Sofia University "St. Kliment Ohridski ". Faculty of journalism and masscommunication. "Volume 7, 2000, Sofia, Publisher of Sofia University" St. Kliment Ohridski ", p. 263-294. (Вълканова, Веселина. Историческо развитие на българската вестникарска графика. В: “Годишник на Софийския университет “Св. Климент Охридски”. Факултет по журналистика и масова комуникация.” Том 7, 2000, София, Издателство на СУ “Св. Климент Охридски”, стр. 263 – 294.)
108 Curriculum is central to any academic programme. It is the rudder which directs the ship of an academic endeavour. It also determines the competence that would be acquired by students, as well as the respect drawn by stakeholders in an academic programme. A great deal of debate has ensued among various interested parties to journalism education on what should be the complexion and content of the curriculum on journalism and masscommunication education. As expected, there is no agreement yet on this and it is doubtful if there will ever be. A reason for this assertion lies in the nature of curriculum itself. A good curriculum must not aim only to prepare students for the challenges of the world of work, but must also reflect the social, cultural and political environments where it operates. Beyond this, it must affect the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains of its recipients. Indeed, a good curriculum must be robust in its content while being specific in its goal. There are multifarious views on journalism and masscommunication curricula today and this could be said to have their roots in the views of some of the pioneers of journalism education who had tremendous influence on the growth of the field.
Assessment is a process of gathering and documenting information about the achievement, skills, and abilities of an individual. Instructors use the interpretation of assessment result in an educational setting to accomplish a range of objectives (Weiner et al, 2003). Weiner et al, (2003) asserted that educators use interpretation of assessment result to learn more about the competencies and deficiencies of the individual being tested or assessed. Same as to identify specific problem areas and/or needs; to evaluate the individual's performance in relation to others; to evaluate the individual's performance in relation to a set of standards or goals and to provide teachers with feedback on effectiveness of instruction (Weiner et al, 2003). Assessment can be interpreted using theoretical viewpoint. Weiner et al (2003) stated that a theory based-approach of interpreting assessment allows the instructor to make predictions with greater specificity and utility. The ultimate use of interpreting an assessment result is to identify the areas that learners need improvement (Weiner et al, 2003). The objectives of interpreting an assessment in journalism and masscommunication is to ensure that the student views the assessment in an objective and holistic perspective, agree on the students strength and to prioritize areas for improvement that will need further action.
The very term "mass communications and media" today means something quite different than the term meant just one or two decades ago. The world of the Web is bringing about major change in mass communications and media. (See The Internet as a Mass Communications Medium.) From Web radio to world news or even music on the Web, the domains of masscommunication and media present new and dramatic contours: traditional broadcast journalism (the nightly news) now ends with a reminder to visit the network's Web site for further information or special event coverage. Television coverage of the 2000 Olympics in Sydney, Australia, included a visual reminder flashed on the screen periodically for the viewer to go to the special network Web site for additional Olympics information.
The MA in journalism and masscommunication degree is a balanced program whose focus is academic and theoretical and yet has substantial graduate-level professional journalism and media courses that help students to hone technical skills in reporting, writing, visual and graphic storytelling, and so on. The emphasis of the degree is on technology, innovation and media, social and collaborative multimedia, cross-media studies, and visual communication, with appropriate grounding in concepts, theories, and research methods. The nature and focus of this work is determined by students in collaboration with their advisers. The MA in journalism and MassCommunication program requires 33 semester hours and completion of a thesis. Given the interdisciplinary nature of the degree, students are expected to take courses outside the School of Journalism and MassCommunication.
messages concerning specific problems/issues. Mass media communication channels are usually used in campaigns geared for wide and public audiences, but often campaigns directed to local communities with specifically identified audiences are the most effective in involving citizens in problem-solving and planning decisions that affect their everyday lives. Therefore, both mass media campaigns and interpersonal communication campaigns will be discussed in this article.
• For the student who is hoping to pursue Media Planning as a career, this course will serve as an introduction to the process of critically evaluating media options, purchasing or placing strategic communications in media outlets, scheduling media weight in a manner that achieves communication goals, and evaluating the impact of media on audience members. This course will provide a simulation of how a strategic media plan in researched, conceived, and executed. • For the student who is not planning on pursuing Media Planning as a career, this course will
This study examined how the use of the Internet may have been a factor in the decision the respondents had in selecting their schools. There have been many studies relating to college choice. The most referenced study, Hossler & Gallagher (1987) explores and expands on what they call the three-phase model. Predisposition is the earliest stage of the college choice process--is the stage in which some students develop aspirations for college attendance. Those that make it a goal to go to college begin to look for an avenue that helps them achieve this goal. The second stage of the college choice model is the search phase. It is during this phase that a student gains information regarding the possible college choices they may have that are not only have their desired major but also ones that are good fits socially and maybe more importantly, financially. Later in this study we will examine the financial question the respondents reported on the survey. The third phase of college choice model is the choice. This is simply when the student determines they have all the information they need to make the selection and they can eliminate all other possible institutions. Hossler et al. (1989) state it is important to note that a student may opt out of the college choice process at any stage of this three-phase model. Kao & Tienda (1998) discuss how the literature related to African American student aspirations for college attendance presents conflicting information. Some studies contend that African American students aspire to college attendance at rates similar to their White peers while other studies have shown that White students aspire to college attendance at higher rates than African American students. This study had the privilege of examining how African-American and White Americans at 6 different institutions, studying the same major, all made the decision to attend journalism schools.
