The course examines the history of western efforts to promote health and nutrition in the "developing world" from the beginnings of tropical medicine and colonial health services to more recent efforts at disease eradication, the development of alternative health delivery systems (basic health services, primary health care and selective primary health care); population programs, to child survival and global immunization programs. It will also examine the history of various internationalhealth and development organizations, including the Rockefeller Foundation, WHO, UNICEF and the World Bank. These
Different countries have different characteristics of internationalhealth assistance. Brazil actively strengthened cooperation with health sectors of other developing countries, mainly through technical assistance and sharing of its own development experience. Russia would like to conduct multilateral financial assistance and cooperation [13, 14]. India, with its geographical and linguistic cultural advantages, provided a large number of technology-based health development assistance to neighboring African countries, including telemedicine, remote diagnosis drug development and research, etc., mainly through bilateral aid channels [15, 16, 17] and sharing their experiences in development, et al. Since 1963, China has dispatched China Medical Team to African and other developing countries, and has gradually developed into a variety of forms of internationalhealth assistance, including Chinese Medical Team, aids of the construction of medical facilities, donation of medical equipment and medicines, human resources development cooperation, public health assistance, population and reproductive health, emergency humanitarian health assistance, and other forms of health assistance, such as the “Bright Journey” free cataract surgery. China is an important global health donor to Africa but contrasts with traditional DAC donors through China’s assistance focus on health
The article is organized as follows. The next section draws on sociological institutionalism and discusses the reasons why transnational connectivity can be expected to affect health policies and outcomes. The third section examines causal mechanisms involving specifically the health aid network, and develops the hypothesis that higher centrality of recipients in the internationalhealth aid network improves population health. The fourth section presents our methodology for measuring country centrality in the internationalhealth network, in which government officials in recipient countries are linked to multilateral and bilateral aid agencies directly and to other recipients indirectly through their aid providers. The second part of the fourth section presents the design of a statistical analysis of the effect of network centrality on child survival rates, based on 110 low and middle income countries from 1990 to 2010. Crucially, the analysis has to take into account the possibility of selection, whereby countries are more central due to unobserved conditions that are systematically related to child mortality. We fit a generalized method of moments (GMM) model to address the self-dependence in child mortality over time, the potential endogeneity of some independent variables, and country- specific fixed effects. The fifth section presents our findings and the sixth section discusses them.
• Online resources will sustain communication between health links, provide a swap-shop for equipment and resources, and enable others interested in this work to be able to engage with health links and learn about internationalhealth volunteering.
Globalization is a fairly recent addition to the panoply of concepts describing the internationalization of health concerns. What distinguishes it from ‘ internationalhealth ’ or its newer morphing into ‘ global health ’ is a specific analytical concern with how globalization processes, past or present, but particularly since the start of our neoliberal era post-1980, is affecting health outcomes. Globalization processes influence health through multiple social pathways: from health systems and financing reforms to migration flows and internal displacement; via trade and investment treaties, labour market ‘ flexibilization ’ , and the spread of unhealthy commodities; or through deploying human rights and environment protection treaties, and strengthening health diplomacy efforts, to create more equitable and sustainable global health outcomes. Globalization and Health was a pioneer in its focus on these critical facets of our health, well-being, and, indeed, planetary survival. In this editorial, the journal announces a re-focusing on this primary aim, announcing a number of new topic Sections and an expanded editorial capacity to ensure that submissions are ‘ on target ’ and processed rapidly, and that the journal continues to be on the leading edge of some of the most contentious and difficult health challenges confronting us.
Findings: Infectious disease Shipping and Aircraft Regulations were brought into force in Ireland in 2008 and 2009, respectively. Preparatory actions taken under these and the InternationalHealth Regulations necessitated significant levels of cross disciplinary working with other organisations, both within and beyond traditional healthcare settings. Information packs on Ebola Virus Disease were prepared and distributed to airports, airlines, port authorities and shipping agents, and practical exercises were held at relevant sites. Agreements were put in place for contact tracing of passenger and crew on affected conveyances and protocols were established for the management of Medical Declarations of Health from ships coming from West Africa.
