Participants have stated that they are observing great differences between the games of the past and the modern games. They have added that the reasons behind these differences are technology, the lack of playgrounds, television programs, children not knowing the older games. A study by Clements , with similarities to this study, has concluded that the biggest obstacle preventing children from spending time and playing in the nature or outdoors is addiction to television and computer games. In a study by Tuğrul et al. , again supporting the findings of this study, the participants have stated that technologic advancements such as computer and television have impacted the playing culture of children. Başal  and Kabapınar and İncegül  have conducted a study reviewing the progress of games throughout the process and concluded that a change and transformation did occur. Kabapınar and İncegül  indicated that children do not know games such as tipcat, jacks, nine-stone, Beyblade and tombik, but despite this, children have an interest in these games, describing them as “nice”. In this sense, data from their study have similarities with the findings of our study. Assessing all the findings from this study leads us to this conclusion: There are obvious differences between the games being played from GenerationX to Generation Z, and these differences are caused by media, technology, diminishing sincere relations between neighbours, having less amount of playgrounds, emerging issues such as safety and traffic. Therefore, the concepts of game and toy have changed and this made it inevitable for children to move indoors. As a consequence of all these, the families cannot send their children out into the nature to play with peace of mind, and the children do not make such a request from their families. As a result of indoors pulling children towards itself and outdoors pushing children from itself, a stereotype child has emerged, who is disconnected from the nature, is too personal, does not have any reason to make an effort to socialize, preferring to play on his own at home, in his room, hence, is distant from the curative power of the nature. Considering the positive effects of nature on children, and the characteristics of former games that allowed spending more time in the nature, it would be beneficial to take a stride towards encouraging children to spend more time in nature. In this sense, drama lecturers could be appointed in schools, to teach the forgotten games to modern children. By establishing safe playgrounds, the attitudes of families and children towards paling outdoors
This is a research study, designed to test and create new ideas that other people can use. The purpose of this research study is to understand and identify the management of organizational conflict as it pertains to leadership and change management for GenerationX and millennial entrepreneurs in the United States. As GenerationX is preparing to transition out of organizations and into retirement, millennials are being viewed as the future entrepreneurs, decision makers, thought leaders, and business owners (Price, 2013). With this change, organizations can face a variety of issues when they consist of both GenerationX and millennials (Hershatter& Epstein, 2010). There is a practical need for this research to be conducted since millennials are whom the U.S. will be looking to lead the country into the next era. If these cultural differences are not acknowledged, generational entrepreneurs will not be aware on what structures can be implemented into their organizational design to manage organizational conflict effectively. If these differences are addressed then
The p value (.871) >.001 of Levene's test for Work ethics, p value (.705) >.001 of Levene's test for Accountability, p value (0.042) >.001 for Honesty, p value (0..017) >.001 for Consistency, p value (0.420) >.001 for Competence, so we accept the null of Levene's test and conclude that is no variance in perception of Gen Y and Gen X regarding attributes of Leadership. This tells us that we should look at the "Equal variances assumed" row for the t-test (and corresponding confidence interval) results. p value (0.000) <.001 for Planning, p value (0.000) <.001 for Adaptability, p value (0.000) <.001 for Emotional Regulation, so we reject the null of Levene's test and conclude that is a variance in perception of Gen Y and Gen X regarding all the work practices understudy . This tells us that we should look at the "Equal variances not assumed" row for the t-test (and corresponding confidence interval) results. The corresponding p value for t-test(equal variance assumed) for Work ethics is .237 which is greater than assumed significance level .05 so we accept the null hypothesis “There is no differences in the means of GenerationX and Generation Y opinion towards leadership attribute work ethics.” and both the groups perceive it in a similar way ie they have similar opinions about Work ethics as a leadership attribute The corresponding p value for t-test (equal variance assumed) for Accountability is -.882 which is less than assumed significance level .05 so we reject the null hypothesis “There is a difference in the means of GenerationX and Generation Y opinion towards leadership attribute accountability.” and both the groups perceive in a different way ie they have different opinions about accountability as a leadership attribute. The corresponding p value for t-test(equal variance assumed) for Honesty is 10.380 which is greater than assumed significance level .05 so we accept the null hypothesis “There is no differences in the means of GenerationX and Generation Y opinion towards leadership attribute Honesty.” and both the groups perceive it in a similar way ie they have similar opinions about Honesty as a leadership attribute The corresponding p value for t-test (equal variance not assumed) for Planning is 3.027 which is greater than assumed significance level .05 so we accept the null hypothesis “There is no differences in the means of GenerationX and Generation Y opinion towards leadership attribute Planning.” and both the groups perceive it in a similar way ie they have similar opinions about Planning as a leadership attribute. The corresponding p value for t-
; Smith, 2012). Besides of using them for their own purchases, Millennials are engaging in creating and sharing recommendation online and are assisting in the creation and marketing of consumer goods (Hershatter & Epstein, 2010). Their open online behavior and information exchanges underline their continuous access to digital media, since they are highly driven by opinions of friends and users in the virtual world (Ordun, 2015). For Gen Xers there is far less concern about products to display their status or lifestyle (Peralta 2015). However, reading and visiting recommendation sites to reassure their purchase decisions is also essential for this generation (Lissitsa & Kol, 2016). Additionally, to make this online shopping generation feel more secure in their purchase decision, a clear explanation of products and transaction processes is beneficial (Peralta, 2015). In case Millennials decided for a product of their choice their focus lies on the most efficient way to get their product delivered (Parment, 2013). Choosing a channel and retailer is therefore based on either the lowest price or highest convenience (Parment, 2013). Millennials display very limited loyalty towards brands, possibly stemming from their trend switching behavior and their constant exposure to high amounts of promotions and brands advertisements (Ordun, 2015). Participants of GenerationX value high-quality products within the online shopping context (Lissitsa & Kol, 2016).
