Understanding narrated instructionalvideos is important for both research and real-world web applications. Motivated by video dense captioning, we propose a model to gener- ate procedure captions from narrated instruc- tional videos which are a sequence of step- wise clips with description. Previous works on video dense captioning learn video seg- ments and generate captions without consid- ering transcripts. We argue that transcripts in narrated instructionalvideos can enhance video representation by providing fine-grained complimentary and semantic textual informa- tion. In this paper, we introduce a framework to (1) extract procedures by a cross-modality module, which fuses video content with the entire transcript; and (2) generate captions by encoding video frames as well as a snippet of transcripts within each extracted procedure. Experiments show that our model can achieve state-of-the-art performance in procedure ex- traction and captioning, and the ablation stud- ies demonstrate that both the video frames and the transcripts are important for the task.
An intervention that aims to provide quality addiction care to individuals with intellectual disabilities, is the ‘Less Alcohol or Drugs’ intervention (Denouden, Kiewik and van der Nagel, 2012). This thesis aims to study how this intervention could benefit from the use of instructionalvideos. Instructionalvideos were designed that showed passive, aggressive and assertive refusal behaviour. To measure clients support for the use of such videos, clients emotional responses were analysed using the Facial Action Coding system (FACS) and an interview was conducted. Results from the FACS showed that the video about passive refusal behaviour evoked significant emotional responses for contempt, while all videos evoked significant emotional responses of surprise. The assertive refusal behaviour video was the only video that evoked positive emotional responses and also the only video that did not evoke negative emotional responses. The aggressive and passive refusal behaviour videos evoked negative emotional responses. Overall, the FACS scores indicate that the videos were effective in showing the refusal behaviour as intended. Also, the FACS scores indicate that clients experience learning benefits from videos. All client supported the use of instructionalvideos throughout the intervention during the interview. Clients stated that videos are a superior material compared to conventional methods that are currently applied throughout the intervention. During the interview, support was found for vicarious learning and modelling through videos, and mimicking a real life situation and clarity were mentioned as added value of videos. . Overall, this study shows great potential for the use of instructionalvideos in healthcare interventions tailored to individuals with intellectual disabilities. Future research might concern the extent to which personalization of the videos enhances the learning benefits of the videos.
The present study investigated the extent to which error examples in instructionalvideos affect learning and motivation of the participants. To improve instructionalvideos the goal was to enhance motivation and learning. Different studies suggest an increase in learning using error examples (Adams et al., 2014; Cattaneo & Boldrini, 2017; Schmitz et al., 2017; Tsovaltzi et al., 2010). Furthermore, (Melis, 2005) found an effect from error examples on motivation. However, these findings could not be seen in the present study. Although there is a non-significant effect on learning, it was not as big as expected. Moreover, the error examples did not influence the motivation at all.
perception of novelty could also play a part (Van der Meij, 2017). However, according to Blomstermo, Eriksson, Lindstrand, and Sharma (2004), another explanation could be that the perceived usefulness does not have to be ‘correct’. This means that the instructional video could help students, but those students rated these videos as useless based on incorrect perceptions. In this case, students did not find the video instructions useful and therefore may not have viewed it, sometimes based on a single video. According to the interviews, one student said she found the narrators voice annoying, and therefore did not view the rest of the videos, although she did not know if the instructionalvideos could help her. Tarka (2019) found a variable that influences ‘incorrect’ perceptions of usefulness, namely that these wrong perceptions can be due to limited cognitive capabilities. In this case, it could be that students, due to the limited capacity, did not monitor that they needed help. Therefore, they thought they did not need the instructionalvideos and so perceived them as useless. Further research could reveal whether this is reasonable.
So, the aim of this study is to investigate the effect of practice schedules (CI - Effect) by learning from instructionalvideos. These video tutorials show demonstrations on how to perform a certain formatting task in Microsoft Word. This study used an experimental design involving two different groups: blocked practice (BP) and random practice (RP). Practice schedules will be used as an independent variable and self-efficacy, flow experience, and task performance are dependent variables. In the control condition (BP), a video will be watched, directly after which a corresponding task will be done. Students in the experimental condition first watch all the video tutorials of a chapter (2 or more videos) and have to practice on corresponding tasks afterwards.
