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An Introduction to Global Health and Global Health Ethics: Global Health: The Current State of Affairs

An Introduction to Global Health and Global Health Ethics: Global Health: The Current State of Affairs

What is certain is that in amidst the increasing funds for global health and the growing numbers of participants, health needs are being addressed. Global health indicators show that life expectancy from birth has increased from 64 years in 1990 to 70 years in 2012. In addition, mortality in children under 5 years has undergone an accelerated decline from 90 deaths per 1,000 in 1990 to 48 per 1,000 in 2012. Contributing to these improvements are measures like childhood vaccinations which are increasing in coverage. In 2012, 84% of the world’s children (12-23mos) received measles vaccinations; a health measure that has contributed to the 78% drop in total measles deaths between 2000 and 2012. In addition, the number of new cases per year of both tuberculosis and HIV has been falling since 2001. 9 Though these are just some of the improvements made in global health in the past few decades, they reveal significant
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Global Health as “umbrella term” – a qualitative study among Global Health teachers in German medical education

Global Health as “umbrella term” – a qualitative study among Global Health teachers in German medical education

Globalisation has created a new social space. The reduc- tion of barriers strengthens connections between people all over the world [3]. This globality can be found in various fields: e.g. communications and media, travel and migra- tion, organisations, transnational companies, consumption habits, military activities, ecology, law and in a social, global consciousness [3]. This new global social space does not de- value or replace but even fosters locality and regionality, be- cause these are the spaces in which its effects take place [3]. Various attempts have been made to draw a framework of the impact of globalisation on health [4, 5]. Actors in academic global health call for an interdisciplinary systems approach [6, 7] and integrative thinking to understand the complex effects and relationships in global health [8, 9].
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The impacts of the global gag rule on global health: a scoping review

The impacts of the global gag rule on global health: a scoping review

The 43 articles in this review include 16 peer-reviewed publications and 27 grey literature materials (Table 4). Thirty-four pieces are qualitative, and the 9 quantitative include: 3 peer-reviewed publications, one of which looks at the relationship between the GGR and sub-Sa- haran Africa abortion rates [5], one at donor money allo- cation, [47] and the third at the relationship between contraceptive supplies and fertility outcomes during GGR years [34]; one working paper on family planning aid in developing countries [18]; a country-specific study on the impact of the GGR on unintended pregnancy, abortion rate, and child health [4]; and a book chapter on the impact of the GGR on abortion rates in four global regions [48]. The remaining 3 quantitative studies are master’s theses [24, 30]. Eighteen articles come from just three organizations working in global health. The dominant qualitative approach is a case study, and the quantitative works are largely regression analyses [4, 5]. Less than half of the literature focuses on specific coun- tries. Most of the literature (86%) discusses the previous enactments of the GGR and only 7 of the 43 articles are on PLGHA. The reported impacts of the GGR are on: global health assistance, reproductive health services and outcomes, family planning programs, contraceptive supplies and demand, abortion rates, HIV and AIDS
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Master of Science in Public Health (specializing in Global Health)

Master of Science in Public Health (specializing in Global Health)

The Master of Science (MSc) in Public Health, specializing in Global Health, provides an in-depth study of global health, focusing on various aspects in low and middle income countries including cultural understanding and how development, policy, environment and climate influences health. Furthermore, it aims to focus on development, implementation and analysis of socio-technological innovations in global health, to meet complex health challenges and improve overall health outcomes. Given the strength of NTNU in engineering and technology, this would be the first master’s programme in Norway to integrate global health with innovations in the past, present and future. The degree awarded to students completing the programme of study will be Master of Science in Public Health.
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Non-communicable diseases and global health governance: enhancing global processes to improve health development

Non-communicable diseases and global health governance: enhancing global processes to improve health development

The key lifestyle risks for non-communicable diseases have been clearly identified: tobacco use, physical inactiv- ity, and the over-consumption of nutrient-poor foods that contain too much fat, salt, and sugar [21,29]. These factors cluster together in their impact on key non-communica- ble diseases [137]. It makes sense, therefore, to link the FCTC and GSDPAH together as core components of a broader global strategy on non-communicable diseases. The implementation of a global strategy on non-commu- nicable diseases requires intervention in sectors and pol- icy settings that extend well "beyond the traditional mandates and authority of health ministries and authori- ties" [41]. WHO is the obvious agency to coordinate and act as political champion for a global response. Jointly- conceived strategies would also be valuable given, for example, the common interest of WHO and the World Bank in nutrition and obesity in poor countries. At the same time, care should be taken with choice of partners so as not to cede control of issues to agencies whose institu- tional focus could weaken global health norms. The potential for WHO to leverage its strategy by using its law- making powers deserves fresh consideration. Interna- tional legal standards are not self-executing, and develop- ing countries require the capacity to implement and enforce them. However, legal standards also have a nor- mative role, compliance can be monitored by NGOs as well as governments, and a global approach could reduce the health inequalities that might otherwise result from uneven patterns of "negotiated commitments" with the processed food industry.
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The Role of Pediatricians in Global Health

