Fraxinus excelsior

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Evidence from mortality dating of Fraxinus excelsior indicates ash dieback (Hymenoscyphus fraxineus) was active in England in 2004-2005

Evidence from mortality dating of Fraxinus excelsior indicates ash dieback (Hymenoscyphus fraxineus) was active in England in 2004-2005

Ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) planted at six sites over the past 20 years was investigated. Three geographically isolated sites (Northumberland, Leicestershire and Devon) were compared with three sites in established areas of ash dieback in East Anglia, and the causal pathogen, Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, con fi rmed at all. Dieback severity, the frequency of stem basal lesions and pathogen apothecia, were quantified at all sites but despite high disease levels, tree mortality was low. Some trees had typical H. fraxineus stem cankers but had appar- ently died between 2001 and 2011, before the earliest UK records of H. fraxineus. Ring counts established beyond doubt the year of death and canker initiation in 27 dead trees. Cankers on the same trees were then tested for H. fraxineus using PCR-based detection, with pathogen presence confirmed as early as 2004/05 in some. This places H. fraxineus in England much earlier than previously thought, even pre-dating its documen- ted arrival in neighbouring European countries. The advanced disease levels at some sites plus confirmation of H. fraxineus in old stem cankers, suggests that planting of infected H. fraxineus tree stock in England could date back to the early 1990s, with affected trees dying in the mid-2000s. Additionally, it raises questions about the origins of the infected plants and uncertainties about plant trade pathways.
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Molecular markers for tolerance of European ash (Fraxinus excelsior) to dieback disease identified using Associative Transcriptomics

Molecular markers for tolerance of European ash (Fraxinus excelsior) to dieback disease identified using Associative Transcriptomics

Tree disease epidemics are a global problem impacting food security biodiversity and national economies The potential for conservation and breeding in trees is hampered by complex genomes and long lifecycles with most species lacking genomic resources The European Ash tree Fraxinus excelsior is being devastated by the fungal pathogen Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, which causes ash dieback disease Taking this system as an example and utilizing Associative Transcriptomics for the rst time in a plant pathology study we discovered gene sequence and gene expression variants across a genetic diversity panel scored for disease symptoms and identi ed markers strongly associated with canopy damage in infected trees Using these markers we predicted phenotypes in a test panel of unrelated trees successfully identifying individuals with a low level of susceptibility to the disease Co expression analysis suggested that pre priming of defence responses may underlie reduced susceptibility to ash dieback.
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Ecological valence of expanding European ash (Fraxinus excelsior L ) in the Bohemian Karst (Czech Republic)

Ecological valence of expanding European ash (Fraxinus excelsior L ) in the Bohemian Karst (Czech Republic)

Fraxinus excelsior L. (FE) is native to Europe, where it reaches 63° northern latitude, in the west it is limited by Ireland and Spain, in the east by the Volga River. It is absent in Greece, Italy and S Spain. Abundance in Asia Minor is unreliable (Koblížek 1997). The postglacial spread in Europe was investi- gated by Heuertz et al. (2004) on the basis of genetic information of various populations. Genetic vari- ability of FE populations isolated due to unfavourable site conditions was described e.g. by Höltken et al. (2003). Older dendrological materials (Dengler 1930; Svoboda 1955) also reported FE expanding capability and its wide ecological plasticity. Cur- rently there are differentiated alluvial, mountain and lime ecotypes (Chmelař, Úradníček 1996).
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Determining mathematical relations among important characteristics of Fraxinus excelsior (Case study: Research- Training Forest of Kheyroud)

Determining mathematical relations among important characteristics of Fraxinus excelsior (Case study: Research- Training Forest of Kheyroud)

Further investigation and experimentation by Namiranian in 2004, resulted in a formula as = 0.397079 + 0.773406 between the diameter at breast height (d) and the stump diameter ( ) of 116 trees of Fraxinus excelsior. Akhavan and Namiranian (2007) showed that there was a decreasing exponential relationship between the diameter at breast height and the slenderness coefficient of the trees. Namiranian (2000, 2004) made an effort to examine the slenderness coefficient of Fagus sylvatica and Fraxinus excelsior at anall-age stand in Gorazbon Educational Forests in Kheyroud, and reached a conclusion that there was a decreasing relationship between the diameter at breast height and the slenderness coefficient for these species. Regarding the fact that the validity of the established formulas is site specific, current work seeks to determine relationships between size dependent characteristics of the forest trees in a pristine condition for Fraxinus excelsior in the given region.
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Phenolic Content, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Effects of Fruit Extracts of Algerian Ash, Fraxinus excelsior

