and canteens. New procedures for preparation, storage, and packaging of foodstuffs led to increased usage of alu- minum in food products. Today, it is impossible to imag- ine the food sector without aluminum. Table 5 presents a summary of the various uses of aluminum in the field of food contact materials.
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Acrylonitrile in food contact materials – two different legislative approaches: comparison of direct determination with indirect evaluation using migration into food simulants

Acrylonitrile in food contact materials – two different legislative approaches: comparison of direct determination with indirect evaluation using migration into food simulants

acrylonitrile releasing by two philosophically dif- ferent approaches, the correlative statistic method was applied to find the relation between the data measured. Unfortunately, no significant degree of correlation or any other systematic relation was found. This may have been caused by significant differences in the methodologies mentioned and/or characteristics of the polymers tested. For example, polymerisation during the polymer production or acrylonitrile unit building in molecular chain, where for the same matrix polymers with different properties can be obtained. Furthermore, various additives such as stabilisers, plasticisers or dyes, can influence polymer properties. In compliance with the results obtained, it can be stated that, from the known total acrylonitrile content in polymer mass, acrylonitrile migration into food simulants cannot be predicted. Generally, regarding the re- cent legislative requirements, it is not possible to recommend the older methodology (determination of total acrylonitrile content in polymer mass) as an approach equivalent to the recent legislative requirement (based on acrylonitrile migration into food simulants) for the evaluation of acrylonitrile release from food contact materials.
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Migration of aluminum from food contact materials to food—a health risk for consumers? Part II of III: migration of aluminum from drinking bottles and moka pots made of aluminum to beverages

Migration of aluminum from food contact materials to food—a health risk for consumers? Part II of III: migration of aluminum from drinking bottles and moka pots made of aluminum to beverages

A list of possible sources of exposure to aluminum can be found in Part I of this report (Exposure to aluminum, release of aluminum, Tolerable Weekly Intake (TWI), toxicological effects of aluminum). Also included there are the release or migration limit values [3] for aluminum of 5.00  mg/kg or 5.00  mg/L food or drink, the toler- able weekly intake (TWI) of 1.00 mg aluminum/kg body weight and week [4] as well as the toxicological effects of aluminum. The present Part II deals with the migration of aluminum from drinking bottles and moka pots to bev- erages. Drinking bottles were tested with tap water, tea made from tea bags, soluble tea drink, and a mixture of apple juice and mineral water. Stove-top moka pots were
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Phthalates in soft PVC products used in food production equipment and in other food contact materials on the Danish and the Nordic Market 2013-2014

Phthalates in soft PVC products used in food production equipment and in other food contact materials on the Danish and the Nordic Market 2013-2014

Suppliers of food production equipment like conveyor belts and hoses are reluctant to set restrictions for the legal area of use for their products. If needed, the DoC should state to the user of the FCM that it is not suitable for direct contact with fatty foodstuffs. Clear statements of the maximum temperature and contact time for safe use of the FCM is needed. However, in many cases the food inspectors did not find any relevant documentation, when they took the samples (Table 3). Annex 5 in the plastics regulation (EU 2011) says that: “verification of compliance of migration into foods with the migration limits shall be carried out under the most extreme con- ditions of time and temperature foreseeable in actual use”. For hoses and conveyor belts there is a risk that the contact time with food can be quite long in the case there are minor stops in the production, and the FCM must be tested accordingly. Food is considered to be the primary source of human intake of phthalates like DBP and DEHP and food production equipment is a potential source of such food contamination. Many of our food- stuffs contain relatively low levels of DEHP, a substance which has a rather low tolerable intake per kg body- weight (TDI). Because of the high intake of food per kg bodyweight for small children it could be shown e.g., by Fierens et al. (2012) that the DEHP exposure can be close to the TDI. Since endocrine disruptors like DEHP
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Migration of aluminum from food contact materials to food—a health risk for consumers? Part III of III: migration of aluminum to food from camping dishes and utensils made of aluminum

