Indigenous Higher Education policy

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Northern Territory Indigenous Higher Education Policy Review: Final Report

Northern Territory Indigenous Higher Education Policy Review: Final Report

The results confirmed the evolution in national and subsequent NT government higher education policy approaches from assimilation in the 1960s; to self-determination in the 1970s and early 1980s; to access, participation and equity in the late 1980s and 1990s; and finally achieving ‘outcomes’ from 2000 onwards. Charles Darwin University (CDU) and Batchelor Institute of Indigenous Tertiary Education (BIITE) – as the two institutions primarily responsible for higher education in the NT – were initially guided by national higher education policy directions in their strategies around Indigenous higher education. In particular, they focused on Indigenous teacher training and putting in place access and support measures such as bridging courses and academic support. Changes were implemented in the 1990s within the Vocational Education and Training (VET) and higher education industries that increased competition between providers and therefore the need for accountability. The investments of both CDU and BIITE in Indigenous higher education after this time appear to have been more strongly driven by socio-economic forces, such as ensuring financial sustainability, than policy at the national level. It was also found that success in Indigenous student enrolment and completion outcomes at CDU and BIITE was influenced more by discipline-specific strategies than particular Indigenous higher education policy initiatives. Historically, there have been several attempts for collaboration between CDU and BIITE, although these have been individual- or project-based. The two institutions are well- placed to work in partnership on policy and research initiatives in an ongoing way to counteract the absence of formalised NT-specific Indigenous higher education policy structures.
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A historical overview of responses to Indigenous higher education policy in the NT: Progress or procrastination?

A historical overview of responses to Indigenous higher education policy in the NT: Progress or procrastination?

in line with national self-determination policy at the time (Darwin Community College, 1973). Successful completion of this training at the time led to attainment of an Aboriginal Schools Teaching Certificate, which qualified students to teach in remote schools only. The School of Australia Linguistics (SAL) was also established when Darwin Community College was set up in 1974. Bilingual education was part of the bigger picture of Aboriginal people’s need to control their own lives, to express their identities, and to shape their communities through their own aspirations (Devlin, Disbray, & Devlin, 2017). Units delivered by SAL became an integral part of teacher training at Darwin Community College and the Aboriginal Teacher Education College, equipping teachers with the skills they needed to learn, and to most effectively communicate and educate their own students. The push for adult vocational training opportunities by the Department of Employment and Youth Affairs led to Darwin Community College opening offices for adult education delivery in Katherine and Nhulunbuy in the late 1970s (Darwin Community College, 1979). There were also annexes in operation at Tennant Creek, Pine Creek, Batchelor and Alyangula (Darwin Community College, 1975). In total, vocational non-award courses were being delivered in around eight remote communities at this time (Darwin Community College, 1977).
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Financing Higher Education: Worldwide Perspectives and Policy Options

Financing Higher Education: Worldwide Perspectives and Policy Options

Most modern universities trace their historical roots to some combination of German, French, British, Soviet, and American models: frequently to a former colonial power and sometimes combining several such roots with older, indigenous, and often religious, institutions in ways unique to a particular country. For example, British Commonwealth and Anglophone countries may stress residential colleges for undergraduates, governing councils headed by volunteer, or honorary chancellors, and require successful A-level examinations for university entrance. German roots formed the basis for the principles of academic freedom, graduate studies, the fusion of teaching and research followed by universities throughout the world. Soviet roots have lost influence, but prior to the collapse of communism stressed tight control over the numbers and credentials of students and the curricula of applied programs established by the Five-Year Plans and the production ministries. America combined British and German roots, added public service, the expansion of accessibility, and the concept of community colleges from which students could transfer horizontally into the upper divisions of universities, and became the principal model for Japanese higher education after World War II and Chinese higher education after the opening up of China in the 1980s.
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Indigenous education and literacy policy in Australia: bringing learning back to the debate

Indigenous education and literacy policy in Australia: bringing learning back to the debate

Dow (2011) has critiqued the prescriptive focus on basic skills in the school curriculum, arguing that the world’s economy needs people who can engage with a whole range of convergent, multi-disciplinary skills to effectively meet the challenges of the future. She uses the example of a student who graduated from Direct Instruction classrooms only to find himself far behind the rest of the class in terms of critical and higher order thinking. Her suggestion is that if direct instruction was simply one (and only one) focus of his learning, he would not be experiencing the same levels of frustration and disengagement in mainstream schools. In this, she is supported by Robinson, (2009), and by many academics in Australia and internationally including Delpit (1988), Phillips (2011), and Luke (2014). This style of education only further marginalises pedagogies which seek to enable success in literacy in numeracy in ways which also include and value different sets of knowledge (Fogarty, 2010). Given the contestation in the research base, the lack of solid evidence in its application to remote Indigenous contexts and the high cost of the program, it is therefore surprising that DI continues to garner such a prominent place in remote literacy policy development.
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The dark side of the force : the downside of social capital and indigenous higher education