We encountered a wide diversity of opinions among vol- unteer organizations regarding the role of internationalhealth volunteers. Different objectives were mentioned: 'covering humanitarian needs'; 'catalyst for change'; 'introduction of innovation'; 'capacity building'; 'project management' or 'personal solidarity'; 'link between North and South'. In fact, the choice of many NGOs to work in certain countries or regions is determined to a large extent by the fact whether this country is in crisis or in a process of post-conflict, such as is the case in Liberia, Sierra Leone. Most organizations do not see the sending of interna- tional health volunteers as a quantitative or gap-filling measure in countries with HRH shortages. Only a few organizations, in particular Voluntary Service Overseas- UK  and UN Volunteers, are at present explicitly increasing the number of internationalhealth volunteers to palliate HRH shortages in some low-income countries. As was noted above, several organizations are reducing the number of internationalhealth volunteers, or even stopping to send any altogether. This is influenced by sev- eral factors. First, changes in thinking about development, where establishing long-term relations with partners, capacity building and recruitment of local staff gets the priority [6,7]. Second, the policy of certain donor govern- ments may have contributed to this. For instance the Dutch government traditionally subsidized deployment of internationalhealth volunteers, but now discourages this by reducing budgets for expatriation programmes. Similar evolutions have taken place in Scandinavian countries and in Belgium. An important factor is the diffi- culty reported by a number of organizations to recruit medically qualified volunteers in their home societies in Europe and North America. It was also reported that many volunteers from the North prefer short contracts of a few months, after which people may or may not leave again for subsequent contracts. This preference results in a high staff turn over, and 'hopping' or 'shopping' between vol- unteer organizations.
The tropEd Programme in InternationalHealth is characterised by a unique synergy of experience and expertise of leading European institutions. tropEd prepares people to work more effectively in a multicultural environment by exposing them to multiple perspectives. tropEd offers a flexible modular structure and the Europe-wide recognition of education.
Our InternationalHealth Plan’s are designed to cover treatment of medical conditions that respond quickly to treatment – known in medical terms as acute conditions. They are not intended to cover you against the costs of recurrent, continuing or long-term treatment of chronic conditions, such as, but not limited to diabetes or asthma. In the unfortunate event that the treatment you are receiving becomes recurrent, continuing or long-term, the costs for treatment of that chronic condition will not be covered under your policy, but we will write immediately to let you know that this is the case. Full details of what you are and are not covered for, are given in your membership handbook upon enrolment, or are available on request.
Additionally, in their framework for global health DHSC (2011) highlight that in evaluating the ways UK organisations meet its international aid policies there has been a shift away from monitoring processes towards monitoring outcomes. This was acknowledged in ‘Our mutual interest’ (Chisholm, Green, & Simms, 2016) where THET highlighted how the politics surrounding how international aid is distributed has led to increased focus on evidencing how IHPs are working in the UKs national interests. This was felt to be present in the evaluators focus on impact of achievement (or lack thereof) rather than reflecting on the process despite the outcome. This was also identified in the way authors actively avoided answering questions that pertained to processes. Which was seen as facilitating the maintenance of positive outcomes. Thus, it was interpreted that the reports had the potential to capture more learning, but this was limited by adopting position of prioritising outcomes over processes. This issue appeared similar to the well documented research practice of not publishing findings which yielded insignificant or negative results (Dwan et al., 2013; Ferguson & Heene, 2012; Laws, 2013; Vasilev, 2013). The researcher would argue that whilst the focus on outcomes is more pragmatic, what is lost is the incremental pieces of knowledge that are necessary in the efforts to share learning and scale up sustainable projects.
Participants (n = 11) submitted to CS, of both sexes, between 25 and 64 years of age (61.09 ± 7.09 years), that according to the American Heart Association and the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmon- ary Rehabilitation, met the criteria for low or moderate risk, class B for participation and exercise supervision, absence of signs/symptoms after CS, with a left ventricular ejection fraction greater than 40%. Supervised interventions were performed during hospitalization, pre- and post- cardiac surgery, and 1 month after hospital discharge. In phase II, a phys- ical exercise program was fulfilled according to the norms of the Ameri- can College of Sports Medicine, comprising 3 sessions of physical exercise per week lasting between 30 to 60 minutes, including heating, aerobic exercise and recovery/stretching. Hemodynamic data (blood pressure, heart rate, peripheral oxygen saturation, pain) and the Borg scale were recorded in the initial, intermediate and final periods of each session. The aerobic capacity was evaluated through the 6-minute Walk Test and the health-related quality of life using the Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36V2) questionnaire.
promotion; continuing professional development; under/ post graduate education; support services (facilities/ equipment/management); research . We aimed to build on this since area of activity gives little information about partnership processes and possible outcomes. As an alternative we have grouped partnerships together by their intended impact (level of impact of LMIC partner and focus on individual/organisational development); ap- proach to health systems strengthening (training/training and infrastructure; generic/specialist) and relationships (relative scope of influence between partners; mode of de- livery – with an NGO partner or not). Among other infer- ences, this typology suggests one way to predict partnership sustainability based on the extent to which a partnership invests in building organisational capacity and generic skills. This is a first step in generating questions about partnership effectiveness that may be answered through evaluation. Our prediction makes a number of as- sumptions and Table 7 relates these to two recent evalua- tions of health partnership effectiveness.