Phenolic Content, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Effects of Fruit Extracts of Algerian Ash, Fraxinus excelsior

6. Bai N, He K, Roller M, Lai C-S, Shao X, Pan M-H, et al. Secoiridoidglucosides from Fraxinus excelsior with effects on LPS-induced nitrite production in RAW 264.7 macrophages and human cancer cell lines. In: Juliani HR, Simon JE, Ho CT, editors. African natural plant products: Discoveries and Challenges in Chemistry, Health, and Nutrition. Vol. 2. Washington, DC: ACS Symposium Series, American Chemical Society; 2013. p.115.

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Effect of natural and synthetic growth stimulators on in vitro rooting and acclimatization of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L ) microplants

Effect of natural and synthetic growth stimulators on in vitro rooting and acclimatization of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L ) microplants

Sterile common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) plants were kindly provided by Prof. V. Padutov from Forest In- stitute at Gomel, Belarus. Stock shoot cultures were es- tablished in vitro from shoots of 60-year-old plus trees. Proliferating culture was maintained in vitro in 300-ml glass jars containing 50 ml of MS medium [12], 30 g/l sucrose, and 7 g/l agar (american type QP, Panreac), sup- plemented with 2 mg/l BA and 0.1 mg/l IAA. Uniform two- to three-node shoots (20 - 30 mm in length) orient- ed horizontally were used as explants. Cultures were transferred to fresh medium at four week intervals.
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Evidence from mortality dating of Fraxinus excelsior indicates ash dieback (Hymenoscyphus fraxineus) was active in England in 2004-2005

Evidence from mortality dating of Fraxinus excelsior indicates ash dieback (Hymenoscyphus fraxineus) was active in England in 2004-2005

Ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) planted at six sites over the past 20 years was investigated. Three geographically isolated sites (Northumberland, Leicestershire and Devon) were compared with three sites in established areas of ash dieback in East Anglia, and the causal pathogen, Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, con fi rmed at all. Dieback severity, the frequency of stem basal lesions and pathogen apothecia, were quantified at all sites but despite high disease levels, tree mortality was low. Some trees had typical H. fraxineus stem cankers but had appar- ently died between 2001 and 2011, before the earliest UK records of H. fraxineus. Ring counts established beyond doubt the year of death and canker initiation in 27 dead trees. Cankers on the same trees were then tested for H. fraxineus using PCR-based detection, with pathogen presence confirmed as early as 2004/05 in some. This places H. fraxineus in England much earlier than previously thought, even pre-dating its documen- ted arrival in neighbouring European countries. The advanced disease levels at some sites plus confirmation of H. fraxineus in old stem cankers, suggests that planting of infected H. fraxineus tree stock in England could date back to the early 1990s, with affected trees dying in the mid-2000s. Additionally, it raises questions about the origins of the infected plants and uncertainties about plant trade pathways.
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Patterns and severity of crown dieback in young even aged stands of european ash (Fraxinus excelsior L ) in relation to stand density, bud flushing phenotype, and season

Patterns and severity of crown dieback in young even aged stands of european ash (Fraxinus excelsior L ) in relation to stand density, bud flushing phenotype, and season

