glycogen content

Top PDF glycogen content:

Pre eclampsia is associated with an increase in trophoblast glycogen content and glycogen synthase activity, similar to that found in hydatidiform moles

Pre eclampsia is associated with an increase in trophoblast glycogen content and glycogen synthase activity, similar to that found in hydatidiform moles

Pre-eclampsia is a placental disorder, but until now, biochemical details of dysfunction have been lacking. During an analysis of the oligosaccharide content of syncytiotrophoblast microvesicles purified from the placental chorionic villi of 10 primigravid women with proteinuric pre-eclampsia, we found an excess of glycogen breakdown products. Further investigation revealed a 10-fold increase in glycogen content (223 +/- 117 micrograms glycogen/mg protein), when compared with controls matched for gestational age at delivery (23 +/- 18 micrograms glycogen/mg protein) (P < 0.01). This was confirmed by examination of electron micrographs of chorionic villous tissue stained for glycogen. The increase in glycogen content was associated with 16 times more glycogen synthase (1,323 +/- 1,013 relative to 83 +/- 96 pmol glucose/mg protein per min) (P < 0.001), and a threefold increase in glycogen phosphorylase activity (2,280 +/- 1,360 relative to 700 +/- 540 pmol glucose/mg protein per min; P < 0.05). Similar changes in glycogen metabolism were found in
Show more

11 Read more

Chlorpyrofos Induced Alterations in Glycogen Content in Some Organs of Fresh Water Fish, Channa gachua (F. Hamilton)

Chlorpyrofos Induced Alterations in Glycogen Content in Some Organs of Fresh Water Fish, Channa gachua (F. Hamilton)

In the present study when the fish were exposed to chlorpyrifos, glycogen was significantly declined. This declination might be due to the toxic action of the pesticide on the tissues and utilization of stored glycogen to overcome the pesticide stress. Similar results have been reported by Chaudhary and Yadav (2013) in fish Nemachelus botia on exposure to meothrin. Padma Priya (2013) reported that the tissue glycogen content decreased on exposure of fish Channa punctatus to imidacloprid. Decreased liver glycogen has been observed in fish O. mossambicus due to toxic impact of dichlorvos (Lakshmanan et al., 2013). Satyavardhan (2013) reported that the glycogen in different tissues of fish Ctenopharyngodon idella was significantly reduced by the fenvalerate and malathion intoxication. Nagaraju and Venkata Rathnamma (2013) showed that the glycogen content decreased in the different tissues of Labeo rohita on exposure to sub lethal and lethal concentrations of profenofos and carbosulphan. Level of glycogen content in the liver of Cyprinus carpio was decreased when exposed to distillery effluent at different periods (Saroja et al., 2013). In fish Lepidocephalus thermalis a sudden decrease in glycogen content was reported in liver, kidney and muscle tissue on exposure to sugar factory effluent (Hyalij., 2013). Magar and Dube (2013), observed that the fresh water fish C. punctatus exposed to sub lethal concentration of malathion showed decreasing trend in cardiac muscle glycogen. The glycogen content in the brain, gill, intestine and liver of fish Cirrhina mrigala was decreased significantly on exposure of fenthion (Israel Stalin and Sam Manohar, 2012). The significant decrease was observed in the gills, kidney, and brain of fish Punctius ticto due to the toxic action of dimethoate (Ganeshwade et al.; 2011). Palanismy et. al., (2011) studied and reported decline in the glycogen content of liver, brain, muscle and gill tissue of Mystus cavasius after short term exposure to electroplating industrial effluent chromium. Thenmozhi (2011), suggests that depletion in biochemical parameter like glycogen in liver, gill and muscle of Labeo rohita during exposure period of malathion. The serum total glucose content has been observed to be decreased after phorate treatment in fish C. punctatus (Singh, et.al., 2010). Decrease in the glycogen content in gill, liver, muscle and kidney of Labeo rohita when exposed to tannery effluent after acute exposure for 96 hrs, has been reported by Muley et. al., (2007). Ghosh (1987) indicates gradual depletion in muscle and liver glycogen of C. batracus when exposed to sub lethal concentration of three organophosphates.
Show more

6 Read more

The Functional Impact of Pgm Amino Acid Polymorphism on Glycogen Content in Drosophila melanogaster

