To shed light on the challenges and opportunities faced by decision makers when trying to develop a country’s IT potential, we have studied the geographicaldistribution of Brazil’s software developers by using GitHub data and correlating it with socio-economic infor- mation about different regions and states within Brazil. Our findings show that prestigious developers—measured in terms of their proximity prestige in the social network of follow-relationships on GitHub—tend to be located in states that are more economically developed. In the case of Brazil, these are the states in the southern part of the country with high GDPs, a substantial number of higher education institutions, and fast Internet. In addition, we find that Brazil’s prestigious developers are likely to fol- low others that are located in the same state, that they are likely to follow other prestigious developers, and that they tend to follow more developers in general.
be important to find out which countries are the most in- fluential concerning the future of medical education? Who are the opinion formers and who does not take part in this important discussion? One way to answer these questions is to investigate which countries contribute to the most prestigious journals in this field. Therefore a study of the geographicaldistribution of publications in the two leading medical education journals determined by their impact factor was carried out. The number of countries that contributed to Academic Medicine and Medical Education and the amount of their contribution was examined with the help of the Internet provider
Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti are the most important arbovirus vectors worldwide. Ae. albopictus, native of Asia, was recorded for the first time in early 2000s in Cameroon, cen- tral Africa. Previous studies performed a decade ago in Cameroon showed that Ae. albo- pictus has a geographicaldistribution limited to the south under 6˚N. Whereas the native species Ae. aegypti was present across the country. To update our knowledge in this regards, a nationwide survey was performed in Cameroon to assess the current geographi- cal distribution and prevalence of both vectors including a genetic diversity profiling of Ae. albopictus (invasive species) using mitochondrial DNA. Analysis revealed that Ae. aegypti is still distributed nation widely whereas Ae. albopictus is limited to the southern part, around 6˚4’N. However, Ae. albopictus is the most prevalent species in all southern locations where both species are sympatric except in Douala where Ae. aegypti is predomi- nant. This suggests that factors such as climate, vegetation and building density impact the distribution of both species in Cameroon. Mitochondrial DNA analysis revealed a low genetic diversity in Ae. albopictus populations with a major common haplotype detected in almost all locations. This study provides the relevant data that can be helpful to establish the vector surveillance of epidemic arbovirus vectors across the country.
Annual and geographical distribution of Shigella serotypes in Sabah, Malaysia from 1974 to 1978 Med J Malaysia Vol XXXV No 1, September 1980 ANNUAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF SHIGELLA SEROTYPES[.]
The ecological characteristics of tick-borne Jingmenviruses led us to set up a serosurvey to assess the prevalence of human and cattle Jingmenviruses in asymptom- atic populations highly exposed to infected vectors. No cattle serum positive for JMTV was detected, although previous studies were able to demonstrate the susceptibility of cattle to JMTV infection (2, 9). In contrast, one French human serum sample slightly positive for one ORF of Ixodes ricinus JMTV was detected. Although this result needs to be further conﬁrmed (for example, by implementing a seroneutralization assay) to exclude the possibility of cross-reactions, the phylogenetic proximity of French JMTV to Alongshan virus human pathogen raised the issue of the circulation of Jingmenvi- ruses in French human population. We observed that the seroprevalence of Jingmen- virus infection in asymptomatic populations was very low, as described previously in other studies (3, 6). In addition, the fact that Jingmenviruses were detected only in symptomatic and/or severe human cases (3, 6) suggests that most infections are patent and that asymptomatic infections are rare. However, the wide geographicaldistribution of Jingmenviruses and their ability to infect numerous vertebrate and invertebrate hosts indicate the need to deeply monitor the circulation of Jingmenviruses, especially
examination and treatment. Beijing (in the northern re- gion), Nanjing (in the central region) and Guangzhou (in the southern region) have among the more renowned academic centers for LN in China. Some patients are not treated for glomerular diseases in a few parts of China, and the criteria for renal biopsy are not identical in dif- ferent centers. These confounding factors limit the va- lidity of the conclusions to some degree, and further studies are needed to provide an accurate estimate of the absolute risk of geographicaldistribution related the epidemiology of LN in China. These important clinical questions should be addressed by future prospective studies.
areas of production and more widespread in the latter with a workforce of 14,383 people, or 77.93% of total collected insects. Helopeltis sp., with an attendance rate of 1.81% was the least represented here. Between these two species ranged B.laticollisand D. theobromae with 16.50 and 3.76% respectively of the total harvested mirids. B. laticollis representing the second most important species is present in the coastal area, especially in the districts of Bas-Sassandra, the Comoé, Lagunes and Gôh-Djiboua. It is also located in the district of the Montagnes. D. theobromae is localized in all production districts sampled with a lower effective. Helopeltis sp. was observed in the districts of Bas-Sassandra, Comoé, Sassandra-Marahoué, Gôh-Djiboua and Lagunes. Knowledge of the geographicaldistribution of population’smiridsin these 7 production districts allow the establishment of a chemical control schedule in the protection of the Ivorian cocoa orchard.