Self-independence is the ability to depend on oneself. In the light of this definition entrepreneurial intent is akin to aspiring to set up one’s business independent of control from others. Hence, from previous research on GenerationX and Y it is discernible that GenerationX is more independent of the two cohorts. This is so because GenerationX grew up in an anti-child decade in which divorce and single parenthood and working mums made many in this generation to be “latchkey kids”. GenerationX cohorts believes no one is there to look over their shoulders and this led to traits of independence and resilience. In contrast, Generation Y grew in the decade of child in which their activities are well planned and organized by highly engaged parents who are extremely protective. As a result, Generation Y has less self-independence traits because they always believe there is somebody looking over their shoulders. Therefore, this may explain the result in this research that both generations are not the same in terms of their self-independence.
Various findings have queried deeper into inclinations of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation Factors for GenerationX and Generation Y. Compared to elder generations Generation Y employees have heavier needs in Extrinsic Motivations from their jobs.For examples, Ringer and Garma (2006) stated that GenerationX was found to display higher preference for intrinsic motivations compared to Generation Y. In addition, it was concluded by Jang (2008) that Generation Y employees seem to be more motivated by extrinsic motivation than their elder generations. The chances of them leaving jobs are more likely when another company provides better Extrinsic factors such as pay and benefits.In addition, Leahy et. al. (2011) also concluded that GenerationX have higher preferences on Intrinsic Motivation Factors, while Generation have mixed preferences for both Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Factors. Alley (2011) also supported that Generation Y is motivated by Extrinsic Factors than Intrinsic Factors and they are highly oriented towards achievement value. A similar statement was arrived by Lourdes et. al. (2011) that Generation Y give their priorities to Extrinsic Motivations such as fixed working hours and job security, while GenerationX give greater importance to Intrinsic Motivation Factors such as Recognitions for their work and sense of Achievements received from their community. In a more recent study conducted by Zhou (2012) found similar result in which Gen Y’s are largely discontented with their work, significantly more than their elder generations. Lastly, a recent research that focuses on total of 370 individuals for Work Preference Inventory, Shea (2012) has suggested that Generation Y were greatly motivated by Extrinsic Motivation Factors compared to GenerationX. Vice versa, they are less intrinsically motivated than their previous generations.
Zeffirelli believed that the play’s teenagers should be a lot like those of his time. That is why he chose inexperienced actors, in order to let them use their own experience (Brode 51). However, the play itself was not adapted to mod- ern youth culture, since the director’s decisions included no modern setting. Such an appropriation had actually been attempted on stage before Zeffirelli made his film, with Bernstein’s aforementioned musical adaptation of the play: in 1957 West Side Story located the story of Romeo and Juliet in modern New York. In 1996 Baz Luhrmann with his William Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet and Lloyd Kaufman with his Tromeo and Juliet, both modern film versions of Shakespeare’s play, addressed the new young generation, 3 the children of Zeffirelli’s or Bernstein’s young audience, commonly labeled “GenerationX.” 4
Overall, this study is undertaken to distinguish GenerationX and Generation Y employees’ Motivational factors and their correspondent Citizenship Performance. Following Third Outline Perspective Plan, knowledge-related factors are playing important role in sustaining long term international competitiveness. Organizations nowadays should acquaint themselves with motivation factors among GenerationX and Generation Y employees in order to encourage their additional efforts in performing Citizenship Performance. The benefits of Citizenship Performance will encourage employees to share their knowledge among colleagues and promote continuous learning, rather than still having their conventional working attitude that focus in achieving numerical task performance.