The Functional Impact of Pgm Amino Acid Polymorphism on Glycogen Content in Drosophila melanogaster

differences across our extracted third chromosome lines, and tural effects. Therefore, we compared all 10 PGM protein our analysis in this study shows no effect of soluble protein haplotypes in Table 1 for each of the activity, thermostability, on enzyme activity or glycogen content. and glycogen content measures by a posteriori Bonferroni mul- Statistical analyses: Although the genetic backgrounds are tiple range tests (Sokal and Rohlf 1995) to determine if there randomized by repeated crosses with the TM3/TM6 balancer are significant protein haplotype outliers that may represent stock, third chromosomes remain intact. For each PGM pro- potential adaptive variation. Finally, while there is likely heter- tein haplotype, replicates are segregating in different isolated ogeneity among both activity and glycogen, we were particu- third chromosome backgrounds; however, it was necessary larly interested in the correlation between these two traits. to sample these replicates from different localities along the Therefore, we performed a nonparametric test to determine latitudinal cline because several protein haplotypes have low this association (Sokal and Rohlf 1995).
Show more

10 Read more

Effect of cadmium chloride on glycogen content in gill, liver and kidney of edible exotic fish hypophthalmichthys molitrix

Effect of cadmium chloride on glycogen content in gill, liver and kidney of edible exotic fish hypophthalmichthys molitrix

Decrease in carbohydrates is probably due to glycogenolysis and utilization of glucose to meet increased metabolic cost as suggested by Viswarajan et al. (1988) in Oreochromis mossambicus under the stress of tannic acid. Decrease in liver glycogen may also be due to acute hypoxia (Heath and Pritchard, 1965). Decrease in glucose and glycogen content in gill tissue has been observed in Anabas testudineus fingerlings when exposed to mercuric chloride (Jagadeesan, 1990). The decreased level of glucose and glycogen contents in the liver, muscle, intestine, kidney and brain of Channa punctatus exposed to phenyl mercuric acetate (Karuppasamy, 2000). Shoba Rani et al. (2000) have also observed the decline in gill glycogen content in Tilapia mossambica exposed to sodium arsenite. Stressful situation in fish elicits neuroendocirine response which in turn induces disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism (Mazeand et al., 1977) and this lend support to the present results in declined glycogen levels in the gill, liver and kidney of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix when exposed to sublethal concentration of cadmium chloride. In conclusion, this study showed that cadmium chloride altered the carbohydrate metabolism in Hypophthalmichthys molitrix by affecting the levels of glycogen in gill, liver and kidney due to impairments in energy requiring vital processes.
Show more

5 Read more

Heavy metal chromium induced alterations on glycogen content in kidney, brain and muscle of freshwater fish oreochromis mossambicus (PETERS)

Heavy metal chromium induced alterations on glycogen content in kidney, brain and muscle of freshwater fish oreochromis mossambicus (PETERS)

Kenan, (2005) observed that the glycogen contents were decreased in liver and muscle of Cyprinus carpio exposed to sublethal concentration of cadmium. Glycogen and protein levels were decreased in Palaemonetes pugio was exdposed to chromium (Ciftci et al., 2012). The glycogen levels were decreased in liver, muscle, kidney and gill of Labeo rohita exposed to potassium dichromate for the periods 10, 20 and 30 days (Dhanalakshmi et al., 2012). Zodape (2010) revealed that the glycogen content reduced in Labeo rohita when exposed to chromium. Gummadavelli et al., (2013) reported that glycogen levels were declined in gill, liver and kidney of Cyprinus carpio exposed to heavy metals. Decrease in glucose and glycogen content in gill tissue has been observed in Labeo rohita fingerlings when exposed to mercuric chloride (Jagadeesan and Mathivanan, 1999). The decreased level of glucose and glycogen contents in the liver, muscle, intestine, kidney and brain of Channa punctatus exposed to phenyl mercuric acetate (Karuppasamy, 2000). Stressful situation in fish Channa punctatus elicits neuroendocirine response which in turn induces disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism (Sastry and Siddiqui, 1982) and this trend supports to the present results in declined glycogen levels in the kidney, brain and muscle of Oreochromis mossambicus when exposed to sublethal concentrations of chromium. A fall in the glycogen level clearly indicates its rapid utilization to meet the enhanced energy demands in fish exposed to toxicants through glycolysis or hexose monophosphate pathway. It is assumed that decrease in glycogen content may be due to the inhibition of hormones which contribute to glycogen synthesis. In conclusion, thus the chromium intoxication has disturbed the normal functioning of kidney, brain and muscle with alterations in the fundamental biochemical mechanism of fish. This study showed that heavy metal chromium altered the carbohydrate metabolism in Oreochromis mossambicus by affecting the levels of glycogen in kidney, brain and muscle due to impairments in energy requiring vital processes.
Show more

