Governance and Poverty Reduction

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Governance and Poverty Reduction in Thailand

Governance and Poverty Reduction in Thailand

Nanak Kakwani, et al. [22] urge that the relation among growth, inequality and poverty is complex and interde- pendent one. For a poverty reduction policy to be effect- tive, it is necessary to include an agenda that addresses both distributional concerns and poverty reduction, for they could lead to the enhancement of both economic growth and equity. It is suggested by Blaxall [23] that mere policy agenda per se may not be enough for poverty reduction efforts to be effective. The power to exercise such policy in a proper way is an essential component of any strategy for reducing poverty. Without good gov- ernance practice, power to be exercised through a coun- try’s economic, social, and political institutions would be abused, or exercised in weak or improper ways, those with least power—the poor—would be those most likely to suffer. Weak governance compromises the delivery of services and benefits to those who need them most; the influence of powerful interest groups biases policies, programs and spending away from the poor; and lack of property rights, police protection and legal services dis- advantages the poor and inhibits them from securing their homes and other assets and operating businesses. Thus poor governance generates and reinforces poverty and also subverts efforts to reduce it. Strengthening gov- ernance is an essential precondition to improving the lives of the poor.
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Good Governance and Poverty Reduction Relationship a case study of Nigeria

Good Governance and Poverty Reduction Relationship a case study of Nigeria

We attempt to discuss the results by analyzing the good-governance indicators within the estimated long run growth model. Considering the results in table 3 four indicators of governance were significantly integrated with growth suggesting that governance causes economic growth. But the apparent negative sign taken by these indicators suggest that there is no straight forward answer to the question, because what the negative sign is suggesting is that the conventional measures of governance are too coarse to capture the nuances of governance’s growth interactions under Nigerian situation. The main possible reasons why these indices appear with negative sign are because; as noted among others by Rodrik and Mukand (2005) good economic principles do not cheaply translate into unique institutional and governance solution, but rather require to be planted to particular economic and social context. This line of argument is also supported by Quibria (2006), that all dimension of governance are not necessary important for growth and poverty reduction at all stages of development. Other reasons, why the negative sign appear, may possibly because the good governance measures
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The impact of governance on poverty reduction : Are there regional differences in Sub saharan Africa ?

The impact of governance on poverty reduction : Are there regional differences in Sub saharan Africa ?

This article attempts to explore the relationship between governance and poverty reduction. Throughout this work, we have tried to clearly answer the following questions: What is the effect of governance indicators on poverty reduction in sub-Saharan Africa? In this framework, the basic assumption was the existence of a direct effect of governance on poverty reduction. The study of this hypothesis was formulated in a static model applied to the data available on the countries of sub-Saharan Africa between 1996-2016. The results of our regressions show that governance indicators have a positive and negative effect on poverty reduction in sub- Saharan African countries. This result implies that governance factors play an important role in poverty and the primary role of government effectiveness. The relationship between governance and poverty reduction varies by stage of development. But notes significant differences between African regions. This supports our contention that governance has more impact on poverty reduction in the poorer regions than in rich sub-Saharan Africa. For example, the relationship between government effectiveness and poverty reduction is positive and significant for Central and Eastern Africa, it is not significant in Southern Africa is negative and significant in west Africa.
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Governance and Poverty Reduction: Evidence from Newly Decentralized Indonesia

Governance and Poverty Reduction: Evidence from Newly Decentralized Indonesia

Corruption, as the opposite of good governance, is defined by the World Bank as the abuse of public office for private gain. Corruption scholar Robert Klitgaard hypothesizes that corruption is more likely to occur in an environment where officials have monopolistic control over state resources and a high level of discretion over who can gain access to those resources, while at the same time the mechanisms for holding these officials accountable for their actions are weak or non-existent. 6 It is widely recognized today as a symptom of poor governance and a major obstacle to poverty reduction efforts. While in the past, some argued that corruption could increase economic efficiency in countries with burdensome regulations and a dominant government role in the economy, 7 today most scholars studying corruption believe that it curbs economic growth, degrades social and political institutions, and hinders efforts toward poverty reduction. Especially for the poor, corruption could create adverse consequences for them, both directly and indirectly.
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Governance and Poverty Reduction in Nigeria

