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COMMERCIALISATION OF FOREST RESOURCES: AN EMERGING ISSUE IN ARUNACHAL PRADESH

COMMERCIALISATION OF FOREST RESOURCES: AN EMERGING ISSUE IN ARUNACHAL PRADESH

Indeed, Arunachal Pradesh is very rich in forest resources in the form of flora, fauna and land. In terms of flora, it has wide ranges of vegetation, vegetables, medicinal plants (Mishmi Teeta), fruits, roots etc. Bamboo, cane, wild banana, thatch, leaves plate, Tase, mushroom, flower broom, orchids, wide ranges of vegetables like Oyik, Rare, Papuk, Osik, Oyik, Onyor, Taka, Akshap, Oiik, wide range of fruits like Buri, Boglok, Jackfruit, Hichir and Ingin (roots) are some of the floral species and its products(Table-A). The state is rich in faunal resources like varieties of animals, birds and fishes. Animal comprises of bear, monkey, dear, mongoose, squirrel, dove, wild cock & pigeon, fish includes Ngopi, Ngobi, Tingir, Take and other aquatic animals etc. Moreover, there are ample of other forest resources available throughout the state like variety of soil, grassland, sand, gravels & pebbles and boulders etc (Table-A). Undoubtedly, Arunachal Pradesh is storehouse of many precious and rare forest resources- flora, fauna and land respectively. These resources are used for domestic consumption fulfilling physical, ritualistic, cultural and agricultural requirements of the indigenous population of the state from time immemorial. Every activity of the tribal people is associated with the forest and its products. May it be a cultivation of field, construction of dwelling house, cultural activities like festival, rituals, marriages and organising public feast, etc. Hence, forest and its resources have universal application and utility in the lives of tribal people or a society.
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The Role of Forest Resources in the Performance of Community Forest Enterprise in Mexico: Analytical Framework from Competitive Strategy

The Role of Forest Resources in the Performance of Community Forest Enterprise in Mexico: Analytical Framework from Competitive Strategy

Abstract: The objective was to make an analytical framework to support the strategy and performance of the community forest enterprise. To do this, we used theoretical analysis of the contributions of the main theories of the firm. The new institutional economics the role of institutions in common were analyzed. The institutions of governance and property rights of the communities determine the organizational structure and incentives. The possibilities of exchange of production and efficiency of community forest enterprise. The enterprise aligns multiple objectives in the governance of the commons, and the strategy. Community forest enterprise´s strategy is based on the use and control of forest resources and engages simultaneously in vertical integration in so far as they mature management skills and production in general. The analysis of the literature suggests that the performance of the community forest enterprise is positive because they are not only profitable domestic market, but also contribute to poverty reduction and environmental protection. However, it has implications as pressure on forest resources, over- regulation of natural resources; individuals do not achieve the social optimum, and therefore high-risk domestic market and loss of competitiveness internationally.
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Utilization of Forest Resources and Socio‑Economic Development in Uukolonkadhi Community Forest of Namibia

Utilization of Forest Resources and Socio‑Economic Development in Uukolonkadhi Community Forest of Namibia

the country’s weak colonial legacy as far as forestry is concerned and the  relatively recent creation of the  Directorate of Forestry (DoF), the  main institution directly involved in forest resources assessments (Thomas  et  al., 2003). In addition, Namibia’s vegetation is faced with many natural challenges and land‑use pressure that are mainly caused by fire, population increase, deforestation, bush encroachment and soil erosion (Lisao, 2015). Owing to erratic rainfalls and ever‑changing climatic conditions, one can, with no doubt agree with several studies (Barnes  et  al., 2005; Sola, 2011 and Parviainen, 2012) that revealed that true forests are absent from Namibia. All that is available are savannah woodlands and bush encroached areas that are partially distributed across the  south central part of the  country. As a  result of all these natural conditions, Namibia’s forestry sector does not contribute significantly to the gross income (Louw, 2007). On the other hand, land clearing for crop farming is largely responsible for the  decline in forest area in Namibia (Van Holsbeeck  et  al., 2016). Due to the  expansion of agriculture, primarily in form of small‑scale cereal and pastoral production, woodland savannah area decreased from 90 % of North Eastern Namibia in 1975 to 83 % in 2004, and then increased to 86 % in 2014, while agricultural land increased from 6 % to 12 % between 1975 and 2014 (Wingate et al., 2016). Forest fires are listed among serious threat to the  Namibian forests, both anthropogenic and natural. Many fires burn out of control due to wind and some areas are burnt every three years on average (Mendelsohn and Obeid, 2005). However, people in rural localities still benefit a lot from forest resources; for food, wood crafts and construction materials (Nikodemus and Hájek, 2015).
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Global Forest Resources Assessment How are the world s forests changing?