5 Read more

Effect of Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field on Glycogen Content in Vital Organs of the Fresh Water Fish, Rasboradaniconius (Hamilton, 1822)

Effect of Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field on Glycogen Content in Vital Organs of the Fresh Water Fish, Rasboradaniconius (Hamilton, 1822)

Abstract: Freshwater fish Rasboradaniconius was exposed to low frequency electromagnetic field (LF-EMF) for 7 and 15 days to estimate the glycogen content in vital organs. In the present study, it is found that, the significant decline (P<0.05) in glycogen content for 7 days exposure it was in order Brain< Heart< Testis< Ovary< Gills< Intestine< Muscles< Kidney< Liver viz. 07.5312 * ±0.1157< 12.0820 * ±0.0337< 18.8894 * ±0.1207< 27.5116 * ±1.7155< 32.3926 * ±0.5283< 33.7180 * ±0.0667< 40.7205 * ±0.1530< 41.7205 * ±0.0578< 48.1035 * ±0.1204 mg/100mg and for 15 days exposure it was Brain< Heart< Testis< Ovary< Gills< Intestine< Kidney< Muscles< Liver viz. 02.9995 * ±0.0333< 6.0656 * ±0.1204< 12.5255 * ±0.0883< 12.6413 * ±0.0883< 15.3217 * ±0.0333< 18.0792 * ±0.0334< 19.1398 * ±0.0883< 20.8079 * ±12.013< 21.6466 * ±0.0578 mg/100mg.Since, the LF-EMF exposure affects glycogen metabolism in various tissues of Rasboradaniconius.
Show more

7 Read more

Effects of Aerobic Exercise on the Intramuscular Lipid and Glycogen Content of Fiber Types in Soleus Muscles of Non Alcoholic Steatohepatitis Model Rats

Effects of Aerobic Exercise on the Intramuscular Lipid and Glycogen Content of Fiber Types in Soleus Muscles of Non Alcoholic Steatohepatitis Model Rats

We studied the effects of exercise on muscle mitochondria, and lipid and glycogen content in non- alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) model rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly separated into 3 groups: the control group was fed standard chow; the NASH group was fed a methionine- choline-deficient high-fat diet (MCD); the NASH-exercise group was fed the MCD and exercised three times a week. Exercise training consisted of continuous running for thirty minutes at a 13 m/min, 6˚ slope on a motor-driven rodent treadmill for 6 weeks. Mitochondria content in NASH group decreased in the both fiber types compared with those of the control group. As compared between the NASH and NASH-exercise groups, however, exercise not only promoted significant improvements in liver fibrosis and cirrhosis and triglyceride (TG) content but also increased mi- tochondria content in type I muscle fiber in particular. These data suggest that exercise improved hepatic steatosis in NASH model rats and can prevent the progression of NASH.
Show more

7 Read more

Ultrasonic assessment of exercise-induced change in skeletal muscle glycogen content

Ultrasonic assessment of exercise-induced change in skeletal muscle glycogen content

on their own bicycles using CompuTrainer Pro Model 8001 trainers (RacerMate, Seattle, WA). Muscle biopsy samples and ultrasound measurements were acquired pre- and post-exercise. Specific locations on the vastus lateralis were marked, and a trained technician used a 12 MHz linear transducer and a standard diagnostic high resolution GE LOGIQ-e ultrasound machine (GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI) to make three ultrasound measurements. Ultrasound images were pre-processed to isolate the muscle area under analysis, with the mean pixel intensity averaged from the three scans and scaled (0 to 100 scale) to create the glycogen score. Pre- and post-exercise muscle biopsy samples were acquired at the vastus lateralis location (2 cm apart) using the suction-modified percutaneous needle biopsy procedure, and analyzed for glycogen content.
Show more