The dark side of the force : the downside of social capital and indigenous higher education

This chapter has provided an introduction to the ideas this thesis will explore, and the methods employed to interrogate these propositions empirically. An overview of the main thinkers in social capital theory has been provided, together with a summary of the main critiques levelled at these approaches. This has provided an introduction to the argument that a Bourdieusian framework provides a version of social capital which has greater utility than the orthodox approaches of James Coleman or Robert Putnam. This is particularly important in understanding the downsides of social capital, where orthodox theories tend to perpetuate a deficit approach which sees the negative externalities of networks, or normatively undesirable behaviour, as the sole responsibility of a family or community to address. Rather, I suggest that a Bourdieusian approach to social capital, which incorporates the idea of habitus, can shed light on how practices can normalise self-defeating behaviour. Bourdieu’s idea of field also demonstrates that norms, practices and knowledges may be strategic or beneficial on one arena, and devalued or counterproductive in another. This has significant implications for understanding the emergence and operation of contemporary social norms and networks within Indigenous communities. Narratives of dysfunction and disengagement are frequently adopted in policy and the media with regard to Indigenous education, yet little attention is paid to how these norms emerge from structural conditions, or how other social norms in Indigenous communities are devalued by the dominant culture and it’s institutions.
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Higher Education and Indigenous  Nationalities: Challenges for Inclusion  in the Ecuadorian Amazonian Region

Higher Education and Indigenous Nationalities: Challenges for Inclusion in the Ecuadorian Amazonian Region

Whereas connectivity and accessing resources have a role to play in explaining why some young indigenous who live in the forest cannot perform properly in the ENES exam, there are other cultural, social, language, and cognitive factors imposed by the exam. Reading comprehension—uses of antonyms and synonyms—mathe- matical reasoning and abstract reasoning, are the components of the exam, and in all of themkichwas and shuar indigenous youth had comprehension difficulties; facts that can also be explained by the limitations and low quality in secondary education. Most of the classes taken by those youngsters are given in their native languages. In conversation with directives of the National System for the ENES exam, they expressed that the test cannot be changed because all young are equals in Ecuador as they participate in equal conditions. However, this prin- ciple is more rhetorical and wrongly interpreted as the conditions—e.g. access to connectivity, level of quality education—are not the same. Most of the indigenous communities lack resources for teaching and the formation of teachers is always a permanent task. For some cases to send a teacher to teach in the jungle is seen as a pun- ishment for his lack of competence or for having a bad performance in a previous period. There is not a clear policy by the government to stimulate and to contribute to the educational environment, bearing in mind the so- cial and cultural factors such as language and contextualised cognitive competences. However the issue is more complex. We do believe that this is not exclusively about changing the ENES exam; it is more about the con- ceptual framework that crosses the basic and secondary education and goes directly to the Higher Education. The university system is also affected and in many respects must change its approach to Higher Education in a multicultural context.
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The Impact of Enabling Programs on Indigenous Participation, Success and Retention in Australian Higher Education

The Impact of Enabling Programs on Indigenous Participation, Success and Retention in Australian Higher Education

The larger research project from which this chapter derives considered the effective- ness of enabling programs for a wide range of under-represented student groups. One of these groups was Indigenous students, who have been explicitly referenced in higher education equity policy since the early 1990s (cf. Department of Employment Education and Training 1990). For Indigenous students, enabling pro- grams have been particularly important in raising historically low university partici- pation rates. Indigenous participation in Australian higher education is relatively recent, with the first Aboriginal Australian graduating from an Australian university in 1959 (Anderson 2016). Following three decades of minimal growth, university enrolments began to increase in the twenty-first century, and the past decade has seen substantial overall growth in Indigenous university participation, supported by rising school retention rates. The most recent figures indicate that over the past decade there has been a 70% increase in the number of Indigenous students in higher education award courses (Commonwealth of Australia Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet 2016). One assumption is that the growth that has occurred has been largely facilitated by enabling programs. One recent estimate was that ‘around 70% of Indigenous students gain entry to higher education through special entry programmes’ (Devlin and James 2006, p. 12) and another reported that ‘over half of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students who gained entry to university did so through enabling or special entry programmes’ (Behrendt et al. 2012, p. 49).
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Indigenous Student Participation In Higher Education:  Emergent Themes And Linkages