The purpose of this study was to determine the role of the strength of the reference group in moderating the effect of e-commerce service quality and customer satisfaction on online repurchase intentions. The selected respondents were adolescents aged 17-24 years who were generationX. The study used primary data obtained from the results of questionnaires to 100 students who were educated in public universities in the city of Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia. Determination of the sample using purposive sampling. The data analysis technique used is by using this method of primary data collection using a questionnaire. Simple linear regression analysis and moderated regression analysis using the Statistical Product and Service Solution (SPSS) program. The results show that the quality of e-commerce services and customer satisfaction has a positive and significant effect on online repurchase intention. the strength of the reference group can strengthen the relationship between the quality of e-commerce services and the intention to repurchase. But the reference group cannot strengthen the relationship between customer satisfaction and the intention to repurchase. The implication in this study is that retailers must pay attention to the quality of e-commerce services so that they can provide convenience, comfort and security in shopping, giving rise to a strong intention to repurchase customers.
In order to examine the news-seeking behavior of the three generational cohorts, this study surveyed the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) undergraduate and graduate students and members of their faculty and staff. RIT has 17,950 students and 3,753 members of faculty and staff, for a total of 21,703 people. A convenience sample was selected at the RIT campus, where the researcher delivered personal surveys to students, faculty, and staff. A total of 173 respondents consisting of 73 members of the Generation Y, 46 members of the GenerationX, and 54 Baby Boomers were surveyed for this study. The first part of the data collection started in May 2013 and ended in August 2013 (Summer Quarter) where 75 surveys were distributed in one academic building (James E. Booth Hall) and in The Wallace Library. The second period where the data was collected started in September 2013 and ended in October 2013 (Fall
7. GenerationX is more pragmatism, they are driven by information because they are shrewd, practical, and cynical. They will actively seek out detail and information, consumer reviews, comparison of the product. Generation Y is more confident and optimistic and expects novelty or prestige because they think brand names are important . Their shopping preferences are instead influenced by peer recommendations and opinions from social media influencers, preferring authenticity from real consumers.
The completion of this study has brought the researcher some answers. As a member of GenerationX, she is part of a generation that thinks about career differently. This is not the generation of her mother, aunts and uncles, and grandmother – amazing people who spent thirty or more years in schools as teachers and counselors. Members of GenerationX thrive on change and challenge. They want to maximize their earning potential and extend their influence as they move through their profession. Though it was hard to admit, the researcher shared many of the same thoughts her participants had. Her students were learning; she had no discipline issues; she earned National Board Certification to boost her salary and validate her status as a good teacher. What she needed was a change – a challenge.
The church has the task of transmitting its faith tradition from one generation to the next. In the transition to postmodernity, many established congregations have proven to be ineffective at this traditioning process in relation to GenerationX (Gen X), the first postmodern generation. The reasons for the ineffectiveness are complex. This article focuses on two key factors that contribute to the problem: the reduction of the church’s tradition to its particular expression within the culture of modernity and the marginalisation experienced by Gen Xers within many established churches. The latter has prevented them from becoming effective bearers of the church’s tradition. If this trend is to be reversed, churches should succeed in renewing their traditions in a way that is meaningful in a postmodern context. The challenge will be to overcome the dynamics of reductionism and marginalisation. In developing the argument, the jubilee themes of ‘return’ and ‘release’ are applied to the intergenerational dynamics of established congregations. The article concludes that local congregations should embrace a renewed commitment to intergenerational justice, which will encourage equity between the generations.
preferences on Intrinsic Motivation Factors, while Generation have mixed preferences for both Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Factors. Another research contributed by Alley (2011) also supported that Generation Y is motivated by Extrinsic Factors than Intrinsic Factors and they are highly oriented towards achievement value. Furthermore, research finding arrived from Lourdes et. al. (2011) has concluded with similar statements, where Generation Y give their priorities to Extrinsic Motivations such as fixed working hours and job security, while GenerationX give greater importance to Intrinsic Motivation Factors such as Recognitions for their work and sense of Achievements received from their community. In a recent study Zhou (2012) also found similar result in which Gen Y’s are largely dissatisfied with their work, significantly more than their elder generations. Moreover, according to the Centre for Management Communication at University of Southern California’s Marshall School of Business (2012; cited from Tim, 2012), Generation Y workers are less likely to be satisfied with their jobs. The reportage commented that across all major fields and industries, job satisfaction levels for new Generation Y professionals are plummeting. Lastly, a recent research that focuses on total of 370 individuals for Work Preference Inventory, Shea (2012) has suggested that Generation Y were greatly motivated by Extrinsic Motivation Factors compared to GenerationX. Vice versa, they are less intrinsically motivated than their previous generations.
