1.2 The scope of the qualifications that these two institutional types may offer, will be amended to include all qualifications or part-qualifications from level 1 to level 4 of the National Qualifications Framework, and the qualifications or part-qualifications offered per institutional types will be determined by landscape policy applicable to the respective institutional types. This will allow CET Colleges to provide both basic and furthereducation and training qualifications or part-qualifications such as the
INEQUALITIES IN PUBLIC FURTHEREDUCATION AND TRAINING COLLEGES IN SOUTH AFRICA AFTER 1994
Makoko Charles Pule,
A research report submitted to the Faculty of Commerce, Law and Management University of the Witwatersrand, in the fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Management in Public Policy
The Department therefore expects public FurtherEducation and Training (FET) Colleges to set and enforce, and our students to comply with high levels of attendance and punctuality to improve students’ chances for success and prepare them for the professional culture of the workplace.
(ESRI, 2014, p. VIII)
Other fundamental differences will need to be ‘ironed out’ to rationalise the FET sector. It will be at the coal face of provision that the similarities and differences will be most acute. Change management therefore will be to the fore and the policy and strategy to manage this transition of change will be paramount. The ESRI (2014) argues that ‘Both the VECs and FÁS have largely had autonomy with respect to the composition and nature of provision with little strategy direction coming from national authorities. The historic lack of any governance or planning function within the Irish FET sector will certainly have meant that the Irish system is less well equipped to respond to national priorities’ p. XII. This view is possibly a little over simplified but still of relevance. However, as training and furthereducation evolved in many different ways, the training sector in the past was clearly linked to governance by its government department. Training was branded, was a recognised sector, was funded, had organisational structures and reported on an annual basis on its activity. The VECs’ furthereducation and the PLCs, on the other hand, operated under the guise of second-level schools, and furthereducation grew organically to meet local and regional labour and progression needs of students and employers.
In South Africa, the debate around the status of the official languages debate has remained a perennial issue among educators, academics and stakeholders, especially after the constitu- tional enshrinement of the 1997 multilingual language-in-education policy in the school cur- riculum. Using classroom observations, semi-structured interviews and document analysis, this qualitative study investigates and analyses linguistic power relations in the FurtherEducation and Training band based on an inquiry in eight selected secondary schools in rural and urban areas in four provinces across South Africa. It aims to examine the relationship between lan- guage and economy; how language differences affect non-native speakers of English in Eng- lish-medium classrooms; and how school language choice re-creates economic inequalities in South Africa. The study aims to make recommendations on which policy responses best ad- dress the inherent asymmetrical linguistic power relations in the South African education sys- tem. The inquiry is informed by Vygotsky’s social constructivism theory, the notion of cultural deficit and or the articulation gap, and Bourdieu’s cultural capital and concept of field. The main findings of the study indicate that English has economic value for learners’ future out- comes and is preferred to African indigenous languages as medium of instruction. There is a mismatch between home language and classroom language practice. Lack of reading culture is prevalent among many learners. Findings further show that local languages can promote learning; poor academic performance is traced to poor schooling in learners’ formative years;
5.3.2 Limitations of the study
The following were identified as the main limitations of the study:
The relatively small sample used in this study can be regarded as a limitation. This sample is not representative of all learners who are deaf/hearing impaired in mainstream Secondary Schools and FurtherEducation and Training Colleges since the data was limited to only three educators and two learners in educational institutions in the southern suburbs of Cape Town. The context of the Secondary Schools and FurtherEducation and Training Colleges in the urban areas of Cape Town did not reflect the context of all Secondary Schools and all FurtherEducation and Training Colleges in both urban and rural areas of South Africa. It therefore meant that the results could not be generalised to the larger population of learners who are deaf/hearing impaired.
1 General information
Please avail youself – prior to registration – of the practical teaching requirements.
PE113 Admission requirements
(1) To be registered as a candidate for the Postgraduate Certifi cate in Education (Senior Phase and FurtherEducation and Training), a student must hold an approved Bachelor’s degree or relevant equivalent qualifi cation. The fi rst degree or equivalent qualifi cation should include approved school subjects in the following combinations: One second-level and one fi rst-level appropriate school subject from the list of Appropriate subjects/fi eld of study for teacher education programmes – see PE114.