This study used a limited sample size, which might have had an influence on the outcomes. The majority of the respondents’ are young adults between 18 and 35, with an average age of 28 years old. This group of respondents is very familiar with using technical devices, as well as consulting the Internet or social media channels for information. They are very used to this information being available at all times, which might explain their online information searching behavior and the high preference for using search engines as their key to finding the right instructions. Factors such as the receiver’s prior experience, domain expertise, and issue involvement are important influencers in their source credibility assessment (Choi & Stvilia, 2015; Pornpitakpan, 2004; Wathen & Burkell, 2002). The outcomes might have been different when an older group of respondents was used, because they have been more familiar with the paper manual from when they were young, which could also influence the way they evaluate instructionalvideos. Besides looking at older participants, it is also interesting to know whether credibility assessments are made differently by children, as most of them grew up using the Internet as a primary source of information. The same applies to the educational level of the respondents, as almost all of the respondents are currently in or graduated in higher education. Scores on credibility of the different videos could be higher when looking at lower educational levels, as ability to evaluate credibility and comprehension are important factors in the evaluation process (Metzger, 2007; Pornpitakpan, 2004). If receivers of instructions are not able to evaluate credibility or not aware of certain credibility flaws, they might accept the instructions more easily. At the same time, it could also be the case that higher educated persons are more confident in their own ability to perform certain tasks without consulting instructions, and thereby make them less accepting of instructions from companies or other users, resulting in lower scores on source credibility and usability.
Poor videos contain frequently music and sounds. However, good videos contain also regularly music and sounds, while it is known that music and sounds may overload the working memory and can hinder learning (Clark & Mayer, 2011). Some studies find contradictions in the supportive role of music in virtual educational environments (Fassbender, Richards, Bilgin, Thompson, & Heiden, 2012). More research is needed to determine if there are situations that sounds have more advantages than disadvantages (Clark & Mayer, 2011). For example, the use of music in an example of a good video in the next section seems to contribute to the explanation and attraction of the video (Figure 7). According to the scissors of Wember, image and sound must be consistent with each other (Wember, 1976). When music and visuals are in line, then the music is the bearer of the storyline (Bueters, 2002). In addition, it is important to take into account that music has copyrights. This can influence the use of music in instructionalvideos, because YouTube blocks your video when you use music with copyright.
The present study investigated the extent to which summaries in videos had an effect on performance and learning. In general, it is worth examining how videos can be embedded effectively in education (van der Meij & van der Meij, 2015a), to guarantee the quality of the videos that is demanded because of the current rise of popularity of these videos. Videos can serve as a perfect example of how to execute step-by-step procedures (van der Meij & van der Meij, 2015a). Furthermore, videos can lead to higher recall of the content (Mayer, 2005), are found interesting by many learners (Rieber, in Ertelt, 2007) and are easily accessible by a wide range of people (Plaisant & Schneiderman, 2005). In order to contribute to these effects, summaries in videos were examined, as an improvement for these videos and therefore as an enhancement of their quality. Summaries in text have formed a useful starting point for this relatively novel examination.
The flipped classroom can take many forms. However, the core idea in all flipped classroom models is the use of teacher-created videos and interactive lessons so that instruction that used to occur in class is now accessed at home, in advance of class. Common elements of the flipped classroom model are: Provide an opportunity for students to gain first exposure prior to class, provide an incentive for students to prepare for class, provide a way to assess student understanding, provide in-class activities that focus on higher-level thinking skills (Brame, 2000; Bergmann & Sams, 2012). With the inclusion of these elements “class becomes the place to work through problems, advance concepts, and engage in collaborative learning” (Tucker, 2012, p. 82). Effective flipped classroom teachers agree that it is not the instructionalvideos and other media that students view on their own that make this model so successful, but how the information from the media is integrated into face-to-face learning in the classroom (Bergmann & Sams, 2012).
