Functional Areas

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Formation of functional areas in the cerebral cortex is disrupted in a mouse model of autism spectrum disorder

Formation of functional areas in the cerebral cortex is disrupted in a mouse model of autism spectrum disorder

Significant increases in the rate of ASD diagnosis and the cost of treatment over the lifespan of these patients have prompted further research to discover better diag- nostic and therapeutic strategies for this disorder. To further this goal, animal models have been developed to investigate the anatomical and functional abnormalities displayed in autistic brains [4,19,49]. The BTBR mouse is an inbred strain that is currently used as a model of autism [19,49]. Previous neuroimaging studies have highlighted malformations of white matter connections in this strain [16,17,21]. Among these findings, complete absence of the corpus callosum and a significantly reduced hippocampal commissure have been reported [22], as well as ectopic interhemispheric connections [16,21]. However, whether BTBR mice also display disruptions in the forma- tion of functional areas within the cortex is not known. Here, we found that BTBR mice do not exhibit any in- terhemispheric neocortical connectivity through either normally or ectopically occurring commissures. We also re- vealed that the positions of both S1 and V1 are shifted medially and that there are age- and cortical-area-dependent
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Situational Diagnosis of Mental and Functional Areas of Community-Dwelling Adults

Situational Diagnosis of Mental and Functional Areas of Community-Dwelling Adults

Abstract: A situational analysis of issues related to mental and functional areas of elderly residents of permanent stay of the city of Chihuahua was performed. It participated in the study 51 subjects, 30 women and 21 men, a battery of three scales were applied to assess cognitive aspects, emotional aspects and indicators related to the ability to perform activities of daily living of the elderly participants. The results obtained and the conclusions derived there from highlight the need for a systematic assessment in the halls of permanent residence and the urge to start a physical activation program that emphasizes directly in recovery motor independence and indirectly increasing in activities of group living in such a way that allows seniors Community-Dwelling enhance your ability to perform activities of daily life and reduce the burden on their caregivers.
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Fire Risk Assessment: A Systematic Review of the Methodology and Functional Areas

Fire Risk Assessment: A Systematic Review of the Methodology and Functional Areas

the fire-risk assessment methods; hence conference proceeding papers, textbooks, and doctoral dissertations, master’s theses, and unpublished papers were excluded from the literature review. All journals were studied from early 2004 until the end of 2014. Due to difficult accessing to data before 2004 as well as the lack of relevant articles before this year, articles published in the years before 2004 did not investigate. In the Library databases search, a total of 93 articles from 13 scientific journals on the subject of fire-risk assessment were obtained. Studies related to fire-risk assessment were in multiple and various fields, so it was difficult for researchers to find titles related to the issues. After detailed and deep analysis, functional areas of examined articles were identified, and were classified in eight categories: Environmental impact, production and industry, transportation, buildings, power industry, oil and gas industry, urban fires and other topics. Other topics contain articles that were not in any of the previous seven categories. Then the articles in the relevant category were selected. Although some of the papers were related to the several categories, but finally and according to the survey, each paper was placed in the most relevant category. In following sections, 93 articles compiled based on mentioned eight categories will be considered. At the beginning of each section referenced to several cases of related article, and then all the articles in each category will be presented in the form of summarized in tables.
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Aluminum overload increases oxidative stress in four functional brain areas of neonatal rats

Aluminum overload increases oxidative stress in four functional brain areas of neonatal rats

The initial objective of present study was to evaluate the accumulation of Al in the brains of neonates receiving high Al-containing commercial infant formula. However, it was not possible to conduct the analyses on human newborns. Three-week-old rats were, therefore, used to imitate 6-month-old infants during the breastfeeding period. Although previous studies have suggested that excess Al accumulates in the hippocampus, dienceph- alon, and cerebellum, no prior investigation has reported Al oxidative damage in various areas of the brain in neo- natal rats. The present study’s results suggest that toxic Al concentrations, and oxidative damage caused by Al, occur in the 4 functional areas of the hippocampus, di- encephalon, cerebellum, and brain stem in growing brain tissue.
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Intersectoral and Intermunicipal Cooperation as a Tool of Supporting Local Economic Development: Selected Examples from the Forest and Wood-Based Sector in Poland

Intersectoral and Intermunicipal Cooperation as a Tool of Supporting Local Economic Development: Selected Examples from the Forest and Wood-Based Sector in Poland

