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Constructions and Socialization of Gender and Sexuality in Lesbian-/Gay-Headed Families

Constructions and Socialization of Gender and Sexuality in Lesbian-/Gay-Headed Families

West and Zimmerman (1987) postulated that “it is through socialization...that children...learn how to do gender in interaction and how to avoid sanctions for doing it wrong” (p. 457). Drawing from a feminist, social constructionist approach, the current study examined the processes through which lesbian/gay/bisexual (LGB) parents constructed and socialized gender and sexuality with their children, the contents of the messages parents conveyed to children about gender and sexual orientation, and parents’ perceptions of the influence of external socio- cultural systems on children’s learning of gender and sexuality. Processes of socialization were explored using a tripartite model of parental socialization roles: parents as interactors with children, parents as direct instructors or educators, and parents as providers of opportunity (Parke, Ornstein, Rieser, & Zahn-Waxler, 1994). In depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty-one lesbian/bisexual mothers and thirteen gay fathers. Results were analyzed and discussed using an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) approach. Analyses of parental accounts revealed a shifting between acknowledging and downplaying parental influence on children’s beliefs and expressions of gender and sexuality, and between reproducing and challenging normative constructions and practices of gender, sexuality, and parenting/family. Patterns of differences were observed between mothers and fathers and in the treatment of daughters versus sons. Other family members, peers, schools, and the media were construed as having a significant impact on children’s beliefs and expressions of gender and sexuality. Parents spoke to perceived strengths/benefits of LGB parenting and offered recommendations to other LGB and heterosexual parents.
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Issues of harm and offence : the regulation of gender and sexuality portrayals in British television advertising

Issues of harm and offence : the regulation of gender and sexuality portrayals in British television advertising

interacted with, or were kept distinct from each other. It had been very clear since visiting the ITA/IBA archive in Bournemouth that I was going to have an overrepresentation of documentary material from 1954-1990, since this was more accessible (an issue discussed further in Part III). Furthermore, and as mentioned previously, this data was distinctly different from the material I was able to collect from 1990 onwards. Despite this ’unevenness’ of the data I was still able to discern two broad but relatively distinct ’sets’ running through: (1) ‘structural’ documents. That is, documents that relate to the organisational structure of the regulators, their duties and responsibilities; (2) sex and gender policies and decisions (case study). These documents concern policies and the practical regulation of harm and offence in relation to gender and sexuality, including complaints bulletins and adjudications. Although these two data ’sets’ are somewhat overlapping and not necessarily uniform between different organisations, this distinction allowed me to explore the historical development of regulation on a structural level.
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Students’ narratives on gender and sexuality in the project of social justice and belonging in higher education

Students’ narratives on gender and sexuality in the project of social justice and belonging in higher education

The narratives emphasize how gender intersects with other factors such as heteronormative sexuality to inform contests of belonging and exclusion in the student pub. A female student’s presence in the campus bar is contested, rendered against stereotypes receptive to a particular kind of “woman”, a woman who is perceived by both male and female students as “available” and “immoral”. This, well documented whore-madonna discourse (see Shefer 2009), legitimises moral judgements and the threat of violation. Of particular concern is the discomfort expressed by female patrons who feel physically threatened and also objectified by the “male gaze” that renders them sexual objects rather than peers deserving of mutual respect. Whilst most female students expressed negative feelings about the barn as generally exclusionary to female patrons, it was interesting to note that some female students thought it was a more welcoming space as compared to visiting other popular bars in Long Street, that is, off campus in the City Centre. Possibly linked to the geographies of space, with the city centre a space historically white and middle class and also relatively far from this campus, requiring a safe means of transport, the location of a campus bar then becomes a comfort and safe space relative to these other more public spaces represented as dangerous and unsecuritized:
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Curriculum Policies of Gender and Sexuality in Brazil