Migration of aluminum from food contact materials to food—a health risk for consumers? Part III of III: migration of aluminum to food from camping dishes and utensils made of aluminum

acid provides the conditions to determine the migra- tion at a pH of <4.5 [4]. Water is the basis for studying migration in aqueous foodstuffs [2] with a pH >4.5 [4]. The third simulant used was olive oil. This was chosen to simulate food that naturally has a fat content and also to simulate potential marinades that contain oil, e.g., in the preparation of food cooked in the oven or on a grill. In order to reproduce typical consumer usage, the experi- ments were performed under three different conditions: short-term contact of 17 h overnight, long-term contact of 168 h, and heated to 160 °C for 2 h. It is assumed that the consumer generally fills the containers to only a frac- tion of the full capacity of 500 or 1000 mL so that a vol- ume of 200 mL was chosen for the tests. After filling, the containers were covered with plastic-based microwave wrap (manufacturer: Melitta, Toppits ® brand, Germany) to avoid the unlikely, but potential contamination of the sample by the air in the laboratory and to minimize evaporation. Samples that were heated were addition- ally covered with a glass plate to reduce evaporation to a minimum. The conditions used in these experiments are summarized in Table 1.
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Mycotoxin incidents associated with cereals: lessons learnt and risk reduction strategies

Mycotoxin incidents associated with cereals: lessons learnt and risk reduction strategies

report on risks identified in food, feed or food contact materials that are placed on the market. 429[r]

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Phthalate Toxicity

Phthalate Toxicity

Some commonly used phthalates are DEHP used as sealants, solvent fragrance , detergents, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, paints and Butyl Benzyl Phthalate (BBzP) used as adhesives in vinyl materials (K. M. Rodgers, 2014). The widespread use of phthalates leads to its distribution in general environment as well as in raw food materials, contamination can also occur during processing of food. Larger volume of phthalates are used in edible products (above 40%) in order to get high plasticizing effect. Some toxicologically relevant phthalates in food industry are DEHP, BBP, DnBP, DiBP etc. Another source of phthalates is paper and cardboard materials generated from recycled fibre (O. Kappenstein, 2012). The major cause of exposure of phthalates in human occurs through inhalation and ingestion, DEHP is the major phthalate that is present in hygienic materials such as shampoo, conditioners etc. Phthalates are cancerous for animals and can lead to fatal death and particularly reproductive toxicity in animals ( G. Latini, 2005). In this chapter an effort has been made to analyse the phthalates toxicity in various sources.
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Non contact ultrasonic measurements of the elastic constants of magnetic materials

Non contact ultrasonic measurements of the elastic constants of magnetic materials

Abstract. Ultrasonic testing using contacting transducers such as quartz or PZT is well established. However, standard measurement techniques used require physical contact of the sample and ultrasonic transducer and some sort of couplant between the two. With this configuration there is a possibility of damaging the sample, transducer or bond during testing, thermal cycling, or removal of the transducer. We present results taken using recent advances in non-contact methods of ultrasound generation and detection using electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs), which offer some significant benefits over contact ultrasonic techniques. Circumventing the need for couplant removes the possibility of contaminating the system, which is an issue for some material property measurements, and allows easier measurements over a wider range of temperatures. An automated data analysis system has been developed which allows the velocity of sound in the sample, and hence the elastic constants, to be determined to a high accuracy. This technique is illustrated using measurements of the alloy Gd 64 Sc 36 .
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Development and Characterization of Next-Generation Contact Materials for Nanoelectromechanical Switches

Development and Characterization of Next-Generation Contact Materials for Nanoelectromechanical Switches

integration of Re, Ru, Rh and Ir into CMOS processes is not straightforward, mainly because of underdeveloped methods to etch these materials [1]. The noble metal Au possesses a high electrical conductivity and low surface contamination, but its high adhesion combined with low mechanical robustness impedes its application as NEM contact material. Mechanical deformation during cycling can lead to a growth in contact area and thereby to increased adhesive interactions between the top and bottom contact, similar than shown previously in Figure 10. The metals Pt and Pd have similar oxidation resistance and electrical conductivity, while Pt being mechanically more robust than Pd. However, Pt leads to the formation of tribopolymers due to its catalytic activity as shown in sections 2.2 and 2.3. This exercise of finding candidate contact materials within pure elements shows that next-generation NEM switch contact materials will likely be multi-component materials and not single-elements. This is in contrast to micro-scale switches (RF MEMS switches), where both Au-based and Pt-based contact materials can be used due to the higher contact and separation forces achievable in MEMS devices that are able to separate adhesive contacts or penetrate through thin insulating films.
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Microbial contamination after sanitation of food contact surfaces in dairy and meat processing plants

