referral center, each year we see approximately half a dozen cases of child abuse as severe as Infant Jane’s. For ⬎ 15 years, we had not been successful in either terminating parental rights to medical decision-mak- ing or petitioning for the withdrawal of life-sustain- ing interventions in cases of severe child abuse. We are aware of 1 adolescent patient in a convalescent facility who has been in a permanent vegetative state for more than a dozen years since he was severely beaten by his parents. For several years, while both parents were imprisoned for their role in his abuse, each medical decision required getting consent from both incarcerated parents. In most cases, of course, severely abused children do not survive for so long. The AAP’s recommendations regarding the deci- sion to forgo life-sustaining treatment in cases of severe child abuse are useful guidelines available to caretakers when confronted with such difficult cases. They remind us to focus on the medical issues of victims of severe child abuse as one would any sim- ilarly critically injured child and to seek the appoint- ment of a guardian ad litem and judicial involvement when necessary to resolve intractable conflicts around life-sustaining interventions for any child.
An anonymous Internet survey was used in a cross sectional non-equivalent comparison group design. The assessment was cross sectional, measuring employees at one point in time, and contextual because the assessment was of one statewide Guardian ad Litem program. The non-equivalent comparison group design allowed us to examine differences with a random sample of social workers in Kentucky (n=203). The social workers in the comparison group worked in diverse setting across the state in urban and rural areas in mental health (31%), with children and families (21%), older adults (13%), and much smaller percentages in private practice, school based services, addictions, and faith based settings.
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measurement/taxation, but the evidence available to me does not substantiate the Local Health Manager's view. Indeed, I note that the Local Health Manager wrote to the Irish Guardian Ad Litem & Social Work Service in June 2007 seeking to establish the up to date position in respect of closed cases within the former NAHB area, which he said was to enable measurement proceedings to be instituted in line with a previous commitment given. I fully accept that the actual cost of referring a case for taxation can be rather substantial, and may far exceed the disputed GAL costs. This may have been a deterring factor for the area boards in the past, and from a value for money viewpoint, but it was all the more reason why meaningful and fair negotiations should have been undertaken with the service providers with regard to the rates issue.
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• help the asylum officer or immigration court to reach a decision in the case that is appropriate to the child’s circum- stances, keeping in mind that such decisions must also com- port to the requirements of U.S. immigration and asylum law. Ideally, child welfare professionals would function as guardians ad litem. It is critical that the role of the guardian ad litem be distinct and separate from that of the child’s attorney, who is charged with representing the child in immigration court and seeking relief that is in keeping with the child’s expressed interests. However, in order to ensure that the best interests of the child are addressed, to the maximum extent possible, the guardian must work closely with the child’s at- torney. Through such collaboration, the chances that a deci- sion is reached in the child’s proceedings that is truly in keeping with the child’s interests will be maximized. More- over, it is likely that effective participation of the guardian in the court proceedings will render such proceedings more effi- cient and therefore lead to a faster resolution of the child’s case. The need for government-funded counsel and guardians ad litem has been recognized by EOIR. It is a concept that has also been embraced by key members of the U.S. Congress, who have introduced legislation that would provide such assistance to children as well as transfer custody of the children away from the INS to a new Office of Children’s Services. 38
ABSTRACT. A decision to forgo life-sustaining medi- cal treatment (LSMT) for a critically ill child injured as the result of abuse should be made using the same cri- teria as those used for any critically ill child. The parent or guardian of an abused child may have a conflict of interest when a decision to forgo LSMT risks changing the legal charge faced by a parent, guardian, relative, or acquaintance from assault to manslaughter or homicide. If a physician suspects that a parent or guardian is not acting in a child’s best interest, further review and con- sultation should be sought in hopes of resolving the conflict. A guardian ad litem who will represent the child’s interests regarding LSMT should be appointed in all cases in which a parent or guardian may have a conflict of interest.