The Role of Pediatricians in Global Health

1.‍ Pediatric continuing medical education (CME) providers and departments of pediatrics are encouraged to make training in global health available to pediatricians and trainees.‍ Topics include the global burden of disease; immigrant and refugee health; patient communication through interpreters; social determinants of health; cultural humility; global child health disparities; disaster management; travel and tropical medicine; population health, including strategies for prevention and treatment of common diseases; and ethical considerations, including the ethics of short- term international medical missions and international research.‍ Although some topics are regularly included in courses offered by CME providers, gaps exist, and topics are frequently addressed without a global health framework.‍
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Addressing the “Global Health Tax” and “Wild Cards”: Practical Challenges to Building Academic Careers in Global Health

Addressing the “Global Health Tax” and “Wild Cards”: Practical Challenges to Building Academic Careers in Global Health

spirit coupled with global health’s sense of purpose is partially what makes it an exciting field. Our question is, once the appetite for such dynamism passes, what will become of these “early adopters?” Fraught with personal, financial, and academic hurdles, how scalable and maintainable is the current academic career model in expat global health? Academic health centers can play a critical role in helping to shape this unplanned but powerful movement so that it can achieve its full potential. Beyond the moral or rational arguments for supporting global health, there are many practical benefits for academic health centers. For example, the opportunity to invigorate discussion within their own intellectual community and produce widely influential academic products strengthens these academic institutions and augments the role they play in society at large. 46,47 But
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The Pan-University Network for Global Health: framework for collaboration and review of global health needs

The Pan-University Network for Global Health: framework for collaboration and review of global health needs

The development of PUNGH stems from efforts to globalize university learning and health systems research. Initiated at Pennsylvania State University through the University Office of Global Programs, it is a thematic Global Engagement Network, designed to build collabo- rations with key university partners in different parts of the world around the topic of global health. At the in- augural meeting that was held at Penn State in May 2014, 60 faculty members from 13 universities partici- pated in the 2 day deliberations. With the understanding that research and training/education are best addressed via a global collaboration, groups of scholars reviewed a set of global health topics with the goal of identifying those with the greatest interest and opportunities. At the end of the two days, two priorities were established for the network: 1) urbanization and health and 2) the inter- section of infectious diseases with NCDs.
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Emerging Subspecialties in Neurology: Global health

Emerging Subspecialties in Neurology: Global health

In contrast to the public health concerns of a par- ticular country or region, global health looks at pop- ulations irrespective of borders. One of the key elements in advancing the field of global health was the establishment of the WHO in 1948. Since its inception, the WHO has helped coordinate global efforts toward eradication of diseases such as smallpox and polio as well as elimination of oncho- cerciasis. It now assumes responsibility for the Inter- national Classification of Diseases. More recently, the field of global health has received considerable attention from world leaders, philanthropists, and academics. In 2009, President Obama introduced his Global Health Initiative that proposed spending $63 billion over 6 years to support global health programs specifically targeting areas such as HIV/ AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, nutrition, and repro- ductive health. On his first day of work as NIH Director, Francis Collins announced global health as one of his 5 themes of “ exceptional opportunity ” that would receive special priority during his ten- ure. 2 The Fogarty International Center is a branch
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School of Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nagasaki University Department of Global Health:

School of Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nagasaki University Department of Global Health:

Two existing and popular programs – the Master of Tropical Medicine course of Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences and the Master of Public Health course of Graduate School of International Health Development – will be brought together in new School of Tropical Medicine and Global Health opening in October 2015.

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Rethinking the 'global' in global health: a dialectic approach

Rethinking the 'global' in global health: a dialectic approach

On the other hand, the concept of ‘ global-as-supraterri- torial ’ adds ‘ new ’ objects to existing health related disci- plines. With this concept, diseases and illnesses remain what they have been before, that is either medical, pub- lic or international health problems; or all of them. The disease specific aspects, however, become symptoms of underlying structural determinants AND their suprater- ritorial links. The object of ‘global health’, with global- as-supraterritorial, is the analysis of the ‘new’ social space created by globalization. Globality, in the context of health, then refers to supraterritorial links between the social determinants of health located at points anywhere on earth. As such, representatives of the medical, the public health, or the international health community can engage in ‘global health’ educa- tion, research or practice without producing redun- dancy. Building on the generic expertise of their field, representatives of those communities - or the health workforce in general - can broaden their focus towards ‘ global health ’ . They can impart and gain knowledge, produce new insights, or develop solutions related to global (read: supraterritorial) links between the social determinants of health, which are in themselves global (read: universal) determinants.
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Global health rights: employing human rights to develop and implement the Framework Convention on Global Health