Curriculum Policies of Gender and Sexuality in Brazil

The appropriation of the notions of fantasy and fantasmatic logics in the analyzes of the current hegemonic crisis of the sexuality regime, as well as, the knowledge about the curriculum policies of gender and sexuality in Brazil, can be very interesting and productive, in order to investigate how the identification of social subjects have been related to the main discourses or discursive formations presented in this area of study. The socio-juridical discourses on sexual rights seem to produce the identification of the subjects with their logics and practices around the - classic liberal - horizon of full citizenship for all people, especially LGBT women and people, against the threats of discrimination, exclusion and sexist and LGBT-phobic violence. Neoconservative discourses, on the other hand, have been gaining a surprising dimension in the public debate, in a relatively short period of time, from the mobilization of an identification with the so-called traditional family - a full-harmony dream that is based on the heteronormative pattern of the bourgeois nuclear family – but, above all, that vociferously goes against the danger of gender ideology and the demands for recognition of the feminist and LGBT movements for the psychological, moral and spiritual integrity of society and especially of children.
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Gender & Sexuality in the ABA Standards on the Treatment of Prisoners

Gender & Sexuality in the ABA Standards on the Treatment of Prisoners

The efforts of the legal community to develop “best practices” for the treatment of prisoners have not always been understood or welcomed by the corrections professionals who must put them into practice. The parts of the 2010 Standards that address gender and sexuality contain their share of provisions that are controversial. As the introduction to the Standards emphasizes, however, the Bar must remain a full partner in our national conversation about prison conditions, not only because of the oversight of courts, but because of the Bar’s institutional commitment to the rule of law, to equality, and to human dignity. This is nowhere more the case than where issues of gender and sexuality are concerned. The drafters of the Standards made a substantial effort to deal thoughtfully with these cutting edge issues of correctional policy, while avoiding the sort of detail more appropriately left to corrections professionals. In our view, the provisions of the 2010
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Future Educators’ Gender Norms, Sexuality, and Reproductive Health.

Future Educators’ Gender Norms, Sexuality, and Reproductive Health.

In view of the above findings, schools play critical roles in teaching and reinforcing the values of the culture and this holds especially true in areas of gender and sexuality. Every school should therefore provide adolescents with a non- stereotyped environment where they can mature and begin to adopt positive notions of gender and sexuality roles. School administrators must provide a range of information, skills and support relative to gender and sexuality to all students enabling them to deal with concerns and issues effectively. A curriculum of courses that would include age – appropriate gender and sexuality education maybe proposed in order to promote the sexual health of its students. The result also calls for a greater need for reviewing the existing policies and programs relative to reproductive health among its students for further improvement and enhancement.
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Introduction: Christianity, Gender, Sexuality and the Law in Latin America

Introduction: Christianity, Gender, Sexuality and the Law in Latin America

The appearance of progressive religious actors around these issues puts into question traditional theoretical and political approaches that associate the secular with advances in the field of sexual and reproductive rights, and where religion is inevitably linked to conservative positions (Jakobsen and Pellegrini 2008). Several authors in this special issue review these complex and rarely high- lighted progressive modes of articulation between religion, gender and sexu- ality. For the case of Argentina, Mario Pecheny, Daniel Jones and Lucía Ariza demonstrate how religious actors are positioned on both sides of that coun- try’s gender and sexuality disputes, while pointing to the existence of a num- ber of religious organizations, churches and leaders who have supported some of the major causes defended by feminists and LGBTI movements during the last decade. In connection with the latter, the article written by Juan Marco Vaggione emphasizes how the politicization of religious pluralism, along with the defense of secularism, has become a central strategy of feminist and LGBTI activism in Latin America, as a way to disconnect the law from its traditionally conservative Christian heritage.
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“When We Talk about Gender We Talk about Sex”: (A)sexuality and (A)gendered Subjectivities

“When We Talk about Gender We Talk about Sex”: (A)sexuality and (A)gendered Subjectivities

the LGBT+ community to disentangle the t wo, and didn’t want to “shit on” work which they recognised as important. A year and a half after the interview took place, Sam also attended a presentation I was giving about my research findings. Afterwards, they approached me, and referring to my discussion of how some participants felt their gender and sexuality were connected, Sam told me they were relieved to hear that they were not the only one who felt this way. There was a sense from Sam’s story that articulating the connectedness of gender and sexuality (even when speaking solely of personal experience) felt somewhat clandestine. Sam thus found themselves in a difficult position where they held a particular understanding of self that did not accord with how gender and sexuality were conceptualised within
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A qualitative investigation of intimate partner violence victims' experiences across gender and sexuality