In this paper, we introduce a new large-scale instructional video dataset named YouMakeup for fine-grained semantic comprehension. The YouMakeup dataset contains 2,800 makeup in- structional videos spanning more than 420 hours in total. Based on the characteristics of makeup instructionalvideos and the rich annotations of temporal boundaries, grounded facial areas and natural language descriptions of steps, our col- lected dataset is more suitable to support the fine- grained video comprehension research than pre- vious datasets. We further design a generation task and four question answering tasks to thor- oughly evaluate the fine-grained semantic compre- hension ability from different aspects and levels. A baseline system for step caption generation also demonstrates the necessity of fine-grained spatial and temporal information. In the future work, we plan to make thorough exploration on these pro- posed tasks. We will make the dataset publicly accessible in order to support the research investi- gation in fine-grained semantic comprehension. Acknowledgments
Video-based resources can be used successfully to support students' learning experience. There are two basic models: (1) use of concept-based videos that students watch passively with the aim of learning about a particular theory, idea, case study, approach, or paradigm; and (2) instructionalvideos that students use actively (possibly interactively) to learn a particular technique or skill. The first approach is used throughout higher education both in classroom environments and in distance learning scenarios (Barford & Weston, 1997). The second approach is used much less frequently, but examples include the teaching mathematical skills (Phillips, Pead, & Gillespie, 1995) and teaching life skills to students with learning disabilities (Kimball, Kinney, Taylor, & Stromer, 2004; Norman, Collins, & Schuster, 2001). The aim of the project discussed here was to develop a series of videos for students to use before an intensive residential bioscience field trip to assist with attendee preparedness. Two types of videos were envisaged: conceptual (i.e., discussing theories and concepts) and instructional (i.e., explaining key field techniques). The conceptual videos were seen as resources through which students could get an understanding of the biological, ecological, and environmental contexts of the field course. The rationale for this was to ensure that precious time "on the ground" could be spent in developing an advanced and deep understanding by building on the basic knowledge the students already possessed, rather than starting with first principles and consequently having insufficient time to stretch students' learning. The instructional resources, meanwhile, were designed to enable students to become familiar with key fieldwork techniques so these could be taught more quickly, and to a higher level of competency, in the field than would otherwise be possible. Furthermore, it was planned that the resources would also be designed to be useful for non-participants, with the concept videos being used as case studies to support non-field-based courses, and the instructionalvideos used externally to the field course by students undertaking independent fieldwork or field-based dissertations to enable skills development, at least to a basic level (see the Discussion section later in this paper).
findings of this study indicate that the available YouTube vid- eos on direct ophthalmoscopy were not designed with these considerations in mind, which if otherwise could provide an important improvement to the learning experience that suf- fers from a nonvisual instructive nature of a procedure that is fundamentally visual. When designing instructionalvideos on direct ophthalmoscopy, we suggest the inclusion of the spectrum of relevant points (Table 1), realistic visualization of what the procedure actually looks like from the examiner’s view, and giving particular emphasis on how to examine the fundus, which we find is correlated with video popularity since this may reflect what the users are demanding. Also, we suggest that Mayer’s findings 41 on how to optimize the
of the instructors could influence characteristics such as learners’ level of engagement and motivation (e.g., Hew, 2016; Matsumoto, 2011), findings show that their perception of the instructor do not depend on his or her presence or absence in the video. In other words, findings show that model presence in instructional video clips does not make a difference in how the learners perceive the model. These findings also extend to the domains of perceived learning and self-efficacy, as the results of this study did not indicate a relationship between the model presence on instructional video clips and learners’ perceived learning or self-efficacy. The findings of this study could serve as an important reference for instructional video producers and instructors who are engaged in online learning platforms when designing their next instructional video. However, they should keep in mind that instructionalvideos comprise of many components that could have directly or indirectly affected the findings. In this research, these include the factors such as the short duration of these instructional video clips, the gender of the model and the small sample size.
several disadvantages such as low video quality and relatively long video duration so that the information conveyed became less detailed. However, in cycle II these weaknesses have been corrected, and students show interest in learning. These results are in line with the research of (Mendoza et al., 2015), which states that instructionalvideos prove to be effective when used to learn, understand, and compare concepts. Video-based learning has a positive impact on increasing student creativity and collaboration. Also, the use of instructionalvideos can also attract student motivation in creating different contexts for their learning experiences. Meanwhile, (Brame, 2016) explains that video learning has become an important part of the education system. Video can be used effectively if the teacher can pay attention to three important elements, namely (1) management of video content that is suitable to the needs of students; (2) maximizing student involvement; and (3) able to promote active learning through videos that are aired.
There are some videos about minor car repair used stop motion, live action, 2D simulation and 3D simulation videos on social media. 3D simulation videos provide better visualization. In this project, 3D simulation videos will be used in conjunction with motion capture tool and visual effect to make the video become more informative and attractive.