The new collectivities need to draw memberships from women, ethnic and sexually diverse groups, minorities, children, specially challenged, and all people who seem to have no group protection for their human rights. Where better to start than in universities and in the media, two of the most important educators in today's global, cultural mixes? Journalism and masscommunication educators need to join with media workers to have important societal actions and impacts in the next century -- this will happen when these groups finally understand and wisely use the power they hold by distributing it in ways that enhance enlightened, spiritual democracy in the living, interactive system known as the earth.
"The case of Lucille Bluford describes the reality of Blacks and American journalism and masscommunication education in the era of 'separate but equal.'" (Jeter, 2002) The Morrill Act did allow for this type of funding; states only had to provide access. Bluford applied for admission to the journalism school at the University of Missouri. “To avoid admitting her to the all-White school, in 1942, the state of Missouri created a new and separate journalism program at Lincoln University, the state's college for Blacks, and assigned one teacher to it.” (Jeter, 2002) Of course, this was not equal. It was, however, separate and the decision started what would become the first HBCU with a unit in journalism. "The Missouri school was the only HBCU to offer journalism major until 1967 when Hampton Institute established its mass media arts major." (Jeter, 2002)
37. Jung, Y., Vorderer, P., & Song, H. (2006, August). Posting and reading personal messages: The motivation of personal blog use and the effects of personal blog use on users’ loneliness, belonging, and well-being in real life. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for Education in Journalism and MassCommunication, San Francisco, CA.
Advertising plays a pivotal role in society, both in the U.S. & abroad. It impacts free market economies by providing information to consumers as well as jobs, & it serves as a source of revenue to help maintain & grow systems of mass & individualized media. As a means of focusing consumer attention, advertising can help to stimulate consumption & can even be considered an agent of socialization, much like schools, family, & friends. Advertising can teach people some of the values & norms of cultures, while
interrupt in the state affairs. To strengthen the Authoritarian theory, the British Emperor Stewart and French Emperor Todor remained its forerunners. As this theory was backed by the Pope, it also made popism the right hand of the authoritarian rulers. Under this theory, the social freedom was totally suppressed. Even in present age, where, there is emperorship, there is the same mode of masscommunication. This phenomenon can be seen in the countries like Saudi Arabia , United Arab Emirates and Libya . Second theory of Communication is „Libertarian Concept of Communication', which was originated against the authoritarian concept. This theory emerged as a philosophy in 17 th century and became popular throughout the Europe . This theory was based on the doctrine of philosopher John Lock that the real powers of the state rest with the people and every person has right to decide that what is right and what is wrong. Initially, America and Britain opted for this theory and later on, other countries also followed them.
In the Government College, Lahore, Journalism was introduced as an elective subject at the undergraduate level by the Department of Political Science in 1987. When Government College Lahore became a university in 2002, the nomenclature of the subject was changed to MassCommunication. In September 2007, the Department of MassCommunication was established under the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. As a new department, it is teaching MassCommunication as an allied subject in BA (Honors) programme. It lacks practicum options, and has an M.Phil as its Head. Another entrant in the field of MassCommunication is the National College of Arts that established Department of Film & Television in 2005-2009, which is running a 4-year bachelor degree program in film & television production and plans to launch a one year postgraduate diploma program in script & screenplay writing. NCA is known for its practical work, hence its Film and Television Department offers practice-based education. It does not have a PhD or M.Phil faculty and is headed by a reputed documentary maker. NCA has initiated a postgraduate Centre in Multimedia Arts, which offers Masters in Multimedia Arts and postgraduate Diploma in Multimedia Arts. When asked about the NCA film and TV program, the students said that the NCA degree had value in both the national and international market. Most of the students were found to be satisfied with the faculty, which included some big names in the industry, and the equipment. The NCA survey, and prior to that the ICS survey, strengthens the researchers’ view that the new trends in MassCommunication studies depict a tilt towards the practical side of MassCommunication studies and students prefer to study market based courses.
In order to accomplish these objectives and broaden their masscommunication background, students are encouraged to engage in a variety of media, theatre, and journalism courses and activities at Lander University. Opportunities are available for student participation in theatre and musical productions; in print, online and broadcast journalism; and in radio, video and television productions.
Sports journalism and writing is now also seen as a key element of the wider branding of most newspapers as they reposition their appeals in attempts to attract new readers. The general dismantling of a more paternal media system in the UK, and its replacement with a more commercially driven demand-led entity, has both benefited and constrained sports journalism. However, with- out the introduction of increased competition in the UK television market, and the corresponding explosion in the coverage of sport, there is little doubt that the expansion in sports journalism that is so evident in the UK media market would simply not have happened to the same degree.