A qualitative investigation of intimate partner violence victims' experiences across gender and sexuality

A Systematic Literature Review of Intimate Partner Violence Victimisation: An Inclusive Review Across Gender and Sexuality. Re-traumatised: How gendered laws exacerbate the harm for sam[r]

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gender, sexuality and childhood: children scenes against innocence

gender, sexuality and childhood: children scenes against innocence

sexuality as possibilities to construct different views on childhood by looking over the experiences; the knowledge and senses that children are sharing in their playing cultures. The scenes we bring up as supports to our reflections come from researches with children in pre-school municipal public institutions; in Rondonópolis; Mato Grosso; Brazil; conducted in the scope of Childhood; Youth and Contemporary Culture Research Group (GEIJC). The main questions we raise with gender and sexuality as markers; when we take them to the scholar context; are: (1) the children’s place in their right of expressing their genders and sexualities in this context; (2) the possibility of these expressions to be recognized and have despatologised and viable existences in learning contexts; as well as their detachment from moral and excluding values; and (3) the possibility of recognition; by the school and cognitive politics produced in this context; of different trajectories of gender and sexual expressions in children. In summary; our inquiries are directed to question the developmental idea as a progress to a “must be” oriented by linearity and universality of gender and sexual expressions; which debouch intensely in pedagogical discourses in search of a phallocentric; masculinist; heteronormative; binary and bourgeois identity.
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Making digital cultures of gender and sexuality with social media

Making digital cultures of gender and sexuality with social media

The next two papers in the issue consider the significance of seemingly increasing levels of sexism and harassment in social media environments. Andrea Braithwaite’s article charts the rise of #Gamergate as a movement dedicated to reforming ethics in video games journalism and its rapid expansion into a site characterized by viciously sexual and sexist attacks on women in and around gaming communi- ties. Following #Gamergate across a range of social media platforms and analyzing the key themes underpinning these attacks, the article highlights how #Gamergate discourse is ultimately driven by a misogynist claim to games and gamer identity by those who seek to protect gamer culture from “intrusions” by radical feminists and social justice warriors. Particularly useful for readers of this Special Issue is the centrality of social media to this process, as both as vectors for public discourses around gender and sexuality and spaces where gendered vitriol is increasingly legitimate. Frances Shaw then goes on to explore the case of Bye Felipe—a counter-harassment campaign built around expos- ing and shaming bad male actors in dating sites and a popu- lar meme in its own right. Shaw treats Bye Felipe as a well-known instance of a public feminist tactic to counter sexual harassment and discourses of male entitlement in the context of online and mobile dating. Via close readings of key discussion threads on the Bye Felipe Instagram account, Shaw articulates this space of gender politics with the broader sociocultural dynamics and political functions of trolling in contemporary digital culture. She shows how Bye Felipe—as a site of both cultural struggle and innovation— enables us to get a sense of the multiple forms of cultural practice and political action that intersect in and around gen- der and sexuality on dating sites and apps—from the effi- cacy and ethics of affective political strategies like shaming to the function of humor and ridicule (especially through the power of repetition, which is used in mocking the common practice of sending unsolicited dick pictures by highlighting their banality), as well as speaking back to the threats of violence that follow closely behind the “friendly advances” of the entitled.
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Sedition, Sexuality, Gender, and Gender Identity in South Asia