7 Read more

EFFECT OF SEVIN ON THE GLYCOGEN CONTENT OF FRESH WATER SNAIL, THIARA LINEATA

EFFECT OF SEVIN ON THE GLYCOGEN CONTENT OF FRESH WATER SNAIL, THIARA LINEATA

The general decrease in the glycogen level as observed in the present investigation and recorded by other workers in different species may be due to the onset of hypoxic condition either at the organism level or in the vicinity of organ systems, as observed in copper toxicity (Balavenkatasubbaiah et al., 1984) in Tilapia mossambica as well as in Aldrin exposed Channa punctatus (Sastry et al., 1992); Endrin intoxication in Cerassius auratus (Grant and Mehrle, 1970); Endosulfan toxicity in Barytelphusa guerini(Reddy et al.,1991) and Channa Punctatus(Sastry and Siddiqui, 1982); Lindane intoxication in Heteropneustes fossilis (Srinivastava and Mistra, 1982) observed decreased glycogen content. Ramana Rao and Ramamurthi (1978) also found the decrease glycogen content in Sumithion exposed apple snail, Pila globossa. Similar results have observed by Patil et al.,(1993,1995) in Thiara lineata when exposed to Zolon, Endocel and Sevin; Chaudhari et al.,(1999) in Thiara lineata exposed to Rogar, Rao et al., (1995)in Indoplanorbis exustus exposed to Decis (Deltamethrin); Lomte and Waykar (2000) observed disturbance in glycogen profile was considered as one of the most remarkable biochemical change due to action of pesticide in the bivalve Parreyssia cylendrica.
Show more

9 Read more

Changes In Glycogen Content Of Brain In Starving Catfish Clarias Batrachus [Linn.]

Changes In Glycogen Content Of Brain In Starving Catfish Clarias Batrachus [Linn.]

The total glycogen content of brain was estimated to the calorimetric method of Kemp et al. (1954) as modified by Krishnaswamy & Srinivasan (1961). A weighted quantity of the brain tissue was homogenized in 5 ml of ice- cold 10% TCA in tissue homogenizer. The homogenate was centrifuged for 20 minutes at 500 x g. The sediment was rehomogenized in 5 ml TCA and centrifuged again. The supernatants of both the fraction were pooled. 2 ml of the supernatant was mixed with 6 ml of concentrated sulphuric acid. The tube was kept in a boiling water bath for 6.5 minutes. After the development of the colour, the optical density of the pink colour was measured in photoelectric colorimeter at 515 mµ filter. The glycogen content (mg/g wet weight) in the unknown sample was determined from standard curve which was drawn by taking glucose and was linear.
Show more

5 Read more

EXPOSURE OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES IN GLYCOGEN CONTENT TO FRESHWATER FISH “CYPRINUS CARPIO”

EXPOSURE OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES IN GLYCOGEN CONTENT TO FRESHWATER FISH “CYPRINUS CARPIO”

environmental stress in fish and it has been widely monitored to study stress in fish (Teles et al., 2003). In order to meet the high energy demand of stressed animals, glycogen which is rapidly available for energy production may be rapidly catabolized resulting in huge or less of its reserve (Ruparelia et al., 1997). Glycogen is the main source of energy for animals during normal metabolism and their content in muscle of fish exposed to chemical substances may indicate the health condition of the fish. They also reported that during unfavorable environmental situation the normal metabolism is affected which in turn leads to alteration in the glycogen reserve of fish. The significant increase in muscle glycogen content during sublethal lindane treatment may indicate an adaptation of fish to lindane toxicity or impairment in the carbohydrate metabolism (Saravanan et al., 2011). Sastry and Siddiqui (1984) reported that the muscle glycogen level was increased in quinalphos exposed fish indicating a decrease in the rate of glycogenolysis. In the present study also the significant decrease in muscle glycogen during acute and sublethal treatments indicates impairment in carbohydrate metabolism or a decrease in the rate of glycogenolysis. A very small concentration of Nanosilver provides greater effectiveness inside the body of fish Cyprinus carpio in the aquatic environment.
Show more

9 Read more

THE GLYCOGEN CONTENT OF HUMAN LEUKOCYTES IN HEALTH AND IN VARIOUS DISEASE STATES

THE GLYCOGEN CONTENT OF HUMAN LEUKOCYTES IN HEALTH AND IN VARIOUS DISEASE STATES

On the other hand, the low glycogen content of myeloid leukocytes in chronic myelocytic leukemia appears to be a consistent metabolic aberration in this disease while in polycythemia ver[r]

8 Read more

Effect of oat bran on time to exhaustion, glycogen content and serum cytokine profile following exhaustive exercise

Effect of oat bran on time to exhaustion, glycogen content and serum cytokine profile following exhaustive exercise

The oat bran is a nutritional search of dietary fiber, espe- cially soluble fiber and this nutriente may retard the absorption of nutrients by the intestinal villosities [38]. In this case, the glucose absorption metabolism had a modu- lation to lower and constant delivery to blood circulation and this could be responsible for a more efficient replace- ment of muscular glycogen during a longer recovery period [37,39,40]. There was a correlation between the low levels of glycogen and higer corticosterone and IL-6. During prolonged and exhausting physical exercises (dura- tion in excess of 90 minutes), the IL-6 has a close relation- ship with the amount of muscle glycogen and regulation of the homeostasis of blood glucose during long duration exercises. Muscular glycogen and blood glucose are the major sources of substrates for oxidative metabolism, and the immune depletion and fatigue coincides with their depletion, due to the low availability to the skeletal muscle and the central nervous system [41-45].
Show more