In this perspective, a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches has proved necessary. The proposed ADI Index has been adapted to the research, adequately to the specificity of functional areas, integrating economic, natural and social role. The correctness of component decomposition was confirmed by research conducted by Chudobiecki, Potkański and Wanat [2016, 187-196], as well as by analyses based on a multifactorial model verified by retrospective regression, proposed by Popek and Wanat [2014, 71-77]. Of course, ADI is not the only, exclusive measure. It is necessary not only to constantly examine the variability of the ADI index, but also to continue the search for the measure that is as close to optimal as possible. Research in this area is continued, referring, inter alia, to the scientific papers of Paulo Reis Mourão [2007, 67-68; 2008, 49-86], related to the discussion on the Puviani's Fiscal Illusion Index.
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Assessing ecological land use and water demand of river systems: a case study in Luanhe River, North China

Assessing ecological land use and water demand of river systems: a case study in Luanhe River, North China

Abstract. Economic and social development has greatly in- creased ecological water demand and modified land use of river systems worldwide, causing overall degradation of many of these systems. In this study, theoretical and techni- cal frameworks for regionalization on the eco-environmental function of river systems are formulated and applied to the Luanhe River system. Based on its eco-environmental func- tions, this river can be regionalized into four types of first- class functional areas: ecological preservation areas, habi- tat restoration areas, ecological buffer areas and develop- ment and utilization areas. Considering the overall eco- environmental functions, we assessed the ecological land use of the Luanhe River system. The total area of basic ecological land use is 876.98 km 2 ; the restrictive ecological land use is 1745.52 km 2 ; ecological land use of the river system returned from farmland is 284.25 km 2 ; and that returned from con- struction land is 17.35 km 2 . The average minimum ecologi- cal flow of mainstreams in upper and middle reaches of the Luanhe River is 4.896 m 3 s −1 based on the habitat method. And the recommended minimum and suitable annual eco- logical water demand of channels in the lower reaches are 391 million m 3 and 819.5 million m 3 , respectively. The evap- oration and seepage consumption and vegetation consump- tion in riparian zones of the Luanhe River system are ap- proximately 132.6 million m 3 and 145.3 million m 3 per year, respectively. Our results suggest that is crucial to regulate the instream ecological water use of the Luanhe River’s mainstream starting from the Panjiakou-Daheiting Reser- voir system. We recommend accelerating ecological land-use
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Delineating functional territories from outer space

Delineating functional territories from outer space

Attempts to incorporate the concept of functional areas into political and research agendas are still incipient in developing countries. Most of these studies, particu- larly in Latin America, rely on outdated censuses, and therefore, the lack of data is a limiting factor even for the identification of metropolitan areas or conurbations. Consequently, this study proposes a novel approach for the delimitation of functional spatial units, or functional territories, using satellite imagery in conjunction with commuting data. The purpose of our method is to use night light data to identify urban agglomerations, which in turn allows us to group municipalities before clus- tering them by using commuting data. Our approach is not intended to measure the extent of urban areas, but rather to construct “functional territories,” which we define as spatial units with more economic interaction inside than outside the area. We describe our method using the cases of three developing countries, namely Mexico, Colombia, and Chile.
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Theory and Practice in Convergence of Revisions of Marine Functional Zoning at Provincial and Municipal Levels: A Case Study of Revision of Putian Marine Functional Zoning in China

Theory and Practice in Convergence of Revisions of Marine Functional Zoning at Provincial and Municipal Levels: A Case Study of Revision of Putian Marine Functional Zoning in China

There are three common problems which include the convergence of control boundaries, compatibility of different functions, and the allocation of control indicators in convergence of revisions of MFZ at provincial and municipal Levels, in China. In order to solve these problems, research methods such as index method, superposition method, synthesis method and stakeholder survey method are applied and three suggestions are put forward. (1) According to the conditions of sea resources and the present situation of sea area use, combing with the revised guidelines of provincial and municipal MFZ, some municipal-level marine functional areas need to be adjusted and added appropriately, which involves the sea area use of key provincial projects and industry, important ports, key transportation infrastructure projects and town construction. Furthermore, the judgment of the conformity between sea area use activities and marine functional zoning can be considered flexibly. (2) On the premise of determining the dominant function of each functional area, compatibility function is taken into account in the management requirements of MFZ. It includes the permitted types of sea area use when the dominant function is not used, and the compatible types of sea area use when the dominant function is used, so as to realize the rational development and protection of sea area resources and achieve the goal of sustainable development. (3) In order to meet the requirements of fine management of sea area use, and to provide an executable basis for the implementation of MFZ, mathematical model methods had been applied to calculate and distribute the areas of reclamation, fishery farming at the municipal level.
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Ghosting Behavior Of Job Applicants: An Analysis Of Factors Driving The Behavior