Indigenous Student Participation In Higher Education: Emergent Themes And Linkages

Despite an overall positive improvement between 2001 and 2010, there is a clear recognition that without significant changes across a myriad of reforms (including a forceful attitudinal shift by policy makers toward ‘authentic’ collaborative partnerships and consultation with Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities), the opportunities and initiatives from which these gaps may be ‘closed’ will be severely diminished. As such, a continuing need to identify factors and vulnerabilities that contribute to the obstacles facing Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians in the continuation of further studies would appear to be particularly relevant to this discourse. A key aim of this investigation was therefore to better understand the various ways in which participation of First Nations Australian students in higher education might be improved and how such challenges may help speak to future strategic directions and policy initiatives within higher education institutions, as well as broader stakeholder groups (such as NGO’s and local, regional and Federal government and agencies).
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Effects of Indigenous Innovation Policy on the S & T Outputs in China Evidence from the Higher Education System

Effects of Indigenous Innovation Policy on the S & T Outputs in China Evidence from the Higher Education System

Obviously, the third policy impact topic is immedi- ately related to this research especially those discussed the relationship between input and output in Chinese. However, these articles generally relied on cross-sec- tional data or relatively very limited time series data which could not cover the innovation policy changes. In addition, the observation of Yuqing Li, Baoying Qian, Suyan Tian and Heng Zhao was too coverage-limited with only 10 universities to reflect the real influence of the innovation policies on the whole higher education system. In one word, there is an urgent need for research on innovation policy and the S & T output in universities in China. This paper endeavors to analyze their relation- ship using data from 1980 to 2008. The primary research question in this study is as follows: what impact, if any, does the presence of indigenous innovation policy have on the S & T output in the higher education system? To address this overarching research question, the following primary hypothesis was formulated:
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Cultural Safety Circles And Indigenous Peoples Perspectives: Inclusive Practices For Participation In Higher Education

Cultural Safety Circles And Indigenous Peoples Perspectives: Inclusive Practices For Participation In Higher Education

The benefit and beauty of this comes with recognising that throughout the decision making process the authority of the Council of Chiefs was never under question! (Which kept them and all the participants in the discussions culturally safe). Once the decision was made, White Antelope and Little Oldman returned and dutifully handed their decision back over to the Council of Chiefs who, after gratefully thanking the Dog Soldiers, then discharged them. When put in motion, the process allowed the Council of Chiefs, as the seat of tribal governance, to neither lose face nor authority. The decision for peace came from the Council of Chiefs and was delivered to the tribe through their highest authority, the Priest–Chief himself. This further inclusion is an example of having policy flow through the tribe’s most sacred leader, whereby the decision itself became sacred law for all to follow and participate in maintaining. Thus, a peace between the Kiowa, Comanche, and Apache, made through the Cheyenne and Arapaho in the 1840s, became a sacred trust that was never broken.
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Educational policy, policy appropriation and Grameen Bank higher education financial aid policy process

Educational policy, policy appropriation and Grameen Bank higher education financial aid policy process

Policy implementation includes policy intermediaries as learners and doers. Implementation is a process engaged in by context-embedded individuals that entails intertwined processes of interpretation, negotiation, sense making, bargaining, ambiguity management, and the exercise of discretion Edmund Hamann and Brett Lane (2004). From this perspective, individuals take action on the basis of their senses of what is, what can be, and what is supposed to be, thereby affecting the policy as implemented in practice. Elmore's (1980) discussion of discretion draws attention to individuals as critical players in the implementation process. He argues that individual discretion combined with the bargaining that takes place among individuals and organizations might be better understood "as a device for improving the reliability and effectiveness of policies at the street level" (p. 610), as those at the "street level" adapt policies in ways that match local sensibilities. Individuals engage in constructivist processes- how educators respond to new programs and policies. An original policy diagnosis is both a problem and a proposed response. Rational choice theory makes unreasonable assumptions about an individual actor's capacity and access to the "knowledge, time, attention, and other resources" in real-world settings. This theory tries to figure out the preferred course of action in a given situation. But this decision-making process is better understood as a process of situational awareness whereby individuals use heuristics and previous experiences to adapt and respond to situations. Aware, consciously and subconsciously, of rules, traditions, habits of interaction, problem diagnoses, and intentions, they do "what makes sense."
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A comparative analysis of indigenous bilingual education policy and practice in Australia and Peru

A comparative analysis of indigenous bilingual education policy and practice in Australia and Peru