Finally, there is direct entry into the labour market; a route that offers at best low skilled employment with little prospect of improving skills or acquiring additional qualifications.
3. The Statistical Model of Choice of Activity.
The purpose of this paper is to identify the factors that influence the decisions made by young people regarding their activities following schooling. The statistical analysis focuses on the individual's choice between furthereducation, government-supported work-based training and direct entry into the labour market - a set of outcomes that may reasonably be regarded as demand determined. With the introduction of pre-vocational and foundation courses, academic entry requirements for furthereducation were effectively removed, and there is evidence of excess capacity in the sector in Great Britain for much of the last decade (Foskett and Hesketh (1996)). Moreover, all 16 year-olds not in full-time education have been guaranteed a place on a government-supported training scheme since 1986. So for recent years at least, the assumption that entry to furthereducation and work-based training schemes is demand-determined appears tenable. Disaggregating outcomes further, for example distinguishing between academic and vocational furthereducation, this assumption is less likely to be satisfied.
1.3.2 FurtherEducation and Training
The FET band refers to education and training provided by high schools from Grade 10 to 12. It also refers to vocational education and training programmes that lead to the award of qualifications that are registered at Levels 2 to 4 of the NQF. Independent or private schools offering Grades 10 to 12 must be registered with the Provincial Departments of Education, depending on the geographical location of the school. The registration of private FET institutions is the responsibility of the national Department of Education. In terms of Government Notice No. 537 published in the Government Gazette No. 27660 of 6 June 2005, the Minister of Education made a call to all existing private institutions that offer FET qualifications to lodge their applications for registration by 30 May 2006. This announcement marked the beginning of the process of registration of private FET institutions.
Personal history of the author
The personal history of the author had great bearing on the direction of this study both in the subject matter and the target audience under investigation.
The subject matter and target audience who form part of this study became a focal point of the author's life when she successfully completed the City and Guilds FurtherEducation Teacher's Certificate in Speech, Drama and Communication. Interest in the psychological and curriculum theory and practice of education and training led her to complete her degree (principally in psychology but with some technology) through the Open University in December 1985. This degree, as well as reinforcing her interest in learning theory and practice, also introduced her to psychological and sociological methods of research. In the final two years of her degree the author also completed, in service, the Certificate of Education for FurtherEducation teachers. A major study for the Certificate of Education was the development and introduction of work based modules for YT trainees across the vocational disciplines. One of these modules was in information technology and it was at this time that the author found how difficult it was to integrate this module across vocational areas.
learnership a participant will receive an official SETA certificate, recognised nationally, which will indicate the area in which he/she has developed skills.
It is important to note that if you are unemployed when the learnership begins, there is no guarantee of a job at the end. The employer who provides you with training does not have to offer you a job. But with a qualification and work experience you will be in a better position than before to get a job. You may also want to think about studying further or starting your business. Labour centres, private employment agencies or organisations such as the National Youth Development Agency could be helpful.
• A wide range of employers have skill needs which the FET sector can supply, in particular the exporting sectors’ intermediate skill needs, but these are not as widely known by FET learners or their families.
The NESC review also points to the variable quality across the FET sector around the matching of individuals to the most suitable and meaningful education and training programme. The OECD review of vocational education and training in Ireland recommended that effective career guidance and information support consists of a combination of both career counselling and guidance, where the individual bases their choices on both their own strengths and aptitudes best aligned with labour market opportunities. It is essential that protocols and procedures are further developed and improved that enable the collaboration of ETBs and Intreo/JobPath at the local level to have maximum impact. Again according to NESC, it is the responsibility of DSP to make accurate referrals to the ETBs. ETBs can then carefully select between referred individuals for particular courses but may not ‘park’ them. 132
Mark is currently employed as a substitute teacher in a second level institution. Mark gained substantial work and education experience nationally and internationally in the construction industry. Mark was also able to begin his international study in communication engineering. He returned home to Ireland to further his career in the electronics industry until he established his own business. Mark ran his business successfully for a time until it closed during the financial crash in 2009. This spurred Mark on to change career, upon receiving sound advice from his past school principle he returned to education as a means to gain a qualification. Marks focus and passion for learning enabled him to complete his double honours degree prior to enrolling on the higher diploma. Mark had no teaching experience before completing the higher diploma. Mark however had gained valuable experience facilitating adults and youths while on his teaching practice placement. This interview was conducted over the phone due to long distance between both of us and the time constraints. The interview took place in the evening time at Marks request and lasted over an hour.