Global Forest Resources Assessment How are the world s forests changing?

the collaborative Forest resources Questionnaire (cFrQ), representing some 100 countries and 88 percent of the world’s forest area. these organizations now jointly collect data on over 60 percent of the total number of variables collected through the Fra process. these data are then shared among the cFrQ partners so that countries are asked only once for this information. In other words, the data are collected once and used many times. this both reduces the reporting burden and increases data consistency across organizations. the cFrQ partnership has in the process also helped to standardize definitions and timing of data collection. beyond the cFrQ, partnership has also been crucial in the area of remote sensing. the global remote sensing survey was conducted with over 200 specialists from about 100 countries. In addition, a close working relationship with the european commission Joint research centre (Jrc) has resulted in the sharing of both technical advances and the workload of global forest change analysis of landsat data.
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Conservation and Management of Forest Resources in India: Ancient and Current Perspectives

Conservation and Management of Forest Resources in India: Ancient and Current Perspectives

The Western Ghats (WG), region a valuable natural resource pool of the country, plays a crucial role in shaping the topography, climate pattern and the environmental system of the nation besides serving as a living laboratory of biodiversity. Several ecosystems within the Western Ghats landscape play a major role in connecting the ridge between the Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats, the two important flora and fauna regions of the country. Thus, the Western Ghats landscape is important not only for the people and biodiversity of the region, but also the so- cial and ecological systems of the low lying areas as ecosystem services that flow from WG provide sustainabil- ity to the low landscapes of the entire peninsular India. Human beings derive many useful benefits from the ex- isting biodiversity and it is a well known fact that a large number of people, directly or indirectly continuous to depend on forest resources for their livelihoods. Keeping in view the ever increasing population and an actual decrease in the forest areas, the Indian Government allocates funds under the Special Central Assistance (SCA) and Hilly Areas Development Programme for conserving and improving the present Western Ghats in Karnataka and other states. This programme, initially started during the Fifth Five Year Plan (1974-79), is still continuing. Across various plan periods, the focus of the program has varied. During the sixth plan, the watershed develop- ment programme was taken up, keeping in view the significance of ecological restoration and conservation of biodiversity of the region. Later, during the eighth five year plan, an integrated approach towards watershed de- velopment was initiated, while during the Ninth Five Year Plan, a greater emphasis was given to awareness crea- tion, maintenance, preservation and restoration of biological diversity. Further, during the Tenth Five Year Plan, the emphasis was on the preservation of biodiversity and rejuvenation of the hill ecology with an equal emphasis given to economic activities and livelihood security of the inhabitants under the environmental conservation programme. The major conservation activities are depicted in Table 5.
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When the theory is not enough – valuation of forest resources with “efficiency” prices in practice

When the theory is not enough – valuation of forest resources with “efficiency” prices in practice

When the theory is not enough – valuation of forest resources with “efficiency” prices in practice Huhtala, Anni and Toppinen, Anne and Boman, Mattias.[r]

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Forest Resources in the Performance of Mexican Community Forest Enterprises in a Vertical Integration System