Sedition, Sexuality, Gender, and Gender Identity in South Asia

and queer critique of the nation has necessarily been via critical engagement with the law, and the fundamental insight that the law enables, sustains and produces national subjects in the terms of gender and sexuality in everyday life. For example, if laws like those against sedition and blasphemy evince a discursive space that enables acts of extrajudicial, nationalist impunity, then that space of public discourse is also marked through gendered and sexual comportment and power. This is why, in addition to laws such as those governing sedition, which constrain speech acts, these authors are also interested in debates on laws that regulate gender and sexuality directly. These include the regime of “personal law” (Sharafi 2015) present throughout South Asia, which governs marriage and heritability, as well as the colonial-era anti-sodomy law, which remains in effect in Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. The problematics of personal law are one way we might access an interest in questions of temporality, juridicism, and the telos of progress, and the ways in which these are attached, for example, to the status of cisgender women (Mukhopadhyay 2015) and queer subjects in the postcolony. Expanding critical space to think through the juridical imbrications of sedition, personal law and anti-sodomy law, for example, is particularly consequential at a time when dissent, including anti-heteronormative dissent that is critical of caste-based endogamy, is pitted against the idea of national unity, rather than its being seen as integral to the constitution of a democratic polity.
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Writing Gender with Sexuality:

Writing Gender with Sexuality:

The diaries are constantly showing us this kind of tight raveling: identification with the other is always profoundly tied up with questions of desire. Nor are these identifications parsed primarily in the language of the family romance. Rather, they take as their starting point the entry into the social order outside the boundaries of strict kinship. No doubt there were early organizations of gender and sexuality for Lou, but we might see these as “familial anlagen” that experience will hew and shape into novel kinds of erotic and corporeal identifications. This ongoing experi- ence is largely psychosexual. Indeed, the diaries trace a trajectory of love and desire, beginning with unrequited religious passions for Paul McCartney and Jesus, unreachable and idealized figures, through its first incarnations in passionate high school crushes with boys named Larrie and Ralph (the latter of whom she even considers marrying). Away at col- lege, Ralph becomes more fantasy than real partner, and perhaps a poorly satisfied desire for him serves mostly to consolidate a growing internal sense of boy-ness. “I thought of the days I really thought I was a cowboy,” Sheila writes:
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Forum : Holocaust and history of gender and sexuality

Forum : Holocaust and history of gender and sexuality

Moreover, we still have trouble integrating the study of “victims” and “perpetrators” (which Elissa and Doris bridge), between history and memory studies, between Holocaust and comparative genocide research, and (certainly in my work) between “history” and family “memoir,” while at the same time making sure to foreground gender in all those projects. My current research on a long neglected topic, Polish Jewish refugees in the Soviet Union (after all, the largest group of East European Jews to survive the Final Solution), highlights the ways general blind spots compound those we face in the study of gender and sexuality. Ironically, our immense progress in writing about “gender and” or “women and “ or the “politics of sexuality in,” or, indeed, the widespread adoption of Doris’s textbook, War and Genocide: A Concise History of the Holocaust (now in its third edition!) which matter-of- factly includes gender, has empowered us to embark on more broadly conceived studies that dispense with such specific themes – where, to my chagrin, I find myself struggling to re- insert gender as the key category I know it is. This is especially the case with a topic where so much basic research (in multiple languages and regions) remains to be done and there are no rich layers of prior scholarship to build on, complement, and critique.
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Publishing and identity: gender, sexuality and race

Publishing and identity: gender, sexuality and race

This chapter explores the intersections between identity and publishing. Specifically, it discusses notions of gender identity, sexual identity (sexuality) and race in book publishing and how certain critical theories might be applied in Publishing Studies to illuminate these significant social and cultural notions. The concepts and issues discussed here intersect with our everyday experience. We are all implicated in gender, sexuality and race in intimate ways (Offord & Kerruish 2009). As Martha Nussbaum notes, these concepts deal with ‘concerns which lie deep in many of us, and which are frequently central to the ways in which we define our identity and the search for the good’ (1997, 155). Because race, gender and sexuality are at the heart of how we think and feel about ourselves, they also are at the heart of the narratives we produce, publish and disseminate. All books, both fiction and non-fiction, present an idea, or a construction, of race, gender and sexuality, sometimes explicitly, sometimes in ways that are more subtle. Sometimes these constructions take forms that resist or refuse dominant ways of thinking about gender, sexuality or race, sometimes they do the exact opposite. Many publications not only reinforce traditional conceptions of gender, sexuality and race but also perpetuate negative stereotypes. Studying the intersections between race, gender, sexuality and publishing is sometimes contentious. It is not uncommon for those new to the study of publishing and literature to think that books are (and should be) published purely because they tell a good story or relay important information. The truth is that more books are published, read and reviewed that tell stories about race, gender and sexuality from a white, male heterosexual perspective than from any other perspective. This bias in publishing reflects, reinforces and disseminates broader social biases. This bias is also a rich field of research for Publishing Studies scholars.
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“We don’t want it changed, do we?” - Gender and Sexuality in Role Playing Games