Ghosting Behavior Of Job Applicants: An Analysis Of Factors Driving The Behavior

Ghosting, once related to dating world, has now entered into job filed. The frequency of job aspirants getting disappeared without even notifying the hirers by phone or though mail, creating troubles to the recruiters (Othamar Gama Filho, 2019). Ghosting in earlier days was seen as a practice followed by employers or recruiters usually. It is found in a survey that 36% of the job-seekers had never heard back from the recruiters, 1 in 5 candidates (20%) are rejected by phone and only 13% had received a personalized rejection email (Ted Maksimowski, 2019). This shows that employers usually ghost their prospective candidates without getting back to them with a personalized feedback. However, this trend is now taking a reverse gear where job-seekers are now ghosting their prospective employers. This trend, once notoriously linked to recruiters or hiring managers, has now taken a turn around and companies across the world are witnessing this trend at workplace more often than earlier (Pilita Clark, 2019). This trend once, more frequently found abroad now being witnessed in India as well. However, since there is no recorded information on how frequently this practice is found in India, companies have a general understanding that they are being ghosted by the job-applicants. In this context, the present study is undertaken to examine the trends of job- applicant ghosting across various functional-areas of business, education background and job-positions and find out the level of preparedness of the firms to tackle the affects of ghosting. The study results would help companies in understanding the ghosting trends by job-applicants and strategizing to tackle the affects of ghosting.
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The matter relating to public transportation in Ho Chi Minh City

The matter relating to public transportation in Ho Chi Minh City

Under current conditions, the demand for travel in urban Vietnam is solved mainly through road, so the process of expanding urban space is indispensable. The process of urbanization has attracted people from other provinces in large cities to work because of improved and diversified employment, study and living opportunities. Many functional economic zones, urban functional areas and the new urban areas are being built, which leads to the demand for transportation, the distance to travel, the demand for using high-quality means of transport, and the expansion of urban space. Invisible urban space, however, is partially limited by the travel time criterion. Right from the middle of the nineteenth century, the German urban researcher C.Ritte mentioned the measurement of space to calculate the cost of time travel. British statistician F. Ganton has introduced contingencies to determine central access over time and thus speed is one of the key conditions for urban development. In the Soviet Union, the end of the nineteenth century travel time was accepted at 25-30 minutes, until the end of the twentieth century this number was accepted at 35-40 minutes, however distance traveled (length of onion up to about 2 times. In 2005, the average travel time to work in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City was 18 - 20 minutes (according to the HAIDEP report) corresponding to the average distance of about 6-8km, so far the average travel
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Role of Modern HRM Practices in IT Industries with special reference to Madhya Pradesh

Role of Modern HRM Practices in IT Industries with special reference to Madhya Pradesh

Several studies have been conducted in India and abroad on Human resource management and its various functional areas in the past few decades. A survey of existing literature reveals that no study has been made so far relative to the HRM in IT sector. Some of the important studies conducted on Human resource management and its various functional areas are reviewed here Anil Kumar V (1995) in his study indicates that in order to motivate the employees and to raise their efficiency, the management should adopt measures toevaluate
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A matter in relation to public transportation in Ho Chi Minh City

A matter in relation to public transportation in Ho Chi Minh City

all activities of the city people are concentrated here. In a small space, everything is pent up there, population density soaring, making the city increasingly more crisis. Looking at map 1 we can see that centralized planning is the main reason for motorcycles with high mobility. Chinese motorcycles are flooding the market with cheap price, thus most people can buy. Moreover, the rapid increase of personal transportation. Compared the means of transport in Ho Chi Minh City in 1995 to other Southeast Asian cities, it is easy to see the number of motorized vehicles dominate. The composition of motorcycles has not decreased, while the composition of automobile components is increasing trend. As the main means of transport, the flexibility and the area occupied by the road surface is greater than the automobile, which shows that motorbikes are currently the means of causing high traffic congestion. The process of economic development, industrialization and modernization is the premise for urbanization. The demand for transportation (traffic demand) always increases according to the process of socio-economic development. Demand for passenger transport mainly depends on the development of population, demand for transportation of goods depends on the economic development. Under current conditions, the demand for travel in urban Vietnam is solved mainly through road, so the process of expanding urban space is indispensable. The process of urbanization has attracted people from other provinces in large cities to work because of improved and diversified employment, study and living opportunities. Many functional economic zones, urban functional areas and the new urban areas are being built, which leads to the demand for transportation
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View of The expression of interpersonal and textual functions in Czech and in English: The Czech postfix -pak and its translation counterparts
							| Bergen Language and Linguistics Studies