From the data in Table 4, it is deducible that the newspapers did not publish heavily on political issues and that even though Vanguard newspaper outranked The Guardian in that regard, the balance is still not tipped in fa- vour of robust political reporting. The data show that political news coverage was not given adequate attention in the two national dailies as only a minor fraction of editorial content was allotted to political issues. And while the researchers recognise that the relative imbalance might be an editorial policy of each medium concerned, it is regrettable that these newspapers published little of the less appealing aspects of governance perhaps due to the strong influence of government on the economic fortunes of these dailies. This situation accounts for the tendency of reporting only what the government would rather have the people know, leaving out the equally crucial but unpopular aspects of governance, thus conjuring a pseudo-partnership between the government and the press. The result of the field study in Table 3 also confirms the finding in Table 2 which shows that the press in Nigeria has not given adequate coverage to political issues and that this has affected the political process in several ways. Because of lack of sufficient coverage of political issues of the press, people are not stimulated to regard political participation as a matter of concern to the citizens. This, therefore, means that the political consciousness among the ordinary citizens is very low which ultimately translates into a weak demo- cratic foundation in the country.
Another limitation in Sensor Guardian is that, currently, we only implemented several simple control policies in Sensor Guardian. Though these policies are effective, they may be inflexible and unintelligent, which may incur false positive when controlling some legitimate apps. In the future, we are going to propose and support other flexible and intelligent polices in Sensor Guardian. For example, User Select policy is still simple and rough. Users may not make correct and precise control on apps’ access to sensors. We are working to give users correct recommen- dations and guides on how to decide control policies for protecting their privacy. Also, we are working to auto- matically analyze how apps use sensors and distinguish between malicious behaviors and normal functionalities. All these works require analysis on the semantics of apps, especially on the computation that sensor data takes part in. In the future, we will add such semantics analysis to Sensor Guardian.
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From the above discussions some points came into light. Firstly, generally, a woman could be guardian of a child as a mother but only in absence of the father. In the presence of the father she did not have any such right. Secondly, under some Muslim Laws also she as a mother did not have any such right but only had right to custody. When both father and mother were equally important for family then they must have equal rights. But it was not so. Only in some cases female as mother had some limited right to be guardian of her minor children but not full right or equal to that of father. The provisions of Punjab Laws Act made some positive changes towards making female as an independent master of her own. Buton the other hand child marriage was a restriction in her path. But it could not be denied that she had a few right. Even under Hindu and Muslims Law also she had a few rights in exceptional cases, but these were limited. There was a need to make some radical change by the British administrators but because of political expediency they hesitated to do so.
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All team members need to have a clear understanding of their own and everyone else’s roles in the project: what needs doing, how and by whom. Members also need to have a clear understanding of the ground rules adopted by the team, and communication of these roles and rules is important at the initial stages of a project (Burdman 1999). Hartley (1997) suggests that communication is often ad hoc, unless ground rules are drawn up at the beginning. Williams (2002) also suggests that teams should establish similar values at the beginning, to encourage high levels of trust and respect, and should agree how to deal with task conflict in the middle stages. The importance of ground rules in collaborative knowledge sharing, managing personalities and monitoring and maintaining teams was emphasised by other researchers (Groesbeck and Van Aken 2001; Bock et al. 2006; Driskell et al. 2006). Although Patterson et al. (2005) studied sports teams, they did find a close correlation between cohesion and performance. In particular social norms rather than task related norms were found to help cohesion and performance, but in information systems teams Bahli and Buyukkurt (2005) found that task related norms were more significant than social related norms. Similar results by Liang et al. (2007), on information systems development teams in Taiwan, found that knowledge diversity leading to increased task conflict, which positively affected performance, whereas value diversity led to increased relationship conflict which had a negative effect on performance.