With the growing emergence of national policies in both Australia and Peru which encouraged the use of indigenous languages in education, practical steps had to be taken to support the implementation of such programs. These included further linguistic documentation of the languages, development of appropriate resources, teacher training, and the formation of organisational bodies. Similar to the Peruvian Bilingual Education Unit established in 1973, the Australian Bilingual Unit was set up in Darwin in 1974 (Disbray, 2013; Hornberger, 1988). Both units were comprised of several language and education professionals and were intended to oversee the training of teachers, the production of materials, and the general implementation of bilingual programs (Disbray, 2013; Hornberger, 1988). Another body established in Australia was the School of Australian Linguistics, which sought to increase formal knowledge about the structures of indigenous languages (Devlin, 2017a). In Peru, linguistic development took place in the form of the 1975 Law on the officialisation of Quechua (Congreso de la República, 1975). This law not only recognised Quechua as an official language, coequal with Spanish, but also emphasised the importance of preserving, developing, and maintaining the many varieties that existed within the country, whilst developing a standardised corpus and orthography which could be used in education and other public spheres (Congreso de la República, 1975). Importantly, this law reflected a language-as-resource orientation, demonstrated by
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The Impact Of A Demand-Driven Higher Education Policy In Australia

The Impact Of A Demand-Driven Higher Education Policy In Australia

This paper raises some serious concerns in regard to the implications of a ‘demand-driven’ higher education policy and the feasibility of a number of key recommendations of the Bradley Review. There is already evidence that giving greater autonomy to universities to make decisions about student numbers and how courses are operated will not be in the interest of access to or the quality of education. Instead, they will be based on how universities can maximise the funds they receive for their students. The increase in student numbers and lower university entry scores in a number of universities are likely to lead to increased attrition rates of students and a lower proportion of completions at considerable cost to the students and the Australian government. At the same time, there has also been a decline in the proportion of students of higher ability accepting offers to study at university. McInnis and Hartley (2002) have shown that there is a positive relationship between a student’s university entrance score and grade point average that they achieve at university. A continuation of these trends would most likely produce lower quality graduates. This study suggests that access to Australia’s higher education system, especially in areas such as Law, Dentistry, and Medicine, is moving further toward a system based on one’s ability to pay rather than a student’s academic ability. In addition, the government’s target of 40 percent of all 25 to 34-year olds attaining a bachelor degree or above by 2020 is likely to be in conflict with targets to increase TAFE and vocational skill qualification levels. A balance between university qualifications and TAFE and vocational skill- based qualifications is essential for Australia’s future growth and satisfying labour market needs.
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Policy Governance without Government in European Higher Education

Policy Governance without Government in European Higher Education

The paper argues that the Bologna Process as a set of policy initiatives which exists at the margins of the EU framework embodies a case of Governmentality in a context of Governance without Government. This is due to the distinctive regulatory characteristics of the Bologna Process which encompass; its non- legislative character; the voluntary adaptation and participation of the member- states to the process; the extension of the Process to non EU members; and, finally, its peculiarity as a set of common guidelines, the realisation of which differ within each member-state. These characteristics introduce a modality of policy governance in European higher education that aims to tackle the challenges of globalisation beyond traditional forms of government.
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The responsibilised consumer: neoliberalism and English higher education policy

The responsibilised consumer: neoliberalism and English higher education policy

actors in ways that do not necessarily correspond to politicians' intentions (Ball, 2005). And such was the case here as the partial lifting of number controls did not produce the diversified market the government had intended. The principle reason for this was that most institutions chose to charge at or near the £9,000 maximum thus leaving fewer providers to compete at the "budget" end of the market. Consequently, the government attempted to create a more liberal market for higher education places. On 5 December 2013, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, George Osborne, announced the cap on the number of undergraduates that English higher education institutions could recruit would be relaxed in 2014-15 and scrapped altogether in 2015-16. In practice, this was not thought to mean a completely limitless free market. Rather, Ministers expected the liberalisation of quotas to stimulate demand for approximately 30,000 more full-time undergraduate places in 2014-15 and 60,000 a year after that (Hillman, 2014, p.9). Nevertheless, it is clear that, within these calculation parameters, the Coalition government attempted to create something much closer to a free market proper than has existed hitherto: a clear example of Foucault’s (2008, p.121) “active governmentality” in the service of a regulatory principle (though not in full practice) of “pure competition”.
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The politics of policy resistance: reconstructing higher education in Kosovo