Forest Resources in the Performance of Mexican Community Forest Enterprises in a Vertical Integration System

understanding the importance of institutions and the governance of natural resources (Ostrom 1990). Common-Pool Resources and Mexican CFE According to Schlager and Ostrom (1992), property rights that largely determine the government of the commons are: access and extraction (rights of use), management, exclusion and alienation (sale and control rights). The property rights of community forest land in Mexico began with the Mexican Revolution and were consolidated with the agrarian reforms of 1934-1940. They were not completed until the early nineties as a result of the reform of Article 27 of the Constitution and the Agrarian Law of 1992. These made explicit that community forest land should remain as common land, and thus inalienable (Segura-Warnholtz 2014). In 1992, the reform of Article 27 of the Mexican Constitution regulated land ownership and provided for the return of control of forest resources to the local communities (Muñoz-Piña et al. 2003). The new Agrarian Law of 1992 established the land tenure for private, ejido and communal property. These last two tenures of land are known as social or communal property (Merino-Pérez and Segura-Warnholtz 2005). An initial impact of the new agrarian law was the creation of forest enterprises known as "working groups" made up of individual landowners, under the legal category of Society of Rural Production (Wilshusen 2003).
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Forecasting reduction of forest resources based on GM model

Forecasting reduction of forest resources based on GM model

In this paper, a reduction of forest resources model which taken Zhejiang province as an example was constructed based on the GM model. The model was constructed in order to predict the reduction of forest resources. The results show that the predication posterior variance ratio test was 0.23, the small error probability was 1.00, the GM model were available for prediction of reduction of forest land resources. The models should not be used with reduction of forest land resources caution for general applications. Future studies on reduction of forest land resources prediction models should develop to different area and size so as to predication reduction of forest land resources more accuracy.
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Depletion of Forest Resources and Wildlife Population with Habitat Complexity: A Mathematical Model

Depletion of Forest Resources and Wildlife Population with Habitat Complexity: A Mathematical Model

Mathematical modeling is an essential tool in studying a diverse range of such ecological situations. Proposed work deals with the study of mathematical model on the sustainable management of renewable resources in India. The depletion of forest biomass by human population and industrialization has been investi- gated both theoretically as well as experimentally by many researchers ([1]-[7]). In particular, [8] [9] have proposed a mathematical model for the depletion of forest resources where they have shown that the forest resources may be doomed to extinction under growing population living in the forest or by industrializa- tion which wholly depends on forest resources. [8] [9] results have also been found by other researchers showing their concern about biodiversity caused by deforestation. [10] has proposed and analyzed a mathematical model for con- servation of forestry biomass and wildlife population. In above paper, we as- sumed that the growth rate of wildlife conservation is proportional to the deple- tion of forestry biomass due to wildlife population. We have also studied the af- fect of illegal trade in forestry biomass and wildlife population. [11] has pro- posed and analysed the mathematical model and shown the effect of population and industrialization on the forestry biomass and wildlife population. This mod- el is motivated by our food chain model given by [12]. We proposed a nonlinear mathematical model and analyzed to see the effect of harvesting on food chain model with habitat complexity. We again study this model in the view of effect of human-induced activities on the forestry biomass and wildlife population with habitat complexity.
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Socio-economic Factors Influencing Utilization of Forest Resources at Odoba Forest Reserve, Benue State, Nigeria

Socio-economic Factors Influencing Utilization of Forest Resources at Odoba Forest Reserve, Benue State, Nigeria

is important in supporting agriculture. Forests, among the natural resources, have potentials and limitations for improving human welfare [10]. Forests improve human welfare by providing a range of resources including timber, non-timber forest resources, and recreation. Forests also supplement household income thus providing safety nets ([11,12,13]). However, people tend to destroy the environment by cutting down forest trees; overgrazing and cultivating marginal lands [14]. These activities affect soil nutrient content which in turn affects tree growth, forest cover, birds and invertebrates ([15;9]). Further, grazing, removal of dead tree branches and dry leaves from the ground alter the nutrient dynamics while constant movement of cattle and humans erode the top soil layer [16] and browsing by goats and sheep affect re-growth, reduce perennial cover and increase exotic annual cover [17].
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Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT):  A Mechanism for forest resources management in sub-Saharan Africa

Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT): A Mechanism for forest resources management in sub-Saharan Africa