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But the true value of the monkey's character as a guardian of African tradition lies in his skill of creating confusion between the figurative and the literal. Gates calls the equivalent of trickster god in African-American culture the Signifying Monkey. The attribute of signifying was derived from Gates's perception of the meaning of the monkey, not only in the narratives, but in the African-American language in general. He says: “Signification“, in standard English, denotes the meaning that a term conveys, or is intended to convey. It is a fundamental term in the standard English semantic order. Since Saussure, at least, the three terms signification, signifier, signified have been fundamental to our thinking about general linguistics and, of late, about critism specifically. These neologisms in the academic – critical community are homonyms of terms in the black vernacular tradition perhaps two centuries old. By supplanting the received term’s associated concept, the black vernacular tradition created a homonymic pun of the profoudest sort, thereby making its sense of difference from the rest of the English community of speakers.“ (1988: 46-47)
Family-related factors for comparison included family type, financial status, educational pattern, and guardian, as well as guardian factors (gender, age, occupation, educational level, health, and marital status of guardians). As cases were limited concerning certain variates, integration was adopted while performing the chi-square test. The family types of single par- ent and reconstituted families were integrated. Similarly, the educational patterns of violence and indulgence/indifference, guardians of relatives and oneself and siblings, and the marital status of guardians (divorce, separation, and remarriage) were integrated. As a result, the differences in family type, financial
It is hypothesized that carcinogens may have their ini- tial effect by “reprogramming” methionine metabolism, in particular transmethylation. Such carcinogens include chemicals as well as infectious agents such as SV-40 virus and H. pylori. It is remarkable that all types of cancers tested are found to be methionine dependent , which is perhaps the only known general metabolic abnormality in cancer . This methionine metabolism “reprogramming” results in global [5, 6] and gene- specific  DNA hypomethylation, another general de- fect in cancer, which in turn leads to aneuploidy, another general defect in cancer which in turn leads to cancer “speciation.” Vogelstein et al.  reported that inactiva- tion of p53 did not lead to aneuploidy. Thus, it seems that the genome has another “guardian”, DNA methyla- tion is a likely candidate, and when it is perturbed, the genome destabilizes leading to aneuploidy and cancer . Please see (Additional file 1).
In modern European societies knowledge of guardian dogs was lost where large predators had been eradicated. As a result, this knowledge was not imparted to the majority of cultures colonised by Europeans, with the exception of some Spanish colonies in South America. Spain had retained its large predators, and LGDs were still in use there. In the U.S.A. LGDs were initially only used on a small scale by some individuals familiar with the concept, but large scale interest developed in the 1970’s, after a Presidential ban on the use of predator toxicants (e.g. strychnine, compound 1080) on federal lands in 1972 (Moehrenschlager et al., 2004, Pfeifer and Goos, 1982, McGrew and Blakesley, 1982). Everywhere where predators persisted in Europe, so did the tradition of using dogs to guard livestock, and from there several breeds of LGDs were imported into the U.S.A. (Coppinger and Coppinger, 2001). From the U.S.A., LGDs have recently spread to Canada, parts of South America, Africa, Australia and back to Europe as the need for them has returned with the restoration of large predators to parts of their former ranges (Gehring et al., 2010a, Rigg, 2001, Landry, 1999).
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Perhaps the lengthy hospitalization af- ter HSCT (typically on the order of $ 30 days) might be used to educate B.K. regarding the importance of compli- ance. It is also important to remember that B.K. has a potential ally in the psychiatric nurse who is considering becoming his temporary guardian. On discharge from a transplant unit, chil- dren often need to be in close proximity to the hospital for ongoing care. In- stead of returning home, many chil- dren temporarily live at a Ronald McDonald House or similar facility. Thus, staying in a Ronald McDonald House can serve dual purposes. First, by virtue of being in a stable and trusted facility, the transplant team can feel better about B.K. ’ s post-HSCT course. Second, this time can afford B.K. and the nurse an opportunity to strengthen their relationship outside the psychiatry unit, in a safe and neu- tral environment.