View of The expression of interpersonal and textual functions in Czech and in English: The Czech postfix -pak and its translation counterparts | Bergen Language and Linguistics Studies

The next step − an analysis of the discourse functions of the English counterparts of the Czech sentences with -pak expressions − revealed that several broad functional areas can be identified: epistemic modality, the function of appeal, expressing a change in the speaker’s assumption, emotional expressivity, and expressing contrast or emphasis. The functions were often found to combine, making it impossible to tease out a dominant one (cf. Aijmer, 2013). As suggested by Johansson (2007: 1), some characteristics which may not be quite salient in the originals may be revealed by translation correspondences. In our analysis, the English translation counterparts were found to contain additional markers of other functions (e.g. sentence-initial coordinating conjunctions). We therefore decided to look more closely at the Czech original sentences in order to find out whether the corresponding Czech markers could be seen to co-occur with the -pak expressions. Based on this approach, we identified additional markers of establishing and maintaining contact, expressing politeness or tentativeness, and building textual coherence. Sometimes the markers were present merely in the English translations; in other cases, corresponding markers were also attested in the Czech originals.
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Accreditation And Assessment:  A Provocative Approach

Accreditation And Assessment: A Provocative Approach

In addition to the above learning outcomes for undergraduate business students, the BAS in Technology Management majors are expected to:.. • Explain and describe the functional areas o[r]

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Leadership Challenges To Attaining Hospital Accreditation: An Indian Perspective On Managing Healthcare Quality

Leadership Challenges To Attaining Hospital Accreditation: An Indian Perspective On Managing Healthcare Quality

The study reviewed the literature on different functional areas of the accreditation process, which includes the challenges faced by the leadership in various areas of quality management and accreditation in the Indian healthcare settings. The challenges comprises of issues related with legal matters and governance, financial implications, organizational culture of the institution, involvement and obligation of the leadership towards accreditation, the administrative and managerial matters, human resource management, training and development, infrastructure, documentation and archiving, data management, medication and pharmacy management, research and continuous medical education and finally, the community contribution and relationships.
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The Nexus between Traditional and Non-traditional Security Cooperation in Japan-China Relations: Environmental Security and the Construction of a Northeast Asian Region

The Nexus between Traditional and Non-traditional Security Cooperation in Japan-China Relations: Environmental Security and the Construction of a Northeast Asian Region

This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of regional international relations by looking at bilateral and multilateral security cooperation. It focuses on the two major East Asian states, Japan and China. Mostly limited to questions of traditional security, Japan-China rela- tions are often characterized as the result of a power shift, contentions about history or confl ict- ing identities. However, since the 1990s, dynamics of globalization are dramatically changing and complicating the socio-economic and political environment in East Asia. It is thus necessary to analyze regional and bilateral security cooperation comprehensively. This paper therefore seeks to explain the nexus between questions of traditional and non-traditional security in Japan- China relations. It evaluates policy coordination through bilateral and multilateral channels in the areas of environmental security against the background of their overall security-political re- lationship since the mid-1990s. In this regard, the study analyzes the development of cooperation within the frameworks of the Tripartite Environment Ministers Meeting (TEMM) and the North- west Pacifi c Action Plan (NOWPAP). Subsequently, it assesses the proposition that cooperation in areas of non-traditional security is politically easier to realize than cooperation in the area of traditional security, and that such functional cooperation is conducive to the improvement of in- ternational relations through the building of political trust. Finally, the study aims to contribute to the understanding of how dynamics of globalization transform the nature of international rela- tions and infl uence the course of future regional cooperation in East Asia.
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Localization of the First and Second Somatosensory Areas in the Human Cerebral Cortex with Functional MR Imaging

Localization of the First and Second Somatosensory Areas in the Human Cerebral Cortex with Functional MR Imaging