Microbial contamination after sanitation of food contact surfaces in dairy and meat processing plants

Microbiological safety of food is closely associ- ated with the quality of raw materials and hygienic practices on farms and in the food processing plants (Verran et al. 2008). The results of the present study showed that both raw milk and raw meat material were frequently contaminated with particular bacteria, in some cases up to 100% of the collected samples. These bacteria can directly penetrate into food products or can persist in the food processing environment as secondary contaminants (Ray & Bhunia 2007). Therefore, it is important to identify potential sources of food contamination in order to develop effective sanitation and food processing methods which should prevent the presence of microorganisms in food. An effective cleaning procedure may lead to a significant reduction (of up to 99.8%) of bac- teria occurring on the food processing equipment (Dunsmore et al. 1981), however, in this study, a relatively high number of the examined surfaces remained contaminated after sanitation. The fact that raw milk is pasteurised prior to its processing indicates that other factors (e.g. personnel) may also play an important role in the contamination of the dairy plant environment (Jaglic et al. 2010).
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Contact problem for bonded nonhomogeneous materials under shear loading

Contact problem for bonded nonhomogeneous materials under shear loading

The present paper examines the contact problem related to shear punch through a rigid strip bonded to a nonhomogeneous medium. The nonhomogeneous medium is bonded to another nonhomogeneous medium. The strip is perpendicular to the y-axis and parallel to the x-axis. It is assumed that there is perfect bonding at the common plane surface of two nonhomogeneous media. Using Fourier cosine trans- forms, the solution of the problem is reduced to dual integral equations involving trigonometric cosine functions. Later on, the solution of the dual integral equa- tions is transformed into the solution of a system of two simultaneous Fredholm integral equations of the second kind. Solving numerically the Fredholm integral equations of the second kind, the numerical results of resultant contact shear are obtained and graphically displayed to demonstrate the effect of nonhomogeneity of the elastic material.
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Continuous Flow Processing of Foods using Cylindrical Applicator Microwave Systems Operating at 915 MHZ

Continuous Flow Processing of Foods using Cylindrical Applicator Microwave Systems Operating at 915 MHZ

Aseptic processing of foods is carried out in continuous flow and one of the requirements is the rapid heating and cooling of the food materials. Due to the FDA regulation, only the lethality accumulated in the holding tube can be accounted for the requirements of commercial sterility, but the heating and cooling sections may provide a significant lethality as well. This conservative lethality imposed by the law may be detrimental to the quality of the product. The high temperatures used in aseptic processing may destroy the nutrients of the food material to a greater extent than initially intended, if the exposure of the food to such high temperature is underestimated by a few seconds. For this purpose, specialty heat transfer equipment has been designed trying to maximize the heat transfer rates. Both indirect and direct heat exchangers have been improved and worked on. Yet the same limitations given by the thermophysical properties of the food materials are present. Steam infusion and steam injection have been proposed as rapid heating methods, but they have the disadvantage of introducing water into the product, which later needs to be flashed out (Reuter, 1987; Singh and Heldman, 2001).
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Human health risk assessment of the chemical contamination of food products and raw foods

Human health risk assessment of the chemical contamination of food products and raw foods

Based on localization of harmful changes in the human body (Table 5), cadmium, arsenic, mercury, lead, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and nitrates are referred to systemic toxicants. When performing a conservative assessment of the combined non-carcinogenic action of the above-mentioned contaminants, simultaneously entering the body with food products, most likely is that the type of their effect on the same organs and systems is additive [3, 5].

