This research briefing considers a number of factors related to the socioeconomic gap in access to ‘high status’ institutions in the United Kingdom and the United States. It begins by placing these countries in a broad cross-national context in terms of social mobility, socio-economic disparities in educational attainment, the link between family background and access to higher education, university dropout rates and the financial rewards of completing a tertiary qualification. The paper then considers the chances of young people from disadvantaged backgrounds entering a ‘high status’ institution and the extent to which differences between socio-economic groups can be explained by measured academic ability up to age 18. The cost of going to an elite university is then compared across England and United States for children from families with differing levels of household income. To conclude, a series of case studies describes a number of university access schemes running in countries around the world.
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We have based our model of interpersonal attitude on the work of Argyle and Mehrabian. Though there is an enormous variety in the way that people can relate to each other Argyle identiﬁes two fundamental dimensions that can ac- count for a majority of non-verbal behaviour, aﬃliation and status. Aﬃliation can be broadly characterised as liking or wanting a close relationship. It is as- sociated with close postures, either physically close such as leaning forward or other close interaction such as a direct orientation. Low aﬃliation or dislike is shown by more distant postures, including postures that present some sort of barrier to interaction, such as crossed arms. Status is the social superiority (dom- inance) or inferiority (submission) of one person relative to another. It also cover aggressive postures and postures designed to appease an aggressive individual. Status is expressed in two main ways, space and relaxation. A high status can be expressed by making the body larger (rising to full height, wide stance of the legs) while low status is expressed with postures that occupy less space (lowering head, being hunched over). People of a high status are also often more relaxed, being in control of the situation, (leaning, sitting and asymmetric postures) while lower status people can be more nervous or alert (ﬁdgeting, e.g. head scratch- ing). The meaning of the two types of expression are not fully understood but Argyle suggests that space ﬁlling is more associated with establishing status or aggressive situations while relaxation is more associated with an established heirarchy.
The results from column three are striking. By 3 years after graduation, and allowing for other factors that influence occupation, there is a large statistically significant socio-economic gap in the likelihood of securing a role in the highest status occupations. Individuals from a family with a higher socio-economic status are more likely to work in the highest status occupations. By contrast, those who originate from areas with low HE participation and who attended state schools are significantly less likely to secure such occupations. The magnitude of these effects are such that an individual who has a parent who is a manager and who attended a private school is around 7 percentage points more likely to enter the highest status occupations. The results by gender imply that the social gradient in the likelihood of securing a high status occupation is much steeper for males. Thus male graduates from a managerial background who attended a private school are around 10 percentage points more likely to enter the highest status occupations (SOC Group 1). To provide some sort of comparison, one might note that males are around 2.3 percentage points more likely to achieve a high status occupation 3 years after graduation as compared to females. Black graduates are 2.7 percentage points less likely to enter a high status occupation than their white peers and Scottish domiciled students are 4 percentage points less likely.
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As anticipated, high status athletes had the highest mean scores, followed by low status athletes, and non-athletes for each TPB variable with the exception of subjective norms, on which low status athletes scored slightly higher than high status athletes. Mean scores for physical activity variables (i.e., moderate, vigorous, and total) indicated that the overall sample participated in physical activity an average of 7.02 time blocks per day. High status athletes had the highest mean total physical activity per day (M = 7.65), followed by non-athletes (M= 6.69) and non-starters (M= 6.33). Moderate physical movement levels followed a rather different pattern of consequences with non-athletes engaging in the most amount of activity at this level (M= 4.69) followed by low status (M= 3.69) and high status athletes (M= 3.57). Finally, the opposite pattern occurred for energetic physical activity, with high status athletes having the highest mean (M= 4.08), followed by low status athletes (M= 2.65) and non-athletes (M= 2.00).
Population growth in relation to food security determinants namely food availability, food accessibility and food absorption are explored and mapped in relation to population growth. Total of 13 indicators are used to explore these food security determinants. Composite map of food availability and population growth give high availability in Talasari. Vasai and Vikramgad respectively and low in Mokhada tehsil. Composite map of food accessibility and population growth give the high status of food accessibility in Palghar, Dahanu and Talasari while low in Vikramgad, Jawhar and Mokhada respectively. Status of food absorption and population growth through composite map gives high absorption in Vasai and Talsari while low in Jawahar, Vikramgad and Mokhada. Cumulative status of food security and population growth gives high food security in Dahanu and Talasari while low in Jawhar, Mokhada and Vada. Rank correlation among population growth and food security determinants indicate mere socio-economic accessibility is not sufficient to achieve food security without proper consideration of food availability and food absorption aspects.