The extent and temporal pattern of crown damage (attributed to Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus) in even-aged stands of Fraxinus excelsior in relation to bud flushing phenotype, stand density, and season was investigated. Data were collected in 2007 in four statistically designed thinning experiments located in 12–15-years old plantations of ash in Denmark. The study included 21 plots of four contrasting, residual stand densities: (1) 1700–5500 trees/ha (unthinned control plots), (2) 1500 trees/ha, (3) 500 trees/ha, and (4) 100–150 trees/ha. Assessments included estimation of flushing phenotype in May, followed by evaluation of severity of crown damage (percentage of crown killed) in June and September. Simultane- ously, for each tree, the presence or absence of crown wilt and dead tops were recorded. The seasonal pattern of disease severity (average crown damage) was similar in all stands, and disregarding stand density the extent of tree crown damage increased significantly towards the end of the growing season (P < 0.005). Disease severity was the worst in unthinned plots, but otherwise unrelated to stand density. Late-flushing trees were most severely affected (P < 0.001). The observed patterns of disease severity are probably associated with ecological features of the pathogen that still remain largely unknown. Keywords: Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus; crown damage; fungal pathogen; phenology of trees
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Phenotypic variability of Fraxinus excelsior L. and Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl under the ash dieback disease in the Czech Republic

Phenotypic variability of Fraxinus excelsior L. and Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl under the ash dieback disease in the Czech Republic

The study was carried out in the experiment with 16 provenances of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior Linnaeus) and 2 provenances of narrow-leaved ash (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl) at a series of 5 parallel trial plots established in a gradient from lowland riverine to upland ravine sites. The role of the site, ash species and the provenance of common ash proved to have significant effects on the intensity of ash dieback (ADB) associated with the infection by Hyme- noscyphus fraxineus (T. Kowalski) Baral, Queloz & Hosoya at the age of 20 years. Narrow-leaved ash was healthier, surviving and growing better than common ash on the trials situated inside as well as beyond its natural range. The ADB intensity was lower in the medium altitude and more easterly located trial plots with a more continental climate. The provenance of forest reproductive material proved to have a significant effect on the ADB damage and survival rate as well as the growth of ash across the trial plots of the experiment.
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Effects of varying doses of Frisol on European ash (Fraxinus excelsior L ) planted on spoil banks

Effects of varying doses of Frisol on European ash (Fraxinus excelsior L ) planted on spoil banks

The effects of the various doses and the combination of two types of Frisol on height growths manifested themselves with a higher statistical significance in the second year after the ap[r]

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Urban vegetation and the drivers for change: a case study of Runcorn, UK

Urban vegetation and the drivers for change: a case study of Runcorn, UK

Runcorn is consider an unsuitable location for these species based on the climate and soil quality of the area. Figure 4 and 5 show change in the spatial distribution of suitable sites for these five tree species with the predicted climate change. Fraxinus excelsior and Acer pseudoplatanus are considered suitable at present (Figure 3) across the whole of Runcorn and this does not change with the future climate projections (Figure 6).

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Impact of soil conditioners on the growth of European ash (Fraxinus excelsiorL ) on dumps

Impact of soil conditioners on the growth of European ash (Fraxinus excelsiorL ) on dumps

K rekultivačnímu zalesňování se v SHR použí- vá velmi často jasan ztepilý (Fraxinus excelsior L.). Tento druh byl proto zvolen jako experimentál- ní dřevina k ověření a srovnávání vlivů vybraných půdních kondicionérů (TerraCottem – TC, Frisol – FR, Bio-algeen – BA) a hnojiv (Silvamix Forte – SF, Cererit – CE) na ujímavost sazenic a jejich počáteč- ní růst při současném sledování nákladů pěstování do stadia zajištěné kultury. Ověřování a srovnávání efektů jednotlivých preparátů s kontrolou (varianty pokusu) probíhalo na dvou půdně a klimaticky od- lišných lokalitách – Střimické výsypce a odkališti elektrárny Prunéřov (EPRU) (tab. 1 a 4–7). Pokusné plochy s jasanem 2/0 byly založeny metodou zná- hodněných bloků ve čtyřech opakováních na jaře 1997. V každé variantě bylo vysazeno 10 sazenic. Aplikace přípravků proběhla souběžně s výsadbou dřevin v dávkách uvedených v tab. 2. Péče o pokusné plochy probíhala až do roku 2002 na obou plochách stejným způsobem, a to podle modelu, který použí- vá rekultivační praxe. Sazenice byly dvakrát ročně okopány, dvakrát ožnuty a na podzim natřeny Mor- suvinem, v roce 2002 (šestý rok) navíc přihnojeny 10 g NPK na sazenici. Od roku 2003 se péče o plo- chy diferencovala. Na Střimické výsypce se v tomto roce vynechala jedna okopávka a nátěr repelentem, na EPRU se okopávka již neprováděla, stejně tak i nátěr repelentem. V roce 2004 byly dřeviny na obou plochách přihnojeny 15 g NPK na sazenici, na Stři- mické výsypce se uskutečnilo ještě jednou ožnutí.
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Characteristics of 3rd Querci-fageta s. lat.) and 4 th Fageta (abietis) s. lat.) vegetation tiers of north-eastern Moravia and Silesia (Czech Republic)