Exhibit 3 shows that Americans with one chronic illness or none were more likely to fill one or more pre- scriptions than were persons of similar health status in all other countries except the Netherlands (where dif- ferences with Americans were not significant). It thus appears that doctors in the U.S. have a greater propensity to prescribe drugs for relatively healthy people than do doctors in the other countries. It is perhaps notable that the U.S. and New Zealand are the only countries that permit direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs, and that the intensity of the practice is far greater in the U.S. Resulting patient requests for prescriptions
They can send you free fact sheets and leaflets on a wide range of medical issues, conditions and treatments, and will be happily phone you back afterwards to discuss any further questions you may have. Health at Hand does not take the place of your medical practitioner, nor does it diagnose or prescribe. However it can provide you with valuable information to help put your mind at rest. As Health at Hand is a confidential service, any information you discuss is not shared with our team of personal advisors.
Implications of Health Information Technology for Primary Care Practice It is likely that the use of information technology and its continual enhancement is associated with higher produc- tivity. The number of visits to Danish primary care physi- cians has increased over the past 15 years while the num- ber of practicing primary care physicians has decreased. At the same time, there is little evidence to suggest that Danish primary care physicians feel they are working too many hours or are burning out. Innovations such as pay- ment to physicians for phone call and e-mail visits with designated call-in times have helped, as has automating processes to save time. Whatever the reasons, there is lit- tle doubt that the Danes are the forerunners to effectively using clinical information technology to improve the overall care process in primary care which importantly includes being able to efficiently exchange information with other health care sectors.
First, States’ role in the successful implementation of rehabilitative reparations, as complemented by other actors of the international community, is crucial. Thus, States which have to implement IACtHR’s rehabilitative reparations need to substantially increase their degree of implementation of rehabilitation and, thus, reverse the low rate of implementation of medical rehabilitative reparations which has characterised Latin- America. If the defendant State lacks sufficient resources to proceed with that implementation, it should seek to receive financial/technical assistance from other States, particularly, those developed and also from international organisations. As for rehabilitative reparations granted by the ICC and ECCC, States should and, indeed, must arguably cooperate financially towards the implementation of the respective rehabilitative reparations awards. This cooperation can also be via non-financial or technical means, for example, organising training of medical and health care personnel, helping to build hospitals and other health care facilities, and providing medicines. International and civil society organisations, especially those working on the fulfilment of the right to health, should also contribute with their expertise to joint projects with States or on their own. Thus, these efforts should expedite and enhance the current, on-going process of planning and implementation of rehabilitative reparations awards at the ICC and maximise the good work so far done by the TFV in the field. In turn, the external funding mechanism at the ECCC may be strengthened to avoid previous negative outcomes, reduce the delay of rehabilitative reparations implementation and go further, for example, limited not only to mental health but also physical health.
migration statistics for health personnel is crucial if countries are to develop evidence-based policies. Ideally, international migration of health personnel should be monitored by tracking the number of individuals – with the education and training to practice a health profession – moving from one country to another on an annual basis. In reality, few countries are currently in a position to provide such data. Improving data-collection in this area should therefore be a high priority. This would first require consensus on key indicators to collect, to strengthen health workforce information system in countries, to develop innovative approaches to evaluate and analyse internationalhealth worker migration, and to facilitate the dissemination and sharing of information. n
Level 1 cover is designed for people who require comprehensive internationalhealth and travel insurance cover and who may be travelling to one or numerous destinations. Level 1 provides cover for medical expenses up to €1,000,000 and cover for out-patient medical expenses up to €500 should you fall ill while on your travels. Your plan is designed to automatically include cover for hazardous sports and travel insurance which provides cover for cancellation / curtailment, lost luggage, flight delays and lots more for your entire trip. Level 1 also provides short-term cover for emergency medical treatment if you intend to travel outside your chosen geographic area. Level 1 members can choose Dental Insurance as an optional add-on.