rigorous geostatistical variable selection approach. Survey data were extracted from the literature, geo-referenced, and made public via the open-access GNTD database. Our study also identified important data needs and gaps. For example, most of the surveys were conducted along the sub-Andean region. On the other hand, only few sur- vey locations were available in the less densely populated highlands and in the northern tropical areas. Rigorous geostatistical variable selection methods have been used to identify environmental and socioeconomic determinants that govern the distribution of soil-transmitted helminth infection in Bolivia. The country, nestled between the high Andean peaks (on the West) and the Amazon forest (on the East), presents specific ecological characteristics that shape helminth cycles in a complex way. High altitude and diverse topography, as well as the paucity of weather stations in remote areas can introduce interpolation bias in the climatic factors used in our analysis . Bayesian variable selection helped in identifying the potential factors influencing the geographicaldistribution of the three common soil-transmitted helminth species. Our methodology enabled us to explore all possible models arising from 40 climatic and socioeconomic predictors, while accounting for spatial correlation in the data.
Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important global health challenge with increasing burden worldwide. CKD and acute kidney injury (AKI) may require renal replacement therapy (RRT) at some stages of the disease. Ghana currently has no renal transplant program. Dialysis services still remain a mirage to many chronic kidney disease patients in Ghana due to cost and paucity of hemodialysis machines. This survey highlights the geographicaldistribution of dialysis services in Ghana.
This study attempts to develop an ordered logit regression model to identify the determinants of the geographicaldistribution of business incubators (BIs) in Portuguese regions in 2015. The results show that Portuguese BIs are more likely to be geographically concentrated in regions where the number of patent applications is higher, usually in the larger regions (particularly in metropolitan areas), and mostly in regions with a university. The study clearly demonstrates the importance of Portuguese universities to the location of BIs.
Despite the growing global awareness of podoconiosis [3,47], national scale epidemiological data about the distribution of podoconiosis are lacking in all endemic countries. Understand- ing the geographicaldistribution and estimating the population at risk are important first steps to optimally use the resources allocated to podoconiosis [48,49]. To our knowledge, this is the first nationwide mapping of podoconiosis using a predefined clinical algorithm to diagnose podoconiosis. It is also the first attempt to develop a risk model of podoconiosis based on remotely sensed environmental data and robust statistical techniques. Our study showed that podoconiosis is widely distributed in Ethiopia and covers substantial parts of the country. Besides, our results indicate that 43.8% of the Ethiopian population lives at risk of podoconiosis and a quarter of the landmass is conducive to podoconiosis occurrence. Our mapping largely indicated high (close to 1) or low (close to 0) probability of occurrence of podoconiosis. This indicates the degree of certainty from the maps is very high for both presence and absence. Therefore the findings here will help guide interventions and resource allocation and estimate the disease burden caused by podoconiosis.
For areas where data on infection in humans may be under-recorded, examining the spatial distribution of in- fected reservoirs provides an important first-step in un- derstanding the potential risk to humans, as well as allowing analyses to explore epidemiological processes in the reservoir populations by identifying environmental risk factors. The previous study in Madagascar that de- tected Anjozorobe virus was limited to one forest loca- tion, Anjozorobe-Angavo forest . Here we sample terrestrial peridomestic small mammals trapped in urban and rural sites of representative regions of Madagascar to (i) establish the distribution of Anjozorobe virus and (ii) evaluate to what extent spatial variation in infection rates is related to environmental and host-related vari- ables. Our results will be helpful to implement policies for future awareness and surveillance programs for hu- man communities, as well as increasing our understand- ing of the epidemiology of hantavirus in a peridomestic African context.
South America and the West Indies. This section is decidedly tropical in its requirements, and in southern Africa the species all occur in more or less frost free areas with an annual rainfall of at least 800 mm. This corresponds with the lowlands of Natal and the eastern Cape Province, as well as the Transvaal lowveld and foot of the escarpment (Fig. 6). One species, M. macer Kunth, extends into central Transvaal, but is confined to frost-free niches in the hills, where it occurs more or less sheltered in dry ravine forest. These species are all dry land plants, being dependent on rain for their moisture supply, so that their distribution is stricly governed by rainfall patterns. Of the six species recorded in the FSA region, M. sumatrensis (Retz.) J. Raynal has the widest distribution, namely throughout the moister parts of tropical Africa and tropical Asia. M. sublimis C.B. Cl. and M. cylindristachyus Steud. are widespread tropical African endemics, whereas M. macer, M. macrocarpus Kunth and an undescribed species have restricted distribution areas. The impression was gained that M. sumatrensis may be an introduced weed, and the same may hold true for M. sublimis and M. cylindristachyus which are known from only a few collections in the FSA region.