In addition to the scans and the full focal individual follows, we included 250 short focal individual follows. These used the same method as the longer follows, but were restricted to the indoor visitor zone in front of the west research room window. Here we manipulated the conditions to assess changes in behaviour during different activities in the research room. Data were collected under the following conditions: No activity, no videos showing (N = 50); videos presented on a continuous 3-minute loop (N = 50); videos selectable via touch sensitive buttons (see Table S1) (N = 50); live research without an explanatory PowerPoint slide (N = 50); and live research with a brief explanatory PowerPoint slide and an Figure 4. Public view of a research room at Living Links from
Although instructional design has roots in the study of educational psychology, the relevance of instructional design was established during and after World War II with the huge success of the incorporation of training ﬁlms in the United States Army Air Force (Reiser, 2001b). Skinner (1954) introduced behaviorist principles of learning in his publication, The Science of Learning and the Art of Teaching. The key element of his theory lies in the reinforcement of desired learner responses. His instructional design emphasized formulating behavioral objectives, breaking instructional content into small units, and rewarding correct responses early and often. Another famous instructional theorist was Bloom. In 1956, he led a committee that introduced a taxonomy of educational objectives (Bloom, 1956). According to Clark (1999), the taxonomy provided instructors with a means to decide how to impart instructional content to learners most eﬀectively. However, during these times, a standardized design process had yet to be devised.
Xu15; Hin17; Rav18]), there are other papers that use a different formulation ([Sul18; Ion17; Ada08; Liu18a; Has16; Umn]). For example, some papers do not assume that the normal videos all come from a single, static camera. Sultani et al. [Sul18] and Liu et al. [Liu18a] both use normal data coming from many different cameras/scene. Allowing multiple cameras to define normal data leads to a very different formulation of the problem. We are interested in the single static camera formulation because it is consistent with typical surveillance scenarios and it allows an algorithm to use image location (among other cues) to distinguish normal and anomalous activity. For example, a person walking in the grass may be normal in certain areas of a scene but anomalous in others (because the grass is in a restricted area). Learning location-specific normal models requires example normal video from a specific scene. Another alternative formulation only defines anomalies temporally but not spatially [Sul18; Ada08; Umn]. Our perspective is that for scenes with a lot of activity, it is important to roughly localize anomalies both temporally and spatially, in order to have confidence that the algorithm is detecting anomalous frames for the right reasons and also because localizing anomalies is helpful to humans inspecting the output of an anomaly detection algorithm.
Students’ academic performance is key in every academic institution. The aim of this study was to establish the perception of teachers on instructional media on academic performance of Kiswahili students in public secondary schools in Kathiani sub-county.The students’ performance in Kiswahili remains a top priority for educators in Kenya because when students get good grades, they become competitive in the world of work and may have better employment opportunities. The study adopted a descriptive survey design and the system theory was used to investigate on how perception of teachers affects the academic performance of Kiswahili students. The researcher used simple random sampling techniques to sample 20 public secondary schools to be used in the study out of the 50 secondary schools in Kathiani sub-county. Simple random sampling technique was used to select a total of 200 Kiswahili students and 40 Kiswahili teachers from the 20 selected public secondary schools. The study used questionnaires as the research instruments. There was a questionnaire for students and the teachers. Data was analyzed with the aid of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The study found that the use of instructional media can enhance learner’s performance as the lessons are always interesting, it makes the topic to be better understood, and also the content become more familiar to the students. Instructional media also improves the learner’s memory. The study established that majority (60%) of the teacher respondents indicated that instructional media are used in teaching Kiswahili. The study concluded that the performance of Kiswahili was good due to the use of instructional media in teaching and learning. The study also concluded that the instructional media the teacher mostly used in teaching Kiswahili was textbook. It is therefore clear that the schools in Machakos have inadequate instructional materials needed for learning. The study further established that majority (71.2%) of the respondents indicated that instructional media enhances the learning of Kiswahili subject. Teachers’ perception on the use of media improves learner’s motivation and Kiswahili performance. The study recommended that the school principals should encourage Kiswahili teachers to use instructional media with the aim of raising the academic performance of the schools as it has been proved that instructional media in teaching and learning enhanced the performance of the students.
Abstract—This paper proposes an efficient bandwidth allocation algorithm in which higher priority is given to the videos with higher weights using agent technology. The popularity and weight profile of the videos which is used for efficiently allocating bandwidth is periodically updated by a mobile agent. The proposed approach allocates more bandwidth for higher weight videos [popular videos], reduces the load on the central multimedia server and maximizes the channel utilization between the neighboring proxy servers and the central multimedia server and lowers video rejection ratio. The simulation results prove the reduction of load on central multimedia server by load sharing among the neighboring proxy servers, maximum bandwidth utilization, and more bandwidth allocation for higher weight videos.