The politics of policy resistance: reconstructing higher education in Kosovo

Belgrade blamed the University for fomenting discontent. However, Kosovo’s low level of economic development, resulting in high graduate unemployment, was a more important source of discontent. Serb repression and high unemployment encouraged armed resistance and led to an Albanian diaspora in Western Europe, especially Austria and West Germany, and to a lesser extent in the United States. In the 1980s, many University of Prishtina graduates undertook postgraduate education abroad and contrasted their experience in West European universities with that in Kosovo. Many Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) leaders in exile were former students of the University of Prishtina. This reinforced the Serb view that the University was a nationalist hotbed and that the Students’ Unions were increasingly pro-KLA. Not surprisingly, the identification of the University with the KLA was to pose major problems after the Serb withdrawal from Kosovo in 1999: competing factions of Kosovo society saw the University as a valuable resource in post-conflict politics and as a means of leverage over the development of the next generation of the Kosovo Albanian elite. More- over, the return of the ‘lost generation’ of ethnic Albanian graduates was to have important consequences for HE reform.
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Policy models and policy instruments in higher education. The effects of governmental policy-making on the innovative behaviour of higher education institutions. IHS Political Science Series 26, October 1995

Policy models and policy instruments in higher education. The effects of governmental policy-making on the innovative behaviour of higher education institutions. IHS Political Science Series 26, October 1995

Others have tried to take up the challenge of the ‘policy failure theme' in higher education. Referring to his analysis of the Swedish higher education policy which led to the reforms of 1975-1977, Lane (1985) has argued that policy-driven changes in a higher education system are possible. But, like the authors just mentioned, he also points out that, to be able to be successful, reform policies should pay attention to the basic characteristics of higher education institutions. ‘Indeed organizational transformation of higher education work and higher education institutions is feasible, as long as basic features of the differentiation of work and the structure of authority inherent in the conduct of higher education activities are not threatened. Whereas public policy may effect institution-building and redefinition, it cannot do away with the bottom-dominated nature of the organization of higher education life' (Lane, 1984, p. 107).
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The Role of Higher Education in National Quality Infrastructure Policy-Making

The Role of Higher Education in National Quality Infrastructure Policy-Making

Higher education in Serbia has rarely been the subject of systematic research and consequently there is a lack of data re- lated to the issue. Most articles have been written recently and have been clearly connected to quality assurance in higher education. Hence, with the intention of investigating the role of higher education in NQI policy-making, we analyzed cur- ricula and indicated the importance of educated policy makers. The subjects of analysis are public universities from whose official web sites the data were collected. Depending on the QI keywords, research was carried out in order to classify the faculties into three categories. The results show that only three faculties offer more than five QI subjects within category I. Those faculties which indirectly target QI elements are grouped into category II and also include five technical faculties. Ultimately, category III includes subjects at the introductory level that refer to market, marketing, trade, trade laws, supply chains, logistics etc. In a nutshell, the results suggest that the greatest number of subjects belongs to category II. Only a few faculties have a department with a large number of mandatory subjects connected to quality infrastructure. We need to keep in mind that the results are methodology dependent, providing us with a basic insight into the current situation in the Republic of Serbia, while the keywords selection might be a limiting factor too.
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Institutional Plagiarism Policy (Georgian higher education institutions’ case)

Institutional Plagiarism Policy (Georgian higher education institutions’ case)

140 | P a g e the issue to the public. The exceptions are probably the laws of nature named after their discoverers (like Newton’s laws of mechanics). Admission exams also concentrate on knowledge and not on its sources (Sadoshima [2014] as cited in Teeter [2015]). On the other hand, university students, especially doing their BA, MA and PhD papers and theses, are expected, due to academic ethics and copyright requirements, to mention where the information they mention comes from. This is because research, compared to just knowledge, to gain which using course books is sufficient, requires the application of numerous sources (not to reinvent a bicycle) and development of critical, analytical and creative skills, which school graduates often do not possess. So the transition stage between being a schoolchild and a university student is difficult and responsible. This is the time when students need to begin the understanding of importance and the technical respects of referencing. It requires a special policy both on the State and the universities part.
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COST-SHARING POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN HIGHER EDUCATION: A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE

COST-SHARING POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN HIGHER EDUCATION: A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE

In the report elaborated in the United States by the Carnegie Commission on Higher Educa- tion (1973) – Higher Education: Who Pays? Who Benefi ts? Who Should Pay? – important issues were set for discussion, such as cost and benefi ts of Higher Education, the weight of public and private funding and the consequences thereby resulting for equity in the access. Although the report identifi es important problems in North-American higher education funding system; the authors did not share the most critical and defensive positions regarding the participation of private funding which came from Milton Friedman in “Capitalism and Freedom” (1962). Ac- cording to Friedman, the role of government was mostly justifi ed as an instrument of promoting a common set of values and basic citizenship through general and compulsory education. At the fi nancial level he argued that those who could afford it should contribute signifi cantly to education.
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