Drivers of illegal logging and timber trade. From interactions with different actors, it was revealed that most logging and trade within DRC (estimated at 50% within the sampled area) was illegal. However, responses from the timber harvesters indicated that they were indifferent about the illegality. Most respondents indicated that they were reluctantly willing to abide by local procedures, including payments to local chiefs and various administrative levels. The results indicated that most of the depletion and degradation of forest resources and landscapes, in many sub-Saharan countries, were mainly due to illegal logging and unsustainable practices. Even after harvesting the timber, trade processes and related procedures along the value chain of forest products were mauled by poor governance and corruption, which lead to illegalities and affected benefits from the forests; indirectly leading to more deforestation and forest degradation. The major factors identified during this study as drivers of illegal logging and timber trade in sub-Saharan Africa were: limited
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Access to forest resources and forest based livelihoods in highland Kafa, Ethiopia : a resource management perspective

Access to forest resources and forest based livelihoods in highland Kafa, Ethiopia : a resource management perspective

University of Huddersfield Repository Zewdie, Yihenew Access to forest resources and forest­based livelihoods in highland Kafa, Ethiopia a resource management perspective Original Citation Zewdie, Yih[.]

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Property Rights, Institutions and Forest Resources Management in Developing Countries

Property Rights, Institutions and Forest Resources Management in Developing Countries

In order to provide an institutional framework strengthening forest resources management in Cameroon, this paper follows two steps. First, we examine the existing institutional structures 3 of the forest sector within the country and assess their efficiency and accountability since the introduction of the 1994 forest legislation 4 . In- stitutional efficiency is assessed through 1) the capacity of institutions to protect the forest against degradation 5 (purpose function) and 2) their internal mechanisms of functioning (operational function). Such an assessment could therefore allow an identification of the strengths and limits of the existing institutions. Second, we use the theory of New Institutional Economics (NIE) 6 and show how good identification and allocation of property rights improve management of forest resources. NIE analyzes the relations between institutions and stakeholders in investigating how existing routines (social organizations) and policies within societies might drive the man- agement of natural resources [15] [16]. Finally the paper discusses the impacts of two forms of institutional ar- rangements on forest management: Public Private Partnership (PPP) and Multi-Stakeholder (MLS) management approaches. Public-Private Partnerships are joint project management processes operated by private businesses and public entities in order to combine public prescriptive mechanisms with private operational roles. Multi-Stakeholder management is also a co-management approach combining public entities, private actors and local population in order to increase the contribution of local dwellers living in forest areas in the decision mak- ing process. These two forms of institutional frameworks are considered as joint forest management (JFM) be- cause they promote cooperation between different stakeholders during the management of forest resources [17].
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Analysis of Landscape Patterns and the Trend of Forest Resources in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area

Analysis of Landscape Patterns and the Trend of Forest Resources in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area

DOI: 10.4236/gep.2018.65015 183 Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection analysis, especially to reflect the structure and spatial allocation of study objects at the horizontal level. It can highly concentrate the landscape structure and simple quantitative information to allow for an interrelated measure of ecologi- cal processes and spatial structure. Selecting reasonable structure indexes has important effects on research. In this paper, we respectively selected indexes from 4 aspects: area, edge, shape, and density of the landscape types [16] [17] [18] [19]. To comprehensively consider the forest landscape pattern of the area, this research established a Landscape Stability Index considering the different aspects of the above landscape pattern. First, we need to make the indexes di- mensionless and then calculate them. Finally, we analysed the horizontal struc- ture of forest resources in the reservoir area (details in Table 1).
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Problem of Forest Resources and Necessity of Education for conserving forest resources In India

Problem of Forest Resources and Necessity of Education for conserving forest resources In India