7 Read more

The Variation in Fat and Glycogen Content of the Bot Fly (Gastrophilus Intestinalis) Larva Tracheal Organ during Development

The Variation in Fat and Glycogen Content of the Bot Fly (Gastrophilus Intestinalis) Larva Tracheal Organ during Development

According to Dinulescu 1932 Gastrophilus larvae during the greater part of the third instar take very little, if any, nourishment; the progressive decrease in glycogen and the concomitan[r]

8 Read more

Glycogen Content and Release of Glucose from Red blood cells of the Sipunculan Worm Themiste Dyscrita

Glycogen Content and Release of Glucose from Red blood cells of the Sipunculan Worm Themiste Dyscrita

The coelomic red blood cells, or haemocytes, of the sipunculan worm Themiste dyscrita Fisher, 1952 were found to contain high concentrations of glycogen: the haemocytes accounted for app[r]

10 Read more

The Diurnal Variations in the Tissue Glycogen Content and Their Relation to Mitotic Activity in the Adult Male Mouse

The Diurnal Variations in the Tissue Glycogen Content and Their Relation to Mitotic Activity in the Adult Male Mouse

The diurnal variations in the bodily activity Bullough, 1948 and in the blood sugar concentration Bullough, 1949 a compared with those in the skin glycogen concentration and in the epide[r]

7 Read more

Multiple defects in muscle glycogen synthase activity contribute to reduced glycogen synthesis in non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

Multiple defects in muscle glycogen synthase activity contribute to reduced glycogen synthesis in non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

To define the mechanisms of impaired muscle glycogen synthase and reduced glycogen formation in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), glycogen synthase activity was kinetically analyzed during the basal state and three glucose clamp studies (insulin approximately equal to 300, 700, and 33,400 pmol/liter) in eight matched nonobese NIDDM and eight control subjects. Muscle glycogen content was measured in the basal state and following clamps at insulin levels of 33,400 pmol/liter. NIDDM subjects had glucose uptake matched to controls in each clamp by raising serum glucose to 15-20 mmol/liter. The insulin concentration required to half-maximally activate glycogen synthase (ED50) was
Show more

8 Read more

Glucose and glycogen metabolism in erythrocytes from normal and glycogen storage disease type III subjects

Glucose and glycogen metabolism in erythrocytes from normal and glycogen storage disease type III subjects

radioactivity from cellular glycogen. In the absence of the substrate a progressive shortening of outer branches occurred during incubation of intact glucogen-rich cells. Using cells from patients with type III glycogen storage disease, which have sufficient glycogen content to be analyzed by b-amylolysis, we demonstrated that the glucosyl units are first incorporated in the outer tiers, then transferred to the core where they tend to accumulate due to the

7 Read more

Mutations in the liver glycogen synthase gene in children with hypoglycemia due to glycogen storage disease type 0

Mutations in the liver glycogen synthase gene in children with hypoglycemia due to glycogen storage disease type 0

Patient 2 (family M). Female child L.M. was born in 1987 in Ore- gon. At age 5 she presented with fasting hypoglycemia and postpran- dial hyperglycemia. Her blood glucose levels rose from 2.7 to 22 mmol/liter after feeding. The glycogen content in a liver biopsy was low (Table I), whereas the activities of glucose-6-phosphatase, de- branching enzyme, total and active phosphorylase, fructose-1,6-bis- phosphatase, and fructose aldolase as well as the glucose-1-phosphate/ glucose ratio were all normal. GS activity was not measured, but the clinical picture together with the biochemical findings suggested GSD-0. Symptoms of hypoglycemia were prevented by ingestion of corn- starch. Her mental development has been slow. Her mother also de- velops hypoglycemia during prolonged fasting.
Show more

10 Read more

Glycogen in human peripheral blood leukocytes: I  Characteristics of the synthesis and turnover of glycogen in vitro

Glycogen in human peripheral blood leukocytes: I Characteristics of the synthesis and turnover of glycogen in vitro

Leukocyte suspensions containing 72-94% granulocytes were prepared essentially free of platelets and erythrocytes and consisted almost entirely of neutrophile granulocytes. Initial glycogen content averaged 7.36 ± 2.05 mg/10 9 neutrophiles. In a glucose-free medium glycogenolysis took place with glycogen losses averaging 38% in 2 hr. When adequate glucose was added to the medium, glycogen was resynthesized to the original level.

10 Read more

Show all 8623 documents...