Governance and Poverty Reduction in Nigeria

Governance has become a key issue in the discourse on poverty. Governance provides the institutional, legal and political framework not only for the design of poverty reduction policies but also for the enhancement of the capacity of the poor to deal positively with and improve their material conditions. Governance ensures the participation of the poor in decisions that affects them and empowers them to get their views on the policy agenda (Adejumobi, 2006:3-4). In its “Poverty Report”, for the year 2000, the UNDP has noted the importance of governance as “the missing link” in the fight against poverty. Governments may write good plans for poverty reduction, raise revenue to implement such plans and even identify targets and yet fail to deliver anything tangible in terms of poverty-reduction. The “missing link” here is responsive and accountable institutions between anti-poverty efforts and poverty reduction. To get poverty reduction fully on the agenda of public policy, good governance is needed to enhance the capacity of the government to deliver and to be accountable for the resources at its disposal (Nyong’o, 2001:8).
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Have economic growth and the quality of governance contributed to poverty reduction and improved well being in African countries?

Have economic growth and the quality of governance contributed to poverty reduction and improved well being in African countries?

This study examines the impact of economic growth and quality of governance on poverty and well-being in African countries for the period 1996-2016. The static panel estimation method is used to estimate the equations. Although economic growth does not seem to have an effect on poverty, the results confirm that this growth leads to improved well-being in West Africa. Although corruption and the quality of regulation have been found to increase poverty, improving government efficiency appears to reduce levels of poverty. Similarly, the results also show that corruption and government effectiveness are associated with a deterioration of welfare, but the rule of law and the way and responsibility seem to improve well-being. This study shows that governance indicators in African countries address the issues of poverty and improving well-being. Economic growth has been cited as one of the main drivers of poverty reduction, and the persistent problem of poverty in African countries has raised doubts about the effectiveness of economic growth. Recent evidence has shown that growth in Africa has been accompanied by an increase in poverty. Increasing poverty can slow the improvement of well-being and create social unrest. The quality of governance can also influence the extent to which economic growth reduces poverty. This study shows that improvements in these institutional (government efficiency) and legal (rule of law) measures tend to decrease levels of poverty and increase well-being.
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Looking for Alternatives in Global Governance: Why Multi-Level Health Governance Is Not the Answer for Poverty Reduction

Looking for Alternatives in Global Governance: Why Multi-Level Health Governance Is Not the Answer for Poverty Reduction

The governance of poverty reduction has consistently received criticism for the practices, structures and presence of particular actors committed to alleviating extreme poverty, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. This criticism usually falls into one of the following categories: i) a general critique of foreign aid, predominantly by ex-employees of the World Bank; ii) blame the state; iii) blame the institutions; and iv) the failings of the good governance agenda as the main mechanism in which to achieve sustained poverty reduction. The first criticism is less about governance, but the presence of foreign aid as a strategy for alleviating poverty. This critique suggests that foreign aid – either bilateral or multilateral assistance to a country – does more harm that good, creating a dependency culture and less incentive for developing countries to engage in reforms. 1 A modification of this argument, is that there is too much aid, or that aid needs to be more selective and contribute to initiatives that are sustainable. 2 This line of argument suggests a need for less ‘charitable’ giving and more infrastructure-based and long-term credit initiatives for ‘the poor’ to work themselves out of poverty. 3 Thus the problem with poverty governance is that it relies heavily on foreign aid, most of which is mis-spent and lacks clear objectives or goals. Much of this critique has now been adopted by international aid agencies; whilst aid has not been suspended, the last twenty years have seen a shift towards more infrastructure and long-term seed investment strategies.
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Urban Governance and Poverty Reduction  in Uganda: Lessons from Foreign Aid Regime of Local Government Development Program

Urban Governance and Poverty Reduction in Uganda: Lessons from Foreign Aid Regime of Local Government Development Program