Abstract: Education plays an important role for promoting environmental awareness especially conserving forest resources. Forest is necessary for our maintaining biodiversity, ecological balance and ratio of oxygen & carbon-di-oxide gases. Without forest man cannot live. So education is important to make people understand about necessity of good & pure environment and protecting trees for getting benefits which make human life more better & comfortable. Forest occupies an important place among the natural resources. Presently forests occupy an area of about 9 core hectors which is about 22 percent of the total amount area of forest. The distribution of forest in India is uneven. In the north-western part of the country nearly 14 percent of the area is under forests. In the central region about 45 percent land is covered with forests. The Himalayas and The tarai regions contain nearly 22 percent of the forests while over 75 percent of the forests are located in the Peninsular India. The Gangetic Plain has even less than 5 percent of the forests. resource such as forests and forest products were found as a basic source of survival for living organisms during the initial period. Later, the natural resources started degrading slowly and steadily due to increased human activities. In the beginning, natural resources were the primary assets for the growth of agriculture, industry, urbanization etc. Subsequently, increased anthropogenic activities started degrading the forest cover on a large scale through extending the agricultural land scape and other developmental activities in the country.
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Economic valuation of reducing upland forest resources degradation to improve soil and water conservation services: the case of upland forest resources of rekame watershed, halaba special woreda, snnpr, Ethiopia

Economic valuation of reducing upland forest resources degradation to improve soil and water conservation services: the case of upland forest resources of rekame watershed, halaba special woreda, snnpr, Ethiopia

The valuation result reveals that households have a positive willingness to pay to ensure the improved soil and water conservation services by reducing the upland forest resource degradation. Their maximum WTP amount is one of the indicators that the upland forest resources degradation is increasing and the resultant loss of soil and water conservation services from year to year. Therefore, their willingness to contribute in support of the proposed improvement can be used as potential revenue. For the contribution method in ETB, the estimated five years aggregate WTP amounts from the annual aggregate WTP of parametric and non-parametric approaches are ETB 7,378,161.12 and ETB 6,951,871.2, respectively. On the other hand, the estimated five years aggregate WTP amounts of parametric and non-parametric approaches were 6,097,104.48 and 4,749,060 Labor days, respectively. When we project the five years aggregate WTP amounts by unskilled worker local minimum wage rate of (ETB 12.00/day), the respective five years parametric and non-parametric aggregate WTP amounts were ETB 73,165,253.76 and ETB 56,988,720. This shows that as the contribution in Labor Days by far more valuable than the contribution in ETB for such kinds of projects in rural areas. This might be due to excess family labor (disguised unemployment) and cash constraint. Unlike parametric approach, there is no high risk of ‘spill-over’ effect for the estimation from non-parametric approach.
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Economic potential of forest resources of Nepal

Economic potential of forest resources of Nepal

T he contribution of forestry sector in Nepal’s economy is significant. As 39.06% of the country’s area is forests, this sector has diverse economic potential. This sector can contribute towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals in Nepal (Kanel, 2004). The country lies within tropical to alpine climates and hosts a wide diversity of plant and animal species. For instance, Nepal has documented about 7000 species of flowering plants, many of which are important both commercially and for sustaining rural livelihoods. Major goods include fuelwood, timber, fodder, wild food, medicines, fibres and non-timber forest products (NTFPs). Similarly, forests provide different ecosystem services such as climate regulation, carbon sequestration, and water regulation. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment identifies both the 'goods' and 'services' as ecosystem services and categorizes them into provisioning, regulating, supporting, and cultural services.These forest goods and services would add up to a huge contribution to the Nepalese economy, but there is a lack of a systematic accounting. The understanding of the economic potential of forest resources is sketchy and efforts to tap such opportunities are negligible.
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Modelling the Competition for Forest Resources: The Case of Sweden

Modelling the Competition for Forest Resources: The Case of Sweden

Abstract: Past decades increasing shares of forest resources have been diverted from the forest sector to the energy sector. The increasing utilization of forest fuel is, to a large extent, caused by economic policies introduced to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. Since the energy sector is believed to continue to increase its use of forest fuel in the energy production in Sweden, it is of interest to investigate the effects of this. The purpose of this study is to analyses the extent and degree of forest resources competition in the presence of climate policy by accounting for the inter-linkages of forest resources utilization between the energy sector and the forest industries. A partial equilibrium model was thus constructed and applied to the Swedish forest sector and energy sector. A baseline scenario is calibrated using the GAMS software. Four scenarios with alternative development paths are then simulated and compared to the baseline scenario. The results indicate that the impacts on the procurement competition between the forest sector and the energy sector are relatively moderate also in situations of expanding production in the forest industries. An increase in the competition between industries in the energy sector can however be observed.
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2015 Forest Resources Assessment shows positive global trends but forest loss and degradation persist in poor tropical countries