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Quantitative Adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus on Stainless Steel Coated with Milk

Quantitative Adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus on Stainless Steel Coated with Milk

The formation of biofilm creates major problems in the food industry since it may represent an important source of contamination for materials or foodstuffs coming into contact with them, so leading to food spoilage or trans- mission of diseases. Biofilms are of interest in the dairy industry, as bacteria within biofilms are more difficult to eliminate than plank tonic cells, and bacteria detached from biofilms can contaminate milk and milk products [1]. This biotransfer may affect hygiene and the com- mercial value of the product. To control these problems, it has been recognized that a greater understanding of the interactions between microorganisms and food—process- ing surface is required [2-4].
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Applications of mesoporous silica materials in food – a review

Applications of mesoporous silica materials in food – a review

The last decades have witnessed a steady increase in the social and political awareness for the need of monitoring and controlling environmental and industrial processes. In the case of the nitrite ion, due to its potential toxicity for human health, the European Union has recently implemented a number of rules to restrict its levels in drinking water and food products. Although several ana- lytical protocols have been proposed for nitrite quantification, none of them enables a reliable and quick analysis of complex samples. An alternative approach relies on the construction of biosens- ing devices using stable enzymes, with both high activity and specificity for nitrite. Almeida et al. (2010) reviewed the current state-of-the-art in the field of electrochemical and optical biosen- sors. They used nitrite reducing enzymes the as biorecognition elements and discussed the op- portunities and challenges in this emerging mar- ket. Apart from that, recent trends in food safety promote an increasing search for trace compounds that can affect human health. Biogenic amines, the so-called natural amines with physiological significance, belong to this group of substances. Pyrylium-containing mesoporous materials were used for the chromo-fluorogenic sensing of bio- genic amines in aqueous environment (García- Acosta et al. 2006). This was one advanced goal in the development of selective probes for real samples that sense biogenic amines via a sim- ple chromo-fluorogenic test but remain silent in the presence of fatty amines and amino acids. To achieve this goal, García-Acosta et al. (2006) focused their attention on pyrylium compounds. As they and others had shown previously, such heterocyclic ring systems react with amines to give the corresponding pyridinium derivatives. In that example, a reactive pyrylium chromophore that was anchored into the inner hydrophobic pores of a mesoporous siliceous support was used. The solid demonstrates that the combination of molecular concepts and 3D solid state preorganised features
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The common agricultural policy and the food industry. Green Europe, Newsletter on the Common Agricultural Policy 196

The common agricultural policy and the food industry. Green Europe, Newsletter on the Common Agricultural Policy 196

The structure of the food industry The food industry comprises: i the food industry proper, which is mainly engaged in the processing of agricultural raw materials such as milk, meat, ce[r]

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Kinetic Models for Drying Techniques—Food Materials

Kinetic Models for Drying Techniques—Food Materials

DOI: 10.4236/aces.2018.82003 41 Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science processes of drying agricultural products in thin layers. Models have been found to be helpful for food industries to analyze drying kinetics of agricultural prod- ucts so that the quality of these products can be maintained and assist in reduc- ing losses incurred during bumper harvesting and processing. ANN one of the numerous modeling tools in food technology is quite a new and easy computa- tional modeling approach used for prediction, which has become popular and accepted by the food industry, researchers, scientists and students and have found extensive utilization in solving many complex real world problems.
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Surface characterisation of contact materials for thin film CdTe solar cells

Surface characterisation of contact materials for thin film CdTe solar cells

experiences when travelling through the junction will increase the series resistance of the overall cell and therefore decrease its efficiency. The back contact also has to be stable under operation so that the diffusion of material from the contact into the active region is minimised as it has been shown that copper migration into the cell results in a decrease in device performance and lifetime. So in order to minimise the series resistance of the cell ideally an ohmic (where the current increases linearly with the voltage following Ohm’s law) contact would be formed to extract the carriers [8,9]. Due to the difference in work functions when joining a metal to a semiconductor as described earlier a Schottky barrier can form which prevents the ohmic behaviour of the back contact and hence limits the efficiency of the device. One approach to reducing the size of this barrier is to etch the surface of the CdTe prior to metal deposition [4]. This etching process produces a Te rich surface, metal is deposited onto this enriched surface and then annealed, rendering an alloyed back contact. A large range of CuTe alloys are known to exist with copper telluride having the most complicated phase diagram of all the copper chalcogenides [10,11]. These alloys range from metallic to semiconducting and differ in suitability when used in devices due to their varying resistances. In order to understand this alloying process recent studies have been done on mainly polycrystalline samples [12- 15]. The growth of Cu × Te alloys by evaporating Cu onto a Te rich surface of CdTe
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