Characteristics of 3rd Querci-fageta s. lat.) and 4 th Fageta (abietis) s. lat.) vegetation tiers of north-eastern Moravia and Silesia (Czech Republic)

by strong human activities as deforestation, and also by radical changes of the tree species composition. Major areas have been changed to monocultures of Picea abies. A typical lower representation occurs of Abies alba, Quercus robur, Acer platanoides, and Ulmus glabra etc. in the forest stands of Fagus sylvatica. The highest decrease has been recorded with Abies alba which occurs individually at present. Abies alba has a more common representation in the forest stands in NFA 41. Geobiocenoses hav- ing natural character with a very rich tree species composition (Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba, Quercus robur, Acer platanoides, Acer pseudoplatanus, Ulmus glabra, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia cordata, Tilia platy- phyllos, and Carpinus betulus) are preserved in the Natural Reserve of the Palkovické hůrky (cadastral territory Rychaltice village, see Fig. 8), partly also in the Natural Monument of the Hradní vrch Hukvaldy (cadastral territory Sklenov).
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Chalara fraxinea – Ash Dieback in the Czech Republic

Chalara fraxinea – Ash Dieback in the Czech Republic

The causal agent of ash dieback, the hyphomycete Chalara fraxinea, was isolated from a Fraxinus excelsior cv. Pendula tree, in the Arboretum Křtiny between Křtiny and Jedovnice in Drahany Highland, and subsequently from several other locations in South Moravia in the Czech Republic. The infection was associated with severe twig dieback and symptoms of ash dieback were observed in many locations across the Czech Republic. The morphology of C. fraxinea is described and an ITS sequence is provided. Hymenoscyphus albidus, the teleomorph of C. fraxinea, is known as a quit common species from precedent mycofloristic studies provided in different areas in the Czech Republic.
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New technologies and improvement of nursery stock quality

New technologies and improvement of nursery stock quality

The cultivation technology was tested on the following species of trees: Alnus glutinosa, Fraxinus excelsior (bare-root seedlings –1/0), Salix alba, Salix matsudana (hardwood cuttings). During the experiment, abiotic factors influencing the biological development of plants were observed (temperature in substrate, temperature of air in the vegetation season, relative air humidity in the vegetation season, humidity of substrate). Electronic sen- sors HOBO and VIRRID were used for monitoring these factors. The evaluation of this experiment took place from 1999 to 2001. The tested plants (Alnus, Fraxinus) that had been propagated by seeds were cultivated on experimen- tal plots for two years (nursery cultivated plants 1/2), tho- se propagated by hardwood cuttings (Salix) were tested for only one vegetation period (nursery cultivated plants 0/1). The length and the number of shoots were observed on all plants, the diameter of the base was measured only on plants grown from seedlings (in the second year, at the time of harvesting – October 2000, 2001). Statistical evaluation was done using the programme Unistat, it included analysis of variance and serial comparisons by Scheffe’s method.
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Relationships between browsing damage and the species dominance by the highly food-attractive and less food-attractive trees

Relationships between browsing damage and the species dominance by the highly food-attractive and less food-attractive trees

following species mainly occurred: Acer pseudoplata- nus, Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus spp., Tilia cordata (see Table II). Other species occurred in small proportion  10% (20 transects); in the part of plots, there were the very broad spectrum of other species (6 transects) and in remaining plots, Picea abies or Abies alba (7 transects) showed signifi - cant proportion. As for ungulates, Capreolus capreo- lus occurred in all areas, Cervus elaphus at 3 localities, Dama dama at 4 localities and Ovis musimon at 3 local- ities. The converted abundance of game (according
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First record of Corythucha arcuata in Slovakia – Short Communication