Government of Uganda implemented the Local Government Development Program (LGDP) be- tween 2000 and 2009 with support from multi-lateral and bi-lateral agencies. Unlike previous po- licies such as Structural Adjustment Programs (SAP’s) and Liberalization Policies, LGDP was de- signed to address poverty following a participatory approach. The participatory approach invol- ved improvement of service delivery where local communities identified, prioritized and imple- mented development projects. This approach ensured demand-driven service delivery with a per- formance assessment strategy through multi-level budget framework meetings organized to pri- oritize and evaluate the project outcomes. LGDP aligned with the overarching Poverty Eradication Action Plan policy by improving services delivery within the mandate of Local Governments. The services included health, education, street lighting, water supply, drainage, waste collection among others as provided for by the Local Governments Act. Funding was provided as Conditional and non-conditional grants released in each financial year for two grouped items of Local Develop- ment Grants (LDG) and Capacity Building Grants (CBG). This paper examines the fundamentals of participatory local development planning conceived as a people-centered approach in decision- making and how it contributed to development in Uganda. The paper also critiques the implica- tions of LGDP upon aid withdrawal and its implications on locally generated mobilization of re- sources for sustainability.
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Good governance in microcredit strategy for poverty reduction: focus on western Mindanao, Philippines

Good governance in microcredit strategy for poverty reduction: focus on western Mindanao, Philippines

The increased financial and technical support from the international donor community and the increased government investments in microcredit will help improve client analysis, social targeting, service delivery and monitoring and evaluation systems. These processes are aimed at increasing the participation of a larger number of partner organizations and beneficiaries. This also helps improve the delineation of responsibilities and accountabilities among governance partners while ensuring coordination and convenient access to information. Taken together, these are aimed at increasing the profitability of the MFIs as well as their microcredit programs and the income-generating livelihood activities of the impoverished but enterprising beneficiaries. Finally, the desired impact of microcredit could be attained via the government’s collaboration with civil society and the business sectors in providing more self-employment opportunities. These are aimed at increasing the income of the enterprising poor above the national poverty threshold.
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A new regulatory discipline : Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) in the framework of postcolonial international law and global governance

A new regulatory discipline : Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) in the framework of postcolonial international law and global governance

It locates the PRSP project in the context of contemporary global international law and considers its governance and postcolonial impact on third world state engagement with the internat[r]

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Devolution as a Means for Self governance: Its Potential for Poverty Reduction in Kenya

Devolution as a Means for Self governance: Its Potential for Poverty Reduction in Kenya

Abstract This study examined devolution which was introduced in Kenya at the beginning of 2013 with a view to establishing whether it was helping to reduce poverty as provided for in the Republic of Kenya Constitution (RoK, 2010). As is the case in other African countries, the majority of Kenyans are poor. We gathered data through desk reviews of relevant books, journal articles and reports and interviews with senior staff of Kakamega, Kisumu and Kajiado counties. It was evident that after abolishing Kenya’s independence (1963) devolved constitution termed “Majimbo” and establishing a highly centralized governance system, Kenya implemented several deconcentration measures which included the District Focus for Rural Development, Rural Development Grants and Rural Works Program aimed at facilitating decision making and allocation and use of resources in communities. These various efforts did not lead to improvement in the country’s poverty situation which stood at 56 per cent in the 1980s and 1990s. With the introduction of devolved funds such as the Constituency Development Fund (CDF) and the Local Authority Transfer Fund (LATIF) in 2003, the poverty situation had reduced gradually to 46 per cent at present. We have also shown that devolution which was introduced recently with more decision-making powers and resources had potential to ensure further reduction of poverty, especially at the county and household levels.
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Good Governance for Poverty Alleviation: the Case of Malaysia