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Scholars have known the importance of good relationships with suppliers and the competitive advantage that can result from it, for quite some time. When supplier and buyer commit to a strong relationship, they are able to create value, which could not be created by neither of the two independently (Zajac & Olsen, 1993, p. 137) and are able improve each other’s performance (Monczka, Petersen, Handfield, & Ragatz, 1998, p. 567). Other possible benefits are better service support, reduced time to market (Ulaga & Eggert, 2006, p. 122), better prices, improved reputation, access to new markets (Nollet et al., 2012, p. 1189) and access to resources (Schiele & Vos, 2015, p. 144). But these benefits can only be reaped when the buying firm receives a preferential treatment through holding a preferred customer status. Achieving a preferred customer status is becoming more and more important, because firms are not only reducing the number of their suppliers, but also reducing the number of potential alternative suppliers (Carter, Slaight, & Blascovich, 2007, p. 47), while increasing outsourcing of key activities (Nollet et al., 2012, p. 1191). This leads to oligopolistic supply market structures. These allow suppliers to make use of their relative bargaining power, which is defined as “the set of alternatives available alternatives to them [the buyers]” (Lavie, 2007, p. 1193). Therefore, a preferred customer status is of high significance when striving for a competitive advantage, especially when the number of appropriate suppliers is rare (Routroy & Routroy, 2016, pp. 1171-1172; Schiele, Veldman, & Hüttinger, 2011, p. 18; Steinle & Schiele, 2008, p. 11). Achieving a preferred customer status is influenced by supplier attractiveness and supplier satisfaction (Schiele et al., 2012, p. 1180). Research about the latter is still at a very early stage (Meena & Sarmah, 2012, p. 1237) and is going to be the focus of this paper. Besides that, emphasis will be put on the influence of a company’s status on the benefits and treatment the company receives. Status is determined according to a socially constructed ordering or ranking (Stern, Dukerich, & Zajac, 2014, p. 513) or can be defined as the degree of centrality an organization has within a network (Sauder, Lynn, & Podolny, 2012, p. 274). Through a high status companies may be able to distinct themselves from the competition and receive preferential treatment (Podolny, 2010, p. 5). This has led to the following question.
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3 compared to agents with lower status 6 and this is a crucial feature of this model. In this framework we show that for low outside option and “incentive conscious” 7 agents of moderately high status, increased status leads to lower incentive pay, whereas exactly the opposite happens for agents with higher outside option. These results also hold for agents whose valuation of both fixed wage and incentive changes with differing status. For “incentive conscious” agents with very high status such that the limited liability doesn’t bind, an exogenous increase is status level leads to an unambiguous decrease in optimal incentive payment. Thus this paper makes an attempt to characterize how the optimal incentive scheme varies in response to exogenous change in the status level of agents. The point worth mentioning is that in essence for lower- outside option and for agents with very high status our result is different from Auriol and Renault (2008) where they show that high performance reward goes to the agent with higher status, whereas we get back their result in case of higher outside option. But while analyzing the results one should also remember the fundamental difference that in our paper status is not conferred as an incentive whereas in their paper status is conferred as a non-monetary incentive.
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Abstract- In this study we investigate the current status of physical education Curriculum in Sudanese High Secondary schools. The main tools for collecting data in this research are analyzing educational polices, Questionnaires and Interviews. Our questionnaire form contains 5 parts for our most important 18 items, and the sample size are 60 forms. The Cranach alpha coefficient for identification equals to 0.8570 which confirms the stability of resolution and suitability for use. The Statistical Software (SPSS) also used for analyzing our questionnaire data. We found that the main problem facing physical education and sport activities in Sudanese High Secondary schools is the absence of the special physical educations curriculum. In addition to that, the shortage in the textbook of physical education, and the scarcity of the physical education teachers at high schools.
In line with our finding Kennedy (1994a) analysis on child health and morbidity rates in several countries including the Gambia, Rwanda, Kenya, Malawi, Philippines and Guatemala found that there is no clear evidence that agricultural commercialization has an adverse effect on child nutrition. Another point of argument on health impacts of commercialization refers to the higher labour demand of commercial crops as reducing the household time spent on child care, particularly by women (Kennedy and Cogill 1987). Generally, the food security status of commercialized farm households is influenced by both household-level technological changes that permit increased food crop production on limited resources, and the meso and macro level environment consisting of marketing conditions, market prices, rural infrastructure, and access to credit (Immink and Alarcon 1993). The macro-level factors influence the level of income a commercialized household can earn and market prices that influence the household income – consumption linkage, whereas household-level technological changes could help to secure food self-sufficiency under a risky food-market environment.