Distribution, genotypes and frequencies of kdr and ace‑1 mutations in the An. sinensis populations of Shanghai The high insecticide resistance detected in the CM-Xinhe population of An. sinensis is reflected in the 65.60% fre- quency of kdr mutations in this population. In contrast, we detected no kdr mutations among any of the 117 specimens collected from the CM-Dongtan population. Whereas the frequency of the kdr susceptible homozy- gote TTG/TTG genotype detected in the Xinhe popula- tion was 19.27%, none of the three populations surveyed from mainland Shanghai carried this genotype. There- fore, we speculate that the kdr mutant allele is probably stable in the SJ, QP and JD populations. The prevalence of resistance genes in mainland Shanghai is primarily a con- sequence of long-term agricultural pesticide use, aggra- vated by public health-related insecticide application to control vector-borne diseases. In addition, the Yangtze River separates Chongming Island and mainland Shang- hai, and represents a geographical boundary that hinders mosquito population migration between the two regions.
This study provides insight into the identification of ty- phoid risk factors by finding the relationships between surveillance data and socio-environmental circumstances. Some of the risk factors identified in this study were consistent with previous findings [33, 34]. In particular, Dewan et al. found that communities closer to rivers have elevated risk of typhoid infection compared to other locations in Bangladesh . The TRF index constructed in this study summarized multiple risk factors of the disease as a single indicator which enables people to inter- pret easily. This approach is useful to maximize the effect- ive use of typhoid conjugate vaccines to control typhoid in endemic settings where vaccination strategies should be carefully determined. Because many endemic countries do not have sufficient resources to fund mass vaccination programs, decision makers may need to identify relatively small, yet well-defined geographical locations to prioritize vaccinating populations at high risk areas .
carrying ticks to sites that have now become favourable for tick survival . Jaenson et al. [55,56] suggest that increased winter mean temperatures at higher altitudes and latitudes and an extended vegetation period (VP) have permitted roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) to spread to and inhabit previously inhospitable areas of the Alps and Scan- dinavia. Such deer movements have allowed I. ricinus to be transported northwards on the Scandinavian Peninsula, resulting in a significantly increased tick range during the last 30 years . Climatic changes have also reduced the length of snow cover (which in turn can negatively impact tick survival) in alpine areas previously only utilised by roe deer during the summer period, thus lessening the signifi- cant limiting factor to roe deer distribution and perman- ence at altitude . Furthermore, deer tend to move to higher altitudes in spring thus acting as a mode of expan- sion for I. ricinus . The movement of ticks into new areas does not necessarily result in an established popula- tion, but the success rate can be higher in less fragmented habitats with suitable vegetation, climate and host avail- ability .
In summary, our findings indicate that besides Lake Vic- toria, active transmission of schistosomiasis occurs from inland habitats within the informal areas of Kisumu City and in streams that flow into the Lake, and suggests that transmission patterns are closely related to the abundance and spatial distribution of vector snails. The location and timing of snail control interventions will not only depend on the spatial distribution of snail den- sities, but also on their temporal variations. Since schis- tosomiasis transmission tends to be focal, focal mollusciciding, improvements in local sanitation and hygiene as well as public health awareness, would be advocated to complement chemotherapy in reducing transmission and re-infection in such urban settings.
Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus is a retrovirus belong- ing to the genus deltaretrovirus. Four HTLV related vi- ruses (types 1 to 4) have been detected . HTLV-1 was the first known retrovirus linked to human disease. In addition to Adult T-cell Leukemia and Tropical Spastic Paraparesis, a significant correlation between infection by the virus and diseases such as uveitis, polymyositis, arth- ritis, autoimmune thyroiditis, Sjogren's syndrome, and infective dermatitis was also reported. However, most HTLV-1 infected people (almost 90%) remain asymptom- atic [2, 3]. HTLV-1 has worldwide distribution and infects approximately 5 to 10 million people in the world. How- ever, it is endemic in some regions, such as Japan, Taiwan, Caribbean, Central and South Africa, and some regions of the Middle East . Northeastern Iran is also considered as an endemic area. The first report about the seroepide- miology of HTLV in Iran has been released in 1993 . According to a study has been conducted by Rafatpanah and his colleagues, the prevalence of HTLV-1 in the gen- eral population of northeastern Iran (Mashhad), was esti- mated to be 2.12% . There are few population-based studies about the endemicity of the virus in other parts of Iran [7, 8]. However, on the basis of seroepidemiologic studies held on blood donors in other parts of the country, HTLV-1 has been reported in the residents of certain areas of Iran [9–16]. The most important routes of HTLV-1 transmission are mother-to-child, especially through breastfeeding, sexual contact and injecting drug users. HTLV-1 can also be transmitted via transfusion of contam- inated blood components, liver, kidney and lung trans- plantation . Following injection of contaminated blood products, the likelihood of HTLV-1 seroconversion is about 40–60% and seroconversion occurs within 60 days in most infected blood recipients [18, 19].