Good Governance for Poverty Alleviation: the Case of Malaysia

Abstract: This paper addresses the issue of good governance for poverty alleviation, citing Malaysia as a case study. Malaysia has experienced sustainable growth along with impressive record of poverty reduction. This has been made possible through good governance and pragmatic pro-growth and distribution policies, strategies and programs for poverty alleviation which was implemented since the era of the New Economic Policy (NEP, 1971-1990), National Development Plan (1991-2000) and will be carried over to National Vision Plan (NVP, 2001-2010). The good governance incorporates an enabling policy framework for poverty alleviation which includes the supportive role of the state, effective delivery system embodying an efficient planning and implementation machinery, incorporating top-down and bottom-up processes of strategic planning, targeting and participation, effective implementation coordination, monitoring and evaluation. The public sector has to shoulder good governance by efforts to improve the public service delivery system to make it more efficient, transparent and accountable. Direct targeting of beneficiaries results from identification of the poor and hardcore poor by rural and urban strata and states, supported by a specialized delivery system of a microcredit program, minimizes leakages of poverty alleviation program’s allocations and benefits. Pragmatic pro-growth and distribution policies and strategies in 5-year development plans ensures effective poverty alleviation.
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Public Finance for Poverty Reduction: An Overview

Public Finance for Poverty Reduction: An Overview

lish the preconditions for markets to operate efficiently, correct for mar- ket failures, and improve social welfare. These difficulties are the result of many factors, including an uneven income distribution and a high per- centage of the population affected by severe poverty; a high degree of vulnerability to external shocks of all kinds (for example, natural disas- ters, world prices, and aid dependency); numerous, pervasive, and unpre- dictable market failures resulting from imperfect information, prevalence of monopolistic practices, and different kinds of negative externalities; a lack of appropriate incentives for the private sector to operate in terms of competition policy, regulatory framework, and the judiciary system; and government and institutional failures resulting from weak capacity and rigidities, as well as problems of credibility and governance.
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Political will; The cog in the wheel of disaster risk reduction policy and governance in kenya

Political will; The cog in the wheel of disaster risk reduction policy and governance in kenya

Good governance, in this context, manifests itself through leadership roles and community relations in the planning process characterized by: definition of objectives to be achieved by involving the community; identification of areas in the planning process, where and when community should participate; identification of relevant elements on community participation; techniques to be used to obtain and facilitate community participation and information to be provided to the community. Resource mobilization and allocation is perhaps the most concrete evidence of government commitment to disaster risk reduction. Good policies and plans may be in place, but without the necessary resources for implementation these will remain hollow commitments. Resource allocation poses a real challenge in situations where so many demands compete for limited resources. Insufficient capacity and weak governance structure, corruption and a weak national resource base may undermine development of innovative mechanisms for resource mobilization and the providing of task incentives. However, if governments identify disaster risk reduction as a priority, and re-arrange their national development priorities, resources can be identified for disaster risk reduction. Poverty reduction strategies afford such an opportunity to re-order priorities (ISDR,2002). On the other hand, resource mobilization is an area where regional and international institutions can play a critical role both in advocacy on behalf of poor countries or actually facilitating resource mobilization. Governments need to plug in these networks and use these regional and international mechanisms. The Kenya government needs to allocate financial, human and material resources to disaster risk management structures.
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Revisiting the Financial Development and Poverty Reduction Nexus for Sub-Saharan African Countries: Evidence from Causality Tests in the Time and Frequency Domains

Revisiting the Financial Development and Poverty Reduction Nexus for Sub-Saharan African Countries: Evidence from Causality Tests in the Time and Frequency Domains

Table 4 presents the causality test results in frequency domain. The results suggest bidirectional causality between financial development and poverty reduction for Cameroon in long run, and unidirectional causality from finance to poverty reduction for Gabon in long term. On the other hand, the causality from poverty reduction to financial development exists for Nigeria both in short and medium terms and for South Africa over the short, medium and long terms. This implies that improving the welfare of Nigerian and South African citizens has positive effect on the development of the financial sector. Therefore, policies that increase the income of the poor encourage them to save more with the banks. On the contrary, there is no evidence of causal relationship between financial development and poverty reduction in Ghana and Kenya, suggesting that the movements of financial development and poverty do not have significant impacts upon each other.
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An examination of the Impact of Financial Inclusion on Poverty Reduction: An Empirical Evidence from Sub- Saharan Africa.

An examination of the Impact of Financial Inclusion on Poverty Reduction: An Empirical Evidence from Sub- Saharan Africa.