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JAN-FEB 2016, VOL-3/22 www.srjis.com Page 1692 From above result we conclude that the co-relationship between emotional intelligence and socio-economic status is significant positively .The emotional intelligence of teacher educators is high of those having high Socio-Economic Status. The teacher educators having high Socio-Economic Status is manage their emotions because they have good quality of life in terms of family income, parents’occupation and their culture. The high Socio-Economic Status helpand manage their own feelings well and who read and deal effectively with other people's feelings is at an advantage in any domain of life which help to increase their emotional intelligence, on the other hand emotional intelligence positively influences such as the chance for social or economic advancement, influence on policy, availability of resources, and prestige of the primary occupation i.e.for Socio- Economic Status
Abstract: Drug molecules transformed into nanoparticles or endowed with nanostructures with or without the aid of carrier materials are referred to as “nanomedicines” and can overcome some inherent drawbacks of free drugs, such as poor water solubility, high drug dosage, and short drug half-life in vivo. However, most of the existing nanomedicines possess the drawback of low drug-loading (generally less than 10%) associated with more carrier materials. For intravenous administration, the extensive use of carrier materials might cause systemic toxicity and impose an extra burden of degradation, metabolism, and excretion of the materials for patients. There- fore, on the premise of guaranteeing therapeutic effect and function, reducing or avoiding the use of carrier materials is a promising alternative approach to solve these problems. Recently, high drug-loading nanomedicines, which have a drug-loading content higher than 10%, are attracting increasing interest. According to the fabrication strategies of nanomedicines, high drug-loading nanomedicines are divided into four main classes: nanomedicines with inert porous material as carrier, nanomedicines with drug as part of carrier, carrier-free nanomedicines, and nanomedicines following niche and complex strategies. To date, most of the existing high drug- loading nanomedicines belong to the first class, and few research studies have focused on other classes. In this review, we investigate the research status of high drug-loading nanomedicines and discuss the features of their fabrication strategies and optimum proposal in detail. We also point out deficiencies and developing direction of high drug-loading nanomedicines. We envi- sion that high drug-loading nanomedicines will occupy an important position in the field of drug-delivery systems, and hope that novel perspectives will be proposed for the development of high drug-loading nanomedicines.
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In the past years, high-power diplexers have become of growing interest for applications in ECRH systems. Different variants  have been investigated, and especially ring resonator diplexers  have demonstrated high versatility. The example of the 170 GHz/24 MW ITER ECRH system , where the power can be switched between the equatorial launcher (EL) and the upper launchers (UL) by waveguide switches, illustrates the many options. If the mechanical switches were replaced by four-port resonant diplexers, the power could be (i) arbitrarily distributed between the launchers according to the physics needs by simply tuning the resonance frequency, while the gyrotrons run continuously. For synchronous NTM stabilization , a gyrotron voltage modulation synchronous to the rotation frequency of the islands together with a proper tuning of the diplexer would (ii) strongly amplify the amplitude modulation in the UL and thus yield high stabilization efficiency. In this context, the mode purification characteristics of the resonator could (iii) improve the focussing and reduce the possible beam squint of the UL. The filtering of very-high-order modes would (iv) reduce the thermal loading of the sensitive cuffs of the vacuum windows in the UL as well as in the EL. A
Peaches can be grown in sandy soil with sufficient irrigation and good fertilization. Heavy, clay, damp and cold soils cause damage to good hard-nosed glued shoots of growing trees and from winter cold (Guven and Gur, 2002; Anonymous, 2008; Williamson and Crocker, 2000). Chlorosis seen in peach trees is caused by high soil pH, lime and active lime content of the soils. Chlorosis in peach cultivation is reported to start with over 12% active lime. The optimum pH is between 6.0 and 7.0 for peaches (Brohi, 1991 and Mortvedt, 1991). Chlorosis sensitivity increases or decreases depending on genetic differences. The peach-almond hybrid GF677 rootstocks are resistant to chlorosis while Nemaguard is sensitive (Romera et al., 1991). The optimum nutrient levels of peach leaves have been summarized by Reuther and Robinson (1986), Leece et al. (1971), Leece (1976), and Shear and Faust (1980). The purpose of this study was to determine the nutritional status and problems of nectarines in the district of Lapseki in Turkey.
Therefore, overall this study has demonstrated direct agreement in 91% of cases and a plau- sible explanation for a further 6%. This leaves only 3% discordance between self-assessment and clinical assessment of photographs. This result showing 97% agreement between self-as- sessment and investigator assessment is in direct contrast to studies conducted in Africa where agreement can be as low as 50%. The authors believe that the high level of agreement be- tween self-report and investigator recordings in this study could be due to the higher awareness among PNG men of MC and foreskin cutting practices. It is possible that men in PNG discuss MC and foreskin cutting as these practices have a long cultural tradition in some regions and
Background: Dental caries is the most common dental health problem caused by the interaction of bacteria on tooth enamel. Risk factors for dental caries include salivary composition and inadequate fluoride. However, other factors, such as standard of living, behavior, hygiene, eating habits, social status and socio-demographic factors, also contribute to the evolution of caries. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of dental caries and associated factors among patients attending the dental clinic in Debre Tabor General Hospital in North West Ethiopia.