Nevertheless, the research highlights the importance of caution in assuming that particular forms of education and training will have the same consequences across different systems. The implications echo the arguments of commentators who criticise the notion of ‘policy borrowing’, in which international best practice is identified and then transplanted into the local context. Instead, observers highlight the value of a ‘policy learning’ paradigm, using international evidence not for a quick-fix solution but to inform thinking about policy development in the specific national context, looking at how good rather than best practice varies by context, time and place (Raffe, 2011). In the remainder of this section, we draw on country reports on Australia, Germany, the Netherlands and Scotland to identify issues which may inform policy learning in the Irish context. These countries were chosen due to the availability of established literature and expertise in each country. In addition, Germany, Denmark and Australia are acknowledged as areas of best practice in VET while the Scottish FET sector has many similarities with FET in Ireland. The reports were commissioned from leading experts on FET provision in each country. Following on from the preliminary findings and emerging issues regarding FET provision in Ireland, the international experts were asked to provide brief descriptions of their sectors in terms of the underlying rationale, governance structure, funding arrangements., planning, monitoring, the data infrastructure etc. While each expert will not have been in a position to provide detail on each component of provision, the reports facilitated a comparative analysis under a number of key headings of relevance to the Irish FET sector. The key results from the country reports are synthesised under the main headings below.
During training the learning material will be discussed and candidates will start with the completion of the Portfolio of Evidence (POE).
This can be uploaded on our Learning Management System or alternatively couriered to our offices at your own cost.
The summative assessments will be done in one of our examination centres nationally.
The classroom after OBE was introduced became a private domain where each teacher had to find his/her own way and followed a closed-door policy. Even though OBE was already in full swing, traditional teaching methods still prevailed. For example, lessons were textbook oriented, very structured with no room for learner involvement and no use of resources. In most schools where I taught the chalk-board and duster were still the principal resources. Even though some schools had up-to-date technology such as internet access, computer rooms and state-of-the-art laboratories, their lessons remained dry, uninteresting and inappropriate for learner needs. M ore significantly, the old curriculum continued to be dominant despite criticism by teachers that it w as too shallow, simplistic and unchallenging. Most of the teachers I worked with believed that OBE would never succeed in their schools and communities. S ome even refused to attend workshops, but complained about poor training programmes; others openly rejected OBE. I kept on asking myself what was wrong; what could be the reasons for the negative attitudes? T he problem was definitely much deeper than the lack of resources most teachers complained about, or the complexity of the obscure jargon used in OBE. Something was missing; the question was what. I kept reflecting on t he question: Why do most teachers complain about the old behaviouristic curriculum (NATED 550) and criticise the old regime, but refuse to accept the new changes (such as OBE) and their associated challenges in the shift to the new education system. This is one of the questions that this study intends answer.
Class teachers, in most cases feel incompetent and ineffective due to lack of support from the district officials or senior management team. Teachers are expected to teach special needs learners together with nondisabled learners. Practicing this multi- level teaching creates tension as they are expected to put focus on the day to day provision of quality teaching for the whole class and teacher burn-out among teachers. Failure to provide improved infrastructure and specialised assistive devices and lack of provision of psychological services resulted in most educators resigning or taking early retirement explains the reason why teaching special needs students poses a challenge. Several curricular have been designed by the department of education. Educators were to implement these policies. The main focus of these policies was on mainstream schools. Educators found the Revised National Curriculum easier to implement though it excluded special needs learners. This policy was systemic, and it contained regulatory features although not inclusive. Another policy was designed CAPS with less focus on inclusion of learners with special education needs. The ever-changing policies remained the subject of debate amongst educators. They became confused and had difficulty understanding a competence-based curriculum as they have taught for many years using a curriculum RNCS policy document. The newly designed curriculum intends to be the vehicle for inclusive education which creates another major challenge to educators. Teaching methods and techniques, they use are not inclusive as previous policies were exclusive in nature (Ntombela, 2012 & Ellis, Tod & Graham-Matheson, 2008 & Ladbrook, 2009).