Sub-Saharan Africa has been regarded the home of poverty, housing a large number of poorly, malnourish leading to varied social vises. This study examine the impact of financial inclusion on poverty reduction in forty nine Sub-Saharan African countries using data spanning the period of 1980 -2017, the study employ a static panel data model to analyze the data. It was found that savings, credits to the private sector as percentage of GDP, access to ATM, access to information Technology, Inflation, and Government expenditure play a vital role in poverty reduction, explaining 32.5, 11.7, 27.4, 49.1, 96.1, and 25.2 percent poverty reduction in the sub-region respectively. While interest rate and economic growth were found to increase poverty, explaining increase in poverty by 124 and 14.8 percent respectively. On the bases of the findings, the study concluded that financial inclusion is a viable tool for poverty reduction strategy in Sub-Saharan African countries. It was recommended that apex regulatory institutions should reduce the policy rate in order to induce low income earners access formal financial resources in addition to the re-introduction of rural banking scheme and affordable internet services in both urban and rural areas.
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Monitoring Poverty Trends in Ireland 2004 2007: Key Issues for Children, People of Working Age and Older People

MONITORING POVERTY TRENDS IN IRELAND 2004 2007: Key Issues for Children, People of Working Age and Older People RESEARCH SERIES NUMBER 17 AUGUST 2010

he  greatest  concern  for the  future evolution of  poverty rates  in  Ireland  is  the onset of economic recession in the second half of 2008. This has led to  a  significant  contraction  in  employment  and  a  sharp  increase  in  unemployment.  The  unemployment  rate  rose  from  4.9  per  cent  at  the  beginning  of  2008  to  over  12  per  cent  in  the  second  quarter  of  2009  (CSO,  2009b). The most recent  forecasts  suggest that unemployment  will  peak at 15  per cent in 2010 (Barrett et al., QEC Autumn, 2009). It is still unclear how deep  the  recession  will  go  and  how  long  it  will  last.  Initial  analysis  suggests  that  many familiar groups have a higher risk of unemployment during the current  recession,  such  as  those  with  low  qualifications,  young  people  and  non‐Irish  nationals. Figures  are  not yet  available on whether recent unemployment has  been  concentrated  amongst  households,  which,  as  the  analyses  in  this  report  show,  is  a  very  strong  trigger  for  poverty.  The  extent  to  which  people  who  have  recently  become  unemployed  will  remain  trapped  in  long‐term  unemployment is also an unanswered question, and  this  too has implications  for  the  level  of  economic  deprivation  and  consistent  poverty  in  society.  The  fact  that  the  level  of  indebtedness 46   which  households  had  taken  on  had 
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International Remittances and Poverty Reduction in Nigeria

International Remittances and Poverty Reduction in Nigeria

The study examined the impact of international remittances on poverty reduction in Nigeria. Using time series data on poverty incidence, inward and outward remittances, ODA and technical cooperation grants in Nigeria and applying the ARDL method in analyzing the data, the result indicates that: inward and outward remittances have diverse effects on poverty reduction in Nigeria in the short run. Also in the short run, inward remittances impact was significant while outward remittance was not. ODA and technical cooperation grants also have conflicting effect on poverty in the short run. In the long run, inward remittances intensified poverty while outward remittances, ODA and technical cooperation grants all reduced poverty incidence in Nigeria given their negative coefficients. All the explanatory variables were insignificant in the long run. Based on this result, the study recommended for investment in foreign countries in order to diversify the income source of the economy, create conducive atmosphere for inflow of grants and reduce bottlenecks that hinder inflows of foreign funds as possible ways of reducing poverty in Nigeria.
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Local fiscal policy and poverty reduction

Local fiscal policy and poverty reduction

Furthermore, Morocco has undertaken since 2000 to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and has made progress in achieving them. However, the MDGs pose a funding problem and raise theissue of fiscal policy. The objective of this work is to determine the effect of fiscal policy on the reduction of local development inequalities. This questioning is based on the interaction between local fina nce, fiscal policy instruments and local development.

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