Table 3 above shows respondents’ appreciation ofthe extent to which their parental career influences their career aspirations. In response to item one, 21% of the respondents agreed that their parents had a good occupation, 14% strongly agreed, 34% disagreed, 27% strongly disagreed while the remaining 4% remained neutral. In response to item two, a large majority (68%)affirmed that they loved their parents’ career and it inspired them, only 30% were negative, while a meagre 1% remained neutral. In response to item six, only 37% of them would want to have anything to do with their parents’ career because their parents always struggled financially, 54% were negative while 4% were indifferent. Therefore, most kids preferred to follow the career of their parents rather than their dreamed careers. This appreciation means that the occupations of parents would have significant impact on children’s career aspirations. It also applies that other factors (counselling, peer influence, parents’ education, and parents’ economic status) play a determinant role. Therefore, most kids preferred to follow the career of their parents rather than their dreamed careers.
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In a study conducted by Cam and Isbulan (2012) with pre-service teachers, it was found that the addiction of males on Facebook, which is one of the social media tools, is high, resulting in a decrease in their academic achievement, creating negative effects on their productivity and business performance. Yilmazsoy and Kahraman (2017) and Tutgun-Unal and Deniz (2016) reported that female students use social media more effectively than male students. Ko, Yen, Chen, Chen and Yen (2005) stated that male students use the internet for game.
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It has been well documented that malaria in Afghani- stan is endemic to areas that are below 2000 m asl although episodes of P. falciparum malaria may occur in areas above 2400 m asl . The presence of An. stephensi and An. superpictus at high altitudes (up to 2900 m asl) in Ghazni is therefore not surprising and highlights the distribution of the vectors to a variety of environmen- tal conditions. With the exception of rice fields in Nan- garhar, the three dominant species identified in this study (An. superpictus, An. culicifacies and An. stephensi) were collected from freshwater breeding site and ponds. As larvae collections were performed during 2–3 weeks suc- cessively in each province, the relative representation of Anopheles species in each of the provinces may well vary during the malaria transmission season.
The clinical examination and self-perceived assessment questionnaires were compared for sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and overall pro- portions. It has been suggested that sensitivity and specif- icity should be considered together and only when both are high the measure is of adequate validity . Predic- tive values of positive and negative tests are influenced by the prevalence of the disease in the population, in which the test is performed, so that the lower the prevalence, the lower the predictive value of a positive test will be . Perceived oral health status in the present study was found to be of high specificity (0.83 for dental caries status and 0.83 for periodontal status), but low sensitivity (0.34 for dental caries status and 0.28 for periodontal status). Addi- tionally, self-perceived oral health status was found to be of moderate positive predictive value and negative predic- tive value for dental caries status (0.68 and 0.54 respec- tively) and of very low positive predictive value and very high negative predictive value for periodontal status (0.05 and 0.97 respectively. Pitiphat et al. , who employed several threshold points for self-report measure of perio- dontal disease found low sensitivity values of 17.7%- 64.7%, and high specificity values of 59.8% – 90.7%, sim- ilar to the results of the present study.
Based on the salient findings, the researchers, therefore, conclude that the status of Science laboratory in a junior public high school in Calamba City needs immediate action as a school laboratory is essential to the holistic development of a learner as it involves multiple tasks to understand complex concepts. To achieve these, quality in- struction should be given to students including Science laboratory as it is said to have distinctive and central role in the Science curriculum and Science educators have suggested that many benefits accrue students in the Science laboratory activities [Hofstein and Lunetta, 2004; Tobin 1990; Hodson, 1993; Lazarowitz and Tamir, 1994; Garnett et al., 1995; 26 in Hamidu, Ibrahim, & Mohammed, (2014)]. Inadequate laboratory equipment and materials and mis- match number of laboratory rooms and its furniture against a big population of students hinder the teachers to let students perform Science experiments. Absence of laboratory assistant, safety and procedures inside a laboratory, training of teachers in Science experiments and proper handling of equipment and materials, and maintenance in- cluding equipment calibration contribute to the current condition of Science laboratory. Lack of budget of the Philip- pine government to this kind of venture makes the whole system suffer - teachers, students, curriculum, and quality education. Changes made in the K to 12 curriculum such as spiral progression, grading system, and a number of hours allotted to Science subjects also add up to the challenges met by teachers with regards Science laboratory. 4. Recommendations
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