“We don’t want it changed, do we?” - Gender and Sexuality in Role Playing Games

To answer these questions, the in-game appearances of female characters and possible interactions with these characters were observed as well as references to sexuality in dialogs and story of the games. All game characters in the first and second part of the game series were categorized by sex, appearance, profession and involvement in quests. Dialogs between the avatar and non-player-characters were scanned for gender-relevant remarks. Furthermore, allusions and remarks related to sexuality were logged and analyzed. In addition to this aesthetic- and narrative- centered approach, the ludic elements were taken into consideration by analyzing the underlying rules, character interactions and quest structures of the games. In addition to “total completion” (Aarseth 2003) of the games and producing gameplay logs (cf. Consalvo and Dutton 2006) along the way, internet resources like walkthroughs and fan sites were included in the analysis. Walkthroughs provide a rich source for overlooked content and an additional perspective on gameplay. Discussions in fan forums were taken into account in order to incorporate some players’ readings of the game content.
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Writing back to Tolkien: gender, sexuality and race in high fantasy

Writing back to Tolkien: gender, sexuality and race in high fantasy

Who, then, is the real Tolkien? This is a question that is impossible to answer of the discursive Tolkien. The real Tolkien’s attitudes to gender and race appear to be complicated, ambiguous, dependent on environment and place and are also likely to have changed over his lifetime. The discursive Tolkien, the Tolkien that can be gleaned from his written works, is even more ambiguous and contradictory. For me, the inability to define a real (textual) Tolkien is a good thing. A contested Tolkien provokes discussion and debate, and keeps questions of gender and race in fantasy fiction on the agenda. Unfortunately, this contested Tolkien is obscured by the huge success of his books and the film adaptations (Isaacs 1976; Rearick 2004). Some decades ago Neil Isaacs (1976, 1) had already noted that ‘The Lord of the Rings and the domain of Middle-earth are eminently suitable for faddism and fannism, cultism and clubbism’ and that the popularity and cultish appeal of Tolkien’s works ‘acts as a deterrent to critical activity’ (Isaacs 1976, 1). There is a danger that the Tolkien who survives in the public memory will be the Tolkien as wizard genius, an uncomplicated and unproblematic figure whose Gandalf-like status makes it difficult to get any popular attention for questions like: How are race, gender and sexuality represented in Tolkien’s writing? Do Tolkien’s books privilege racist, sexist or homophobic interpretations? What happens when the contested, problematic and ambiguous Tolkien is forgotten, or obscured by the celebrity of the Tolkien imagined by fans? What can be done to address or intervene in any problematic representations of race, gender or sexuality in Tolkien’s work? How might those interventions be disseminated beyond scholarly circles, to the broader public? These are the questions I will engage with below.
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Bazaar Stories of Gender, Sexuality and Imperial Spaces in Gilgit, Northern Pakistan

Bazaar Stories of Gender, Sexuality and Imperial Spaces in Gilgit, Northern Pakistan