The third step involved the acquisition of anatomic 2D- SPGR images (100/12/1; flip angle, 70 8 ; field of view, 28 3 21 cm; thickness, 7 mm; matrix, 256 3 256; scan time 3:17 minutes for 10 images) in the same coronal plane so that the functional images could be superimposed on the anatomic im- ages. The latter also allows visualization of blood vessels, which are possible sources of BOLD signal (40). The second and third steps were repeated to acquire functional images from axial sections, since axial views allow clear identification of the central sulcus and consequently of the postcentral cortex. The axial planes were orthogonal to both the sagittal and co- ronal planes. Ten contiguous 7-mm-thick axial sections were selected, and 500 axial functional images (50 per section, one image every 3 seconds) were acquired during another 2:30- minute stimulation cycle. Then, high-resolution anatomic im- ages were acquired in the same axial planes as the functional images.
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Functional Connectivity between the Cerebellum and Somatosensory Areas Implements the Attenuation of Self-Generated Touch

Functional Connectivity between the Cerebellum and Somatosensory Areas Implements the Attenuation of Self-Generated Touch

Sensory attenuation has been proposed to be an effective mechanism serving self-other distinction (Blakemore et al., 2000; Blakemore and Frith, 2003). Our findings suggest that cortico- cerebellar functional connectivity implements the sensory atten- uation phenomenon and that the strength of this connection predicts the degree of sensory attenuation observed behaviorally across individuals. It is then logical to anticipate that people ex- hibiting reduced somatosensory attenuation would have reduced functional corticocerebellar connectivity and experience a more imprecise distinction between the self and the external world. In this context, it is interesting to note that schizophrenic patients are observed to misattribute self-generated input to external causes (auditory hallucinations, delusions of control) (Fletcher and Frith, 2009); additionally, they show reduced corticocerebel- lar functional connectivity (Collin et al., 2011; Repovs et al., 2011) and attenuate their self-generated touches to a weaker de- gree compared with healthy controls as measured in the force- matching task (Shergill et al., 2005, 2014). Finally, somatosensory attenuation has been used as an explanation for why people can- not tickle themselves (Weiskrantz et al., 1971; Blakemore et al., 2000). Speculatively, our results could thus be informative about the neural mechanism of ticklishness, and we hypothesize that disruption of corticocerebellar functional connectivity in healthy subjects by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation could make self-generated touch feel more intense and ticklish.
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Medical imaging in personalised medicine: a white paper of the research committee of the European Society of Radiology (ESR)

Medical imaging in personalised medicine: a white paper of the research committee of the European Society of Radiology (ESR)

Traditionally, medical imaging was a tool for non- invasive mapping of anatomy and for detection and localization of a disease process. However, consecu- tive to a paradigm shift, it has been demonstrated that a wide variety of new medical imaging techniques and methods produce important biological informa- tion about physiology, organ function, biochemistry, metabolism, molecular biology and functional genomics. These new methods combine the ability to measure and quantify biological processes with the ability to localise the measured entities into a high- quality anatomical image. Further, advanced imaging techniques are now used for treatment instead of surgery: e.g. coronary angioplasty, treatment of aortic aneurysm and coiling of bleeding cerebral aneurysms. Exciting new advances in medical imaging are based on research in the areas of functional and molecular imaging and in the area of development of imaging biomarkers for improved prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease.
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Functional neuroimaging of traumatic brain injury: advances and clinical utility

Functional neuroimaging of traumatic brain injury: advances and clinical utility

Abstract: Functional deficits due to traumatic brain injury (TBI) can have significant and enduring consequences upon patients’ life quality and expectancy. Although functional neu- roimaging is essential for understanding TBI pathophysiology, an insufficient amount of effort has been dedicated to the task of translating functional neuroimaging findings into information with clinical utility. The purpose of this review is to summarize the use of functional neuroimag- ing techniques – especially functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and electroencephalography – for advancing current knowledge of TBI-related brain dysfunction and for improving the rehabilitation of TBI patients. We focus on seven core areas of functional deficits, namely consciousness, motor function, attention, memory, higher cognition, personality, and affect, and, for each of these, we summarize recent findings from neuroimaging studies which have provided substantial insight into brain function changes due to TBI. Recommendations are also provided to aid in setting the direction of future neuroimaging research and for understanding brain function changes after TBI.
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