Global health rights: employing human rights to develop and implement the Framework Convention on Global Health

104. Human Rights Watch, In the shadow of death: HIV/AIDS and children’s rights in Kenya (2001); J. Todres, “Rights relationships and the experience of children orphaned by AIDS,” U.C. Davis Law Review 41 (2007), pp. 417-476; Mental Disability Advocacy Center & the Association for Social Affirmation of People with Mental Disabilities, Out of sight human rights in psychiatric hospitals and social care institutions in Croatia (2010); M. L. Perlin, “International human rights law and comparative mental disability law: The universal factors,” Syracuse Journal of International Law and Commerce 34 (2007), p. 333; Open Society Institute, Protecting the human rights of injection drug users: The impact of HIV and AIDS (2005); R. Jürgens, J. Csete, J. J. Amon, S. Baral, C. Beyrer, “People who use drugs, HIV, and human rights,” Lancet 376 (2010), pp. 475- 485; O’Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law, “Women and tobacco in egypt: Preventing and reducing the effects of obacco consumption through information, implementation, and nondiscrimina- tion” (2010). Available at
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Understanding global health and development partnerships: Perspectives from African and global health system professionals

Understanding global health and development partnerships: Perspectives from African and global health system professionals

Global efforts to institutionalise the principle of partnership have been one means of enhancing the ability of African government officials, in particular, to more fully control health agendas and there is evidence to suggest that practical strategies are being employed within partnership relations in order to consolidate national ownership. Consolidating these within the SDG process will be a further way to balance the uneven global health and development playing field within African health systems. To focus on institutional mechanisms however, is not enough (Kapilashrami and McPake, 2013; Aveling and Martin, 2013). The key to better partnership rests with better understanding the more political elements of partnership practices, the way strategies are deployed to appropriate partnership processes and evade control (Whitfield, 2010; Bergamaschi, 2009), and the way closer relationships of trust can be brokered (Lewis and Mosse, 2006; Mosse, 2005). Such knowledge is important because it provides crucial information about the socio-cultural constraints and political dynamics of partnership, upon which health professionals can evolve their own practices and build the informal relations that are critical for effective engagement. Given that leadership and informal brokering are important here, it is crucial that health professionals have skills in these areas. This suggests a need to ensure that professional training covers topics such as politics, negotiation and diplomacy, so that those responsible for operationalising partnership are able to forge and negotiate effective informal relationships.
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Understanding global health and development partnerships: Perspectives from African and global health system professionals

Understanding global health and development partnerships: Perspectives from African and global health system professionals

Global efforts to institutionalise the principle of partnership have been one means of enhancing the ability of African government officials, in particular, to more fully control health agendas and there is evidence to suggest that practical strategies are being employed within partnership relations in order to consolidate national ownership. Consolidating these within the SDG process will be a further way to balance the uneven global health and development playing field within African health systems. To focus on institutional mechanisms however, is not enough (Kapilashrami and McPake, 2013; Aveling and Martin, 2013). The key to better partnership rests with better understanding the more political elements of partnership practices, the way strategies are deployed to appropriate partnership processes and evade control (Whitfield, 2010; Bergamaschi, 2009), and the way closer relationships of trust can be brokered (Lewis and Mosse, 2006; Mosse, 2005). Such knowledge is important because it provides crucial information about the socio-cultural constraints and political dynamics of partnership, upon which health professionals can evolve their own practices and build the informal relations that are critical for effective engagement. Given that leadership and informal brokering are important here, it is crucial that health professionals have skills in these areas. This suggests a need to ensure that professional training covers topics such as politics, negotiation and diplomacy, so that those responsible for operationalising partnership are able to forge and negotiate effective informal relationships.
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Two Regimes of Global Health

Two Regimes of Global Health

Humanitarian biomedicine, in contrast, targets diseases that currently afflict the poorer nations of the world, such as malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS. Its prob- lematic is one of alleviating the suffering of individuals, regardless of national bound- aries or social groupings. Such intervention is seen as necessary where public health infrastructure at the nation-state level is in poor condition or nonexistent. Humani- tarian biomedicine tends to develop ‘‘apolitical’’ linkages—between nongovernmental organizations, activists, scientific researchers, and local health workers. Its target of intervention is not a collectivity conceived as a national population but rather indi- vidual human lives. As a sociotechnical project, this regime seeks to bring advanced diagnostic and pharmaceutical interventions to those in need; this involves both providing access to existing medical technologies and spurring the development of new medications addressed to ‘‘neglected diseases’’—that is, diseases not currently targeted by the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. Whereas global health security develops prophylaxis against potential threats at home, humanitarian biomed- icine invests resources to mitigate present suffering in other places.
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Power in global governance: an expanded typology from global health