First record of Corythucha arcuata in Slovakia – Short Communication

On June 20, 2018, C. arcuata was observed in the vicinity of Mužla, a village near the Danube River, in a mixed oak forest stand (Figure 2) dominated by Quercus robur and Fraxinus excelsior, with Ulmus spp., Populus spp., and Salix caprea as minor tree species located in the underground level or at the border of the stand. It was mainly a composition of hardwood trees growing on moist habitats. One single adult specimen and one single egg cluster of C. arcuata were found on a Q. cerris tree growing at the border of this site. No chlorotic spots on the leaves were noticed on infested trees, as a result of the sucking of C. arcuata adults and nymphs. Intensive searching for symptoms frequent in this area related to this species, on Q. robur leaves, did not confirm further presence of the pest. We can conclude that this one was extremely rare in this locality.
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Urban Tree Effects on Soil Organic Carbon

Urban Tree Effects on Soil Organic Carbon

A GIS was used to select randomly urban parks for soil sampling within the city of Leicester and permission was granted for the work by the Leicester City Council. The land-use history of each park was assessed in a GIS using the series of historic Ordnance Survey maps dating back to 1887. No park had previously been built upon, one park and two country houses and grounds that went on to form parks were in existence in 1887, the remainder were agricultural land at this time. Over the following years to the present day the remainder of the parks were established as the city expanded into the surrounding agricultural landscape, with the two recent parks developed on farmland within the last 20–30 years (see Table S1 for site specific land-use history). At each park an initial assessment was made for the presence of individual trees that ranged in size from saplings to large mature specimens within our target genera, specifically isolated specimens of Quercus robur, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer spp. (comprised of Acer pseudoplatanus and Acer platanoides), or patches of mixed woodlands. The selected trees ranged in diameter at breast height (DBH) from 2.5 cm to 197 cm and in biomass from 1.3 kg to 61 tonnes for the largest mature Q. robur specimen (see Table S1). The tree genera were selected because of their importance in parks in Leicester and national abundance, Q. robur being the commonest tree and F. excelsior the second most common as an individual tree or within small patches of woodland in Great Britain [33]. A. pseudoplatanus is the fourth
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Evaluation of Heirloom and Commercial Cultivars of Small Grains under Low Input Organic Systems

Evaluation of Heirloom and Commercial Cultivars of Small Grains under Low Input Organic Systems

The 6-row hulless cultivars e.g., “Burbank”, “Sunshine”, “Hooded”, “Purple”, “Dolma”, “Andie”, “Excelsior” and “Himalayan” produced greater numbers of seeds per spike and seed weight to [r]

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Articles

Articles

Sampling description: A square plot approach was chosen to sample forest diversity. A total of five major forest types were selected, namely Ulmus davidiana var. japonica—Pinus koraiensis forest, Betula costata—Pinus koraiensis forest, Quercus mongolica—Pinus koraiensis forest, Fraxinus mandshurica—Pinus koraiensis forest, Tilia—Pinus koraiensis forest. Each forest type was set with 3 tree quadrats, 12 shrub quadrats with sampling from all the four corners and 12 herbaceous quadrats. The size of the tree quadrate was 625 m (25 × 25 m) which had four shrub plots (5 × 5 m) distributed on the four corners. Shrub plots 25 m which also had four herbaceous plots (1 × 1 m) distributed on the four corners. The plant species name were identified according to The researches of liangshui natural (Ma 1993), Arbor flora of Heilongjiang Province (Zhou 1986), Flora plantarum herbacearum chinae boreali–orientalis (Liou 1959), Silva of Heilongjiang (Zhou 1985), Flora of China (Wu et al. 2013), Key of Plants of Northeastern China (Fu 1995), Flora Republicae Popularis Sinicae (Editorial Committee of Flora of China of Chinese Academy Sciense 2004) and a plant checklist was obtained by survey. The number and height of each species were recorded for all plots, the crown of the trees was recorded, the coverage and total coverage of shrubs and herbs were also recorded.
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