As Ann Laura Stoler (1995) and Robert Young (1995) have shown, dis- courses of race and imperialism usually involve sexuality as a significant mediating category of colonial power. Indeed, several postcolonial scholars have empirically demonstrated the ways in which discourses of sexuality and desire are deployed to regulate racist European imperial ventures (e.g., Blunt, 1999a; Fanon, 1967; Gil- man, 1986; Lewis, 1996; Levine, 2003; Mercer and Julien, 1988; Nederveen Piet- erse, 1992; Stoler, 1997; Wiegman, 1993). Most evidence in support of this argu- ment has been drawn from published nineteenth- and early twentieth-century litera- ture and artistic productions: novels, advice manuals, travel narratives, paintings, government reports, scientific and anthropological treatises, and missionary docu- ments. While these textual analyses have been innovative and effective in delineat- ing the articulated character of discourses of gender, race, sexuality, and imperial- ism in this specific period and context of the colonial era, critical geographers may find many of them insufficient on two main grounds. First, few of these scholars have addressed the important spatial processes that are linked to intersecting rela- tions of power in imperial contexts. Feminist geographers have recently begun to speak to this lacunae in what is becoming a sizeable literature (see, for example, Bell, 1993; Berg, 1998; Besio, 2003, 2005; Besio and Butz, 2004; Blunt, 1999a, 1999b; Blunt and Rose, 1994; Domosh, 2002; Donaldson, 1992; Garcia-Ramon, 2003; Gowans, 2001; Jacobs, 1996; Kearns, 1997; McEwan, 1996; Morin, 1999; Morin and Berg, 2001; Pickles, 1998, 2002; Robinson, 2002). And second, little attempt has been made to examine how this discursive nexus operates - if at all - in contemporary ‘postcolonial’ social settings (but see Mindry, 2001). As Robert
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Dancing Women: The Impact of Salsa on Perceptions about Gender, the Body, and Sexuality in Puebla, Mexico

Dancing Women: The Impact of Salsa on Perceptions about Gender, the Body, and Sexuality in Puebla, Mexico

Mexico’s traditional society has a ‘historically strong and orthodox Catholic Christian religious foundation’ (Huck, 2017: 148). Therefore, social notions of the country are based on religious ideas, which makes Mexico ‘a rather conservative place with regard to conventions affecting gender relations and gender identity, practices of marriage and the construction of family, and sexual mores’ (Huck, 2017: 147). When talking about gender related manifestations in Mexico (as well as in Latin America in general), rapidly the concept “machismo” turns up. Basham (1976: 127) loosely translates this Spanish term as ‘the cult of the male’ and defines it as referring to traditional male behavior of hyper masculinity that has become commonplace in Mexico and most other parts of Latin America. This hyper masculinity that Basham sees as characterizing for machismo consists of exaggerative behavior of male stereotypes, as sexuality, aggression and physical strength. Wentzell (2011: 393) also agrees with Basham’s definition and describes machismo as referring to a specific style of masculinity that has patriarchal structures in its essence. Thus, the concept of machismo entails ideals and practices that ‘purportedly determine male identity and masculinity, and which structure male interactions with women and other men’ (Sanabria, 2007: 152). According to this idea of masculinity, men are in a position of power, virility, and authority (Huck, 2017: 156). This dominant and privileged position of men ‘leads to patterns of behavior in which men are expected to provide for their families, but also in which extramarital liaisons and other manifestations of male sexual conquest are not uncommon’ (Huck, 2017: 147-148). Thus, there is a conflicting issue here: on one hand Mexican masculinity according to machismo is characterized by ‘a strong commitment to the family, both as its material provider and financial caretaker, and its defender against any kind of challenge or threat’ and therefore, is respected (Huck, 2017: 156), while on the other hand a typical macho man has a high level of sexual desire and strong self-confidence. Many Mexican men are womanizers who appear to never evince fear and withdraw their emotions and thus, this traditional masculinity also has a negative connotation (Basham, 1976: 126-127; Wentzell, 2011: 393). In practice this means that Mexican men enjoy the freedom to do pretty much what they want and often get away with mistreatment and abuse of women.
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‘To Take Each Other’ : Bugis Practices of Gender, Sexuality and Marriage

‘To Take Each Other’ : Bugis Practices of Gender, Sexuality and Marriage

This ethnography explores an interpretation of Bugis social and sexual experience through examination of the construction of gender identities and how they are manifested in marriage. The thesis explores the complementarity of gender for the Bugis. Despite the ideal of feminine passivity, I demonstrate that women exercise agency in a number of circumstances, including how they manage the sexuality of their husbands, defending siri’, the arrangement of marriage, remarrying, money management, divorce, and violent situations. I also examine the practices of illegal marriage (kawin liar) and illegal divorce (cerai liar) at local and personal levels. I analyse local and national debates on the legitimation of what is popularly known in Indonesia as ‘marriage based on religion’ (nikah secara agama) as part of the examination of Bugis marriage and marital relations.
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