Power in global governance: an expanded typology from global health

Thus, the third observation is that the typology high- lights how actors often perceived as weak or powerless may be able to wield influence in ways not widely recog- nized [43]. For example, as scholars of transnational civil society networks have shown [34, 44], NGOs with far fewer economic resources than multinational corpora- tions or wealthy governments are able to use moral, ex- pert, and discursive power to act as an effective counterweight to them in global political arenas. One concrete example is the successful network of civil soci- ety organizations that campaigned for taking flexible ap- proaches to global intellectual property rules on medicines patents in developing countries; at first, this effort was strongly opposed by the pharmaceutical in- dustry and Northern governments, but it eventually suc- ceeded in removing patents as a major barrier to widespread access to generic HIV medicines in LMICs [45]. The point here is not to minimize recognition of the power asymmetries permeating global health, which can be enormous and enormously consequential. Rather, it is intended as an argument against over-simplification, such as dividing actors into binary categories of strong and weak. It is also an argument against the inadvertent disempowerment of actors by describing them as “weak”—an actor can arguably wield more power when considered by others to be powerful than the converse. Fuller recognition of the many different types of power operating in global governance can provide more nu- anced and convincing explanations of outcomes than narrow conceptions of power alone—especially when “weaker” actors succeed in challenging “stronger” ones.
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A Global Health Research Checklist for clinicians

A Global Health Research Checklist for clinicians

The Global Pediatric Emergency Medicine Group (gPEM Group) at Children ’ s National Health Systems, George Washington University is a group of pediatric emergency medicine physicians with clinical and re- search experience in global health in various settings. Eight of us used a team approach based on our individ- ual experiences to delineate the sections of the checklist. We used published literature to emphasize the key con- cepts as described below in detail. The checklist was trialed in two workshops including the Pediatric Aca- demic Society meeting, Washington DC, and was ad- justed based on participants ’ feedback which included changes in structure, number of sections, examples, and content flow.
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Global health priorities – priorities of the wealthy?

Global health priorities – priorities of the wealthy?

Development aid to health has continued to grow sub- stantially since 1992 despite the fall in total official devel- opment assistance (ODA) since that time. The USA provides about one third of the total bilateral aid to health. Other bilateral donors are substantially smaller. The multilateral agencies provide one third of the total official development assistance to health and of that assistance 80% comes from the International Develop- ment Association (IDA) [12]. As a new funding source, the Global Health programme of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) has become not only significant in size, but also in setting health policy. The funding from the USA, IDA and the BMGF are of about the same order. The US role in global health policy setting has increased in the 1990s. [13] Traditionally the US AID emphases have been on fostering goals such as privatization and economic liberation, and on ties to US exports and tech- nical assistance [14]. During the past decade, the USA has been active in lifting global health issues in new forums, such as the G8. The USA was also instrumental in the cre- ation of the GFATM, towards which the EU, for instance, was initially more critical. According to Kagan [15], the US foreign policy is less inclined to act through international institutions such as the UN and less inclined to work co- operatively with other nations to pursue common goals, while the European foreign policy emphasis is on multi- lateralism over unilateralism.
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Global Health Policy

Global Health Policy

Through the Global Health Policy major, I hope to gain a deep understanding of policies and social issues in areas of public health. This major will also provide a solid background in the basic sciences, which will help me in the medical field. My main goal in life is to develop my interests in health and medicine so that I may make a positive impact in the world of medicine and in the lives of those who need it the most. I hope to become a physician so that I can provide treatment to those who cannot afford it and to those living in developing countries. I also want to serve our country as well as developing nations by improving public health policies that affect healthcare and health conditions.
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Global health justice: A perspective from the global South on a Framework Convention on Global Health

Global health justice: A perspective from the global South on a Framework Convention on Global Health

A FCGH offers an intriguing approach, but faces enormous so- cial, political, and economic barriers. But given the dismal nature of extant global health governance, an FCGH is a risk worth tak- ing. It will, at a minimum, identify the truly important problems in global health. Solutions will not be found solely in increased resources, although that is important. Rather, an FCGH can dem- onstrate the imperative of targeting the major determinants of health, prioritising and co-ordinating currently fragmented activi- ties, and engaging a broad range of stakeholders. It will also pro- vide a needed forum to raise visibility of one of the most press- ing problems facing humankind. An FCGH would represent an historical shift in global health, with a broadly imagined global governance regime.
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