Candidemia has become an important bloodstream infection that is frequently associated with high rates of mortality and mor- bidity, and its growing incidence is related to complex medical and surgical procedures. We conducted a multicenter study in five tertiary care teaching hospitals in Italy and Spain and evaluated the epidemiology, species distribution, antifungal suscepti- bilities, and outcomes of candidemia episodes. In the period of 2008 to 2010, 995 episodes of candidemia were identified in these hospitals. The overall incidence of candidemia was 1.55 cases per 1,000 admissions and remained stable during the 3-year analy- sis. Candida albicans was the leading agent of infection (58.4%), followed by Candida parapsilosis complex (19.5%), Candida tropicalis (9.3%), and Candida glabrata (8.3%). The majority of the candidemia episodes were found in the internal medicine department (49.6%), followed by the surgical ward, the intensive care unit (ICU), and the hemato-oncology ward. Out of 955 patients who were eligible for evaluation, 381 (39.9%) died within 30 days from the onset of candidemia. Important differences in the 30-day mortality rates were noted between institutions: the lowest mortality rate was in the Barcelona hospital, and the highest rate was in the Udine hospital (33.6% versus 51%, respectively; P ⴝ 0.0005). Overall, 5.1% of the 955 isolates tested were resistant or susceptible dose dependent (SDD) to fluconazole, with minor differences between the hospitals in Italy and Spain (5.7% versus 3.5%, respectively; P ⴝ 0.2). Higher MICs for caspofungin were found, especially with C. parapsilosis complex (MIC 90 , 1 g/ml). Amphotericin B had the lowest MICs. This report shows that candidemia is a significant source of morbidity
Goossens carried out a research on European leagues such as Germany, France, Portugal, Belgium, England … and showed that Germany and France did not adopt a clear approach to the competitive balance of their leagues. Belgium and England showed a relative linear increase (i.e. a decrease in competitive balance) and Portugal was the only country which enjoyed a considerably negative linear decrease (i.e. an increase in competitive balance) (Goossens, 2006). Hann et al showed that England has decreased competitive balance. They presented weak evidences for such a decrease in Belgium and Holland and observed no clear approach to competitive balance in Germany, France, Italy and Spain (Hann et al., 2007).
even using the term ‘anarcho-syndicalism’ to describe the movement. 1 Certainly within the French, Italian and Spanish syndicalist movements anarchists or so-called ‘anarcho-syndicalists’ were able to gain significant, albeit variable, influence. They were to be responsible in part for the respective movements’ rejection of political parties, elections and parliament in favour of direct action by the unions, as well as their conception of a future society in which, instead of a political state apparatus, the only form of government would be the economic administration of industry exercised directly by the workers themselves. Other features of the syndicalist movements in these three countries, such as federalism, anti-clericalism and anti-militarism, were also profoundly influenced by specifically anarchist ideas and organisation. 2 However if Marxism was a convergence of German philosophy, British political economy and French socialism, 3 the traditional assumption, by contrast, that syndicalism was simply an outgrowth of anarchism would be an over-simplification even though the two were certainly directly related inside the Confédération Générale du Travail (CGT) in France, the Unione Sindacale Italiana (USI) in Italy and the Confederación Nacional de Trabajo (CNT) in Spain. But in many other countries where syndicalist movements also flourished (for example, Britain, Ireland or America), anarchist influence was only of marginal consequence.
The results show that Italy has the highest share of taxes and SICs in total labour cost. Italy certainly has the highest tax wedge for all observed family types and all gross wage amounts, apart from the case of single parents with two children earn- ing an annual gross wage of 67% of AGW (1A-67-2C). In the case of hypothetical unit 1A-67-2C, the highest tax wedge is found in Spain (30.3%), followed by Italy (28.4%) and Croatia (18.5%). The smallest tax wedge is found in the Netherlands and Ireland, which stands out as a country with a negative tax wedge. Spain takes the second place in almost all cases, while Ireland always takes the last. Therefore, coming up after Italy and Spain, Croatia and the Netherlands are placed some- where in the middle when it comes to the size of the tax wedge. Ireland stands out with a very low, sometimes even negative, tax wedge.
A significant effect of VMS was also observed with respect to the number of physician visits. In the case of France and, to a lesser extent Spain and the UK, as severity increased, so did the number of visits. Conversely, no dif- ferences were observed across severity levels in Germany and Italy, although women with mild, moderate, and severe VMS all reported significantly more physician visits than women without VMS. These data suggest that, for women in Germany and Italy, it is the presence of these symptoms rather than severity that is most strongly associated with phy- sician visits. Given the coefficient levels of the mild group in these two countries (which were higher than France and the UK), it is possible that women in Germany and Italy have a lower threshold for tolerating VMS with respect to initiat- ing visits with their physician. It is also possible that these country differences are merely the result of different health care systems. However, the overall interaction term was not significant, suggesting that further research is required to test these hypotheses accurately and whether these differences are merely a sampling error artifact. Although the health care resource use variables in this study were limited in scope
Analysis of application of the industrial robots in Asia and Europe has been performed only for certain countries in these two continents. Main criteria for electing certain countries were motor vehicles industry development. This industry branch has the greatest impact to industrial robot application. For analysis were elected followed countries: Japan, Rep ublic of Chorea, Taiwan, Germany, France, Italy and Spain . Next fig. show diagrams of application of the industrial robots in previously mentioned countries [1,2,4].