2015 Forest Resources Assessment shows positive global trends but forest loss and degradation persist in poor tropical countries

The Global Forest Resources Assessment 2015 shows that deforestation has slowed and afforestation has increased globally during 1990–2015. Planted forests have increasingly provided goods and services hith- erto derived from natural forests, and mosaic forests in agricultural landscapes are increasing. Forest gain is occurring at higher latitudes and in richer countries whilst forest loss continues in poor countries in the tropics. Some middle income tropical countries are now also transitioning to forest gain. These transition countries are characterised by reforms to forest management and improvements in agricultural practices but also by significant expansions of planted forest, which account for 25–100% of gains. Forest-area estimates of the FRA align with satellite-derived estimates, with deviations of 6 ±7% globally and 6 ±17% for the tropics. Mosaics comprised of trees outside forests, remnant forest patches, and young regenerating forests constitute a modest proportion of the tropical forest estate and are seemingly well inventoried by the FRA. Extensive areas of forest experienced partial canopy cover reduction since 2000, particularly in the tropics where their area is 6.5 times that deforested since 1990. The likelihood of the eventual loss of these forests and a decline in their capacity to provide goods and services is a matter of concern. Demand for industrial wood and fuelwood increased 35% in the tropics since 1990, principally in poorer countries, and growth in demand will accelerate into the future, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region. Notwithstanding significant increases in forests within protected areas since 1990 to 517 Mha (16.3%) globally and 379 Mha (26.6%) in the tropics, increasing demands for ecological services, forest products, and climate change mitigation is likely to be met from an expanding area of planted forests more than from the declining area of natural forests, particularly in Africa. The global rate of planted-forest expansion since 1990 is close to a target rate of 2.4% per annum necessary to replace wood supplied from natural forests in the medium term, though the expansion rate has declined to 1.5% since 2005. Multiple-use forests permitting both production and conservation account for 26% of the global for- est area and 17% of the tropical forest area, and have increased by 81.8 Mha or 8.5% globally since 1990, with most gains in the tropics. Sustainable forest management in low-income and tropical countries remains modest, with only 37% low-income country forests covered by forest inventories. International support has proven effective at increasing this coverage since 2010.
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Sharing forest resources in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam : an institutional analysis

Sharing forest resources in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam : an institutional analysis

Similarly, in recent years natural forests are being better rehabilitated and protected, which results from a change in traditional habits among farmers, the development of planted forests, the quality and characteristics of the natural forests, and laws and regulations. First, large areas of natural forests have been rehabilitated as local people gave up upland rice cultivation. This was not a result of strict policies, but instead was mostly due to insufficient economic benefits that could be derived from upland rice cultivation. In fact, one local person reported that, “If they would continue benefit from upland rice cultivation, they [farmers] would never have given-up” (P756_1). Second, farmers argued that the income that could be derived from the development of planted forests would mitigate illegal logging of natural forests. A local person stated, “Farmers are busy taking care of their planted forest and earn money from harvesting these forests. These factors have helped reduce the illegal cutting of trees in natural forests” (P36_N_4). Third, the quality of natural forests is a result of past overexploitation and is currently characterized by a scarcity of NTPFs, including fewer bamboo shoots and animals, the absence of high quality timber, and the presence of trash timber 20 . A farmer in the focus group discussion in Co1 village said, “The high-value wood trees disappeared, leaving the rest - just bushes and trash timber. Years ago, the villagers frequently went into the forest to collect natural bamboo shoots. Today, one person is often not able to collect any bamboo shoots because it is becoming scare. Animals that are hunted in the forest are mainly mice and are rarely squirrels or snakes” (E376_5). A farmer in a focus group discussion in Da2 village had a similar view and reported, “It could be impossible to hear the sound
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