Compensation can be defined as salary, pay (variable or fixed) and benefits. In past research shows that generationx was more focused on extrinsic rewards. GenerationX was found to have high, unrealistic expectations for their starting salary when they join the workforce out of university this could be cause for concern for organizations. (Burke, 1991)During this time there was a rapid inflation of living expenses. (Howe & Strauss, 2000) The emphasis on high initial pay expectation for the GenMe generation decreases the closer they get to graduating. (Ng, Schweitze, & Lyons, 2010) The popular belief is that GenMe beleieve that there is more to life than a big salary, therefore having less value for extrinsic rewards. The Millenial generation believes that taking a less than ideal job will help find a career in the long run. (Ng, Schweitze, & Lyons, 2010) More research in the industry shows that both GenX and GenY seek higher
The older M100 millennial group valued being provided with additional responsibilities to make their own decisions and choices at work. Having a good working relationship with co-workers, remaining active and engaged while at work, being able to use their creativity, strengths, personal abilities and skill sets to complete tasks. They still wanted their GenerationX supervisor to have an open -door policy and be open, honest, and respectful, not arrogant but a mentor/ coach who demonstrates good communication. They also want to be allowed the freedom to make mistakes, not micromanaged but provided with frequent feedback that helps foster staff relations with upper management. One M-100 focus group member perceived her supervisors as being “incredibly open” and very interested in educating her, which she stated made her feel like her supervisor has her back and really wanted her to do well. She expressed how she appreciated that he did not use her work as a “stepping stool, to keep climbing up his own career ladder.” She felt like he provided her with a positive encouragement, positive feedback, options, and opportunities that she may have never asked for or been aware that it was an avenue she could peruse. She stated that this showed her that her supervisor cared about her success, which had a “positive effect on [her]mentality” toward future work. This older millennial group, who had time to grow into their knowledge proficiency and develop into their positions, indicated that they were more open to receiving greater amounts of information a greater autonomy and less
H1 suggested that the longer users have their smartphone their tendency to use mobile Internet services increases. While a Spearman's correlation test of the entire sample of this study, 509 participants, supported this assumption, we have chosen not to present it as a result of this study because when examining the generations separately, H1 was supported for generation Y, but not for generationX. Therefore, the results suggest that there are age differences in mobile Internet services adoption.
toothbrushes (Philips HP 555 and the Philips Jordan 2-action Plaque Remover HP 510) and one manual toothbrush (Jordan V-shaped, medium). A total 50 sub- jects, aged 18 to 60 years, participated in a randomized, single-blind, 3 x 3 weeks whereas the Loe and Silness index was used for assessing gingivitis. At all periods, mean PI (all surfaces) were 2.79, 3.01, and 2.86 for the manual, the HP 555, and the HP 510 electric brushes and the corresponding gingivitis values were 1.19, 1.22, and 1.21. For both indices, only the difference between the manual and the HP 555 yielded significance (p = 0.04 and p = 0.02). Most subjects (28/50) preferred the HP 510 brush, as it appeared to be more practical to use and was perceived to have better cleaning ability. To sum up, no clinically relevant difference in plaque reducing and gingivitis controlling ability was observed.
What are the implications of these sweeping visions of history and future for analysis of individual religious histories? It is clear that expectations about intergenerational and individual religious change are closely associated with the general character of religious change expected for a society. One of the four perspectives on individual religious change is compatible with secularization theory or the closely related polarization thesis. Cultural broadening theory highlights the liberalizing effects of education, and a highly educated society likely means either a more secular society or a society racked with tension between the more educated liberal and less educated conservative religious groups. The other three perspectives on individual change are all compatible with a cyclic change/stability model of aggregate religious change. Social learning theory emphasizes the enduring impact of religious socialization by parents and specifies the conditions under which it will be more or less successful. The developmental or life cycle model does not deny enduring effects of socialization, but it clarifies how interest in religion changes over the life course along with important life transitions and particularly the transition into parenting. The demand-side component of rational choice theory arguably subsumes and gives life to both developmental and social learning models. It grounds their predictions in a basic model of human decision- making based on analysis of costs and benefits of religious participation. All three of these perspectives predict significant intergenerational similarity in religion, at least once the younger generation has formed a family of procreation.
greatly in the 1970s and 1980s, and mothers of the 1970 cohort members were more likely to have worked during their children’s infancy and early childhood than was the case for earlier generations. The girls of the 1970 cohort achieved equal levels of school success as the boys, and were similarly likely to obtain a university education (25% in men and 25.5% in women; Table 1). Compared with earlier cohorts, the BCS70 women had greater labour market opportunities. However, the gender pay gap has remained (Joshi, Makepeace and Dolton, 2007). The roles of men and women have changed dramatically. The majority of the 1970 cohort grew up in ‘intact’ two-‐parent families (80% lived with both of their natural parents at age 16). However, family structures and relationships in mid-‐life are more heterogeneous for this cohort than for previous cohorts, with increased divorce and single-‐ living. Many of this generation delayed childbearing, so they are more likely to have young children than previous generations in early mid-‐life. Lifestyles and health