Carlo Maderno, Rome’s favored black-sheep architect, owned only 24 books, but his is the earliest library of over twenty volumes that we have record of in Italy. 18 Unfortunately, his inventory does not itemize these books, so we are left to ponder their contents. The most coherent and professionally functional Italian settecento architect’s library is probably that of the little-known Roman architect Paolo Maruscelli. Maruscelli owned 123 books, the itemized list of which was included in the inventory drawn up after his death in 1649. Maruscelli’s library included a great number of architectural treatises, works on military architecture and engineering, perspective, geometry and optics,
The benefits that may accrue from the adoption of organic farming on family farms in Mediterranean countries such as Portugal, Italy and Spain are analysed, together with its impact and major constraints, as well as the contribution that new forms of teaching and learning can give to its spread and success, including through m-learning, as it is the case of the project ECONewFARMERS - Building a future for new farmers in ecological farming through vocational training.
were applied based on OHSS severity: for mild/moderate OHSS, the tariff included gynecological visits and laboratory tests for an amount of ~€ 160 and € 120 for Italy and Spain, respectively; severe OHSS tariff entailed a hospitalization (DRG 369) with an amount of ~€ 800 and € 1,600 for Italy and Spain, respectively. Furthermore, mild/moderate OHSS patients were also treated with paracetamol and metoclopr- amide, but since these drugs are dispensed as class C in Italy, that is, are fully charged to the patient, related costs were not included in the Italian model, whereas in the Spanish model they were accounted for ( € 1.14) considering that the Spanish NHS reimburses 60% of the cost for the majority of prescription-only pharmaceuticals. Gonadotropin acquisition costs for Germany and the UK were also taken into account to expand the economical assessment to the other countries.
Data in table 6 also highlight that EU7-EFIGE firms employing high-skilled workers more intensively than others perform better on average. 23 As in Griliches (2000) and Parisi et al. (2006) we find that human capital plays an important role for TFP in Italy and Spain, while we provide inconclusive evidence for French enterprises. In addition, the estimations indicate that the coefficient of the dummy Process Innovation is positive and significant, implying that EU7-EFIGE firms introducing process-innovation perform better than firms that do not innovate. The results concerning human capital and process innovation are coherent with the expectation that a firm’s performance improves as a result of its propensity for innovation and the presence of skilled workers (see, e.g., Krueger and Lindahl 2001; Sveikauskas 2007). Basically, this is why qualified employees provide a firm with the capability not only to develop new processes, but also to absorb knowledge made by other firms (Cohen and Levinthal 1990). However, the estimated coefficient of process innovation is statistically significant in Italy, but not in France or Spain. This differs from the evidence provided by Griffith et al. (2006), where the impact of process innovation on productivity diverges in the case of France, while it is the same for Spain. As for the relationship between productivity and innovation, it is notable that gains in TFP are only associated with process innovation, whereas no effect is found when the innovation regards the introduction of a new product or other innovations, such as the organizational innovations (results available upon request). These findings contrast with the results of the studies surveyed by Hall (2011), who finds a
An international multicenter postmarketing surveillance study was carried out in nine European countries (Austria, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom) to compare the level of satisfaction of patients with hemophilia A before and after switching from another existing factor VIII reconstitution method to the new system with Bio-Set ® ; In addition, safety and quality of life
Numerous studies on the seroprevalence of VBD of pets in endemic areas have been performed during the last decades [9,21-23]. However, studies evaluating incidence risk of CME are rare, in particular studies presenting rates in reference to a dog population . The study conducted in 2011 allowed to collect samples from 366 cases of CME suspicion in 78 veterinary clinics from Spain, Portugal and Italy. According to the results of sero- logical and molecular tests, an overall annual incidence risk of the disease in those countries was calculated at 0.08% in the three countries with important geographic variations (from 0 to 1.6%). In addition, the identification of other vector-borne pathogens in the samples was ex- tremely frequent and the study demonstrated that a dog with clinical signs evocative of CME is as likely to be posi- tive to Ehrlichia canis as to another VBP including Ana- plasma platys, Babesia canis, B. vogeli, B. microti-like, Hepatozoon canis or Leishmania infantum.
governance alike. It was what determined fiscal policy freedom of action in light of the crisis, and signaled the possible reactions on the part of T-bills and T-bonds markets, including the long-term view of the euro exchange rate. According to Eurostat data, in 2007 there were only 5 EMU countries (Luxembourg - 6.7%, the Republic of Ireland - 25%, Finland – 35.2%, Spain - 36.1%, and the Netherlands - 45.3%) that maintained the deficit to GDP ratio on a level lower than the required 60%. Other countries demonstrated higher deficit levels, to a greater or lesser extent (Austria, with its 60.7%, displayed the lowest deviation, while Belgium, Italy and Greece produced the highest ones, i.e. 84.2%, 103.6% and 105.4% respectively). As the data in Figure 4 show, in the first crisis-ridden year, all EMU countries, except Finland, increased the deficit to GDP ratio in comparison with the level as of 2007. In the two years that followed, as a reaction to crisis and as a consequence of the increased public finance sector deficits, the countries augmented the levels of their debt. The lowest level of debt increase in 2010 as compared to 2007 was the share of Italy, Belgium and Austria, which amounted to 114.9%, 115%, 119% for those countries respectively (Figure 4).