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The effects of exclosure on plants in the semi-arid rangeland of North Khorasan province, Iran

The effects of exclosure on plants in the semi-arid rangeland of North Khorasan province, Iran

In the North Khorasan province, the rangelands contain many grass, forbs, and shrub species. Understanding the effects of grazing and non- grazing on the dynamics of the herbaceous communities of North Khorasan Province is important in formulating rational management plans for both conservation and sustainable animal production. It is well recognized that comparisons between grazed and ungrazed grasslands have been an important tool in determining the effects of grazing (Safford and Harrison, 2001). Additionally, comparison of plant diversity of grazed and ungrazed sites can yield important theoretical insights on the role of herbivory and competition in structuring plant communities (Belsky, 1986).
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Intestinal Helminths in Different Species of Rodents in North Khorasan Province, Northeast of Iran

Intestinal Helminths in Different Species of Rodents in North Khorasan Province, Northeast of Iran

The helminth faunas of small mammals have been studied and documented in many coun- tries (2-6) and the occurrence of zoonotic par- asites of rodents has been studied extensively. There are some reports on the infectivity of rodents with parasites in some areas of Iran. Three species of rodents were trapped from different localities of Khuzestan Province, southwest of Iran and Trichosomoides crassicauda were the most prevalent species of helminth parasites (7). Endoparasites were detected in Meriones persicus and Microtus socialis in Ardabil Province, North West of Iran (8). Endopara- sites have also been isolated from Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus and R. rattus in Kermanshah, west of Iran. Thus T. muris was the most prev- alent and S. muris the least abundant (9). In another study, parasitic infection was observed in Rhombomys opimus in Golestan, adjacent Province to North Khorasan Province. The most prevalent helminth species in this study was Dipetalonema (Acanthocheilo-nema) viteae (10). Eleven helminths were isolated from Apodemus sylvaticus and M. musculus in Hamadan, west of Iran (11). Furthermore, 9 genera or species of the endoparasites were reported in Tatera indica, Meriones hurriana, Gerbilus nanus and Meriones libycus in Sistan and Baluchistan Province, southeast of Iran (12).
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Isolation and Identification of Nocardia spp. Using Phenotypic Methods from Soil Samples of North Khorasan Province

Isolation and Identification of Nocardia spp. Using Phenotypic Methods from Soil Samples of North Khorasan Province

In current study Nocardia identification was performed of soil samples from North Khorasan province. The results are show that the frequency of Nocardia from soil samples of North Khorasan province is7%. Nocardia species are soil saprophytes. They are able to causing the diseases with a wide range in healthy individuals and especially in patients with immune system disorder (1-6). The isolation of the genus Nocardia is a difficult, because is bacterium with growth of slowly. One of the best suitable methods for Nocardia isolation from poly-microbial samples is paraffin baiting technique (15). Gordon and Hagan were offered this method in 1936 and developed by McClung in 1960 (19). Based on the results of previous studies, prevalence of Nocardia species from the soil in various locations are different which the range of 5-50% has been reported (20-23). In India, the frequency of Nocardia from soil has been estimated approximately 8% (22). Van Gelderen de et al. identified Nocardia from soil in Argentina. The most abundant of the known species were Nocardia brasiliensis, Nocardia asteroides and Nocardia caviae, with a frequency of 85%, 9%, 6% respectively. These various results in literatures are depending on the geographical location, regional climate and soil types (8, 9).
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Autecology Essential Oil Composition, Antibacterial, Anti Candidacies and Ethnopharmacological Survey of Ferula Gummosa L. As Anti Infection to Treat Of Vaginal Infections in Traditional Medicine of Razavi Khorasan Province (North East of Iran)

Autecology Essential Oil Composition, Antibacterial, Anti Candidacies and Ethnopharmacological Survey of Ferula Gummosa L. As Anti Infection to Treat Of Vaginal Infections in Traditional Medicine of Razavi Khorasan Province (North East of Iran)

Materials and Methods: In this research, the gums of plant root were collected from the Heidary nature reserve in Razavi Khorasan Province (Iran) in August 2012. The ethnopharmacological data about traditional uses of plant were obtained from the rural healers (women 67-75 year) of this region. Essential oil of the plant root gum was obtained by hydrodistillation (Clevenger apparatus) and was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Antibacterial activity of plant ethanolic extract was studied in vitro against Candida albicans and 9 Gram-positive and negative bacteria using well method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay.
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Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus granulosus in canines in North Khorasan Province, northeastern Iran, identified using morphology and genetic characterization of mitochondrial DNA

Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus granulosus in canines in North Khorasan Province, northeastern Iran, identified using morphology and genetic characterization of mitochondrial DNA

Overall, 17 animals out of 106 examined (16%) had echinococcosis. The overall rates of infection with E. multilocularis and E. granulosus were 9.4% and 6.6%, respectively. In jackals, both E. multilocularis (13.1%) and E. granulosus (3.3%) were found. Infection of this canid with these species of Echinococcus has been reported on multiple occasions and across a wide geographical range [52]. In Iran, infections in jackals with E. multilocularis has been reported from Ardabil Province in the north- west [32] and Razavi Khorasan Province in the northeast of Iran [33]. In Hungary, the jackal was recently reported as a new host record for E. multilocularis [53]. The jackal is under significant and fast geographical expansion [52] and can migrate long distances through ecological cor- ridors [53]. Since this species is an important definitive host for echinococcosis, it can serve as a potential source of infection to humans and domestic animals in endemic areas.
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Analysis and prioritization of factors affecting the tourists' satisfaction (Case study: in Southern Khorasan Province)

Analysis and prioritization of factors affecting the tourists' satisfaction (Case study: in Southern Khorasan Province)

Abstract: Religious tourism with the history related to the past centuries is one of the most common forms of tourism throughout the world which has constituted a considerable share in tourist activities. Experts of tourism industry believe that religious tourism has a great growth and development opportunity in Iran, which is related to its special religious and cultural situation in the region. Despite the existence of 8919 sacred religious locations in Iran, its religious tourism still lacks any kind of centralized and specialized organization. Today, tourism development is not possible in the absence of knowing the needs and satisfaction rate of tourists as well as their effective factors; this issue has been also specifically considered at national, regional, and international levels. Therefore, the present study aimed to measure the satisfaction rate of tourists and its effective factors in order to develop religious tourism in South Khorasan Province. This research was an analytical-descriptive work .ranking results of the effective factors for the satisfaction rate of religious tourists revealed that information quality for tourists gained 0.861 value score, life and financial safety 0.793 value, and environmental calmness 0.787 value, had a better position than others.
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Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Satureja mutica Fisch. & C.A.Mey. Collected from North Khorasan Province, Iran

Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Satureja mutica Fisch. & C.A.Mey. Collected from North Khorasan Province, Iran

This paper should be cited as: Mazandarani M, Monfaredi L [Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Satureja mutica Fisch. Collected from North Khorasan Province, Iran]..[r]

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Comparative Performance of Different Traps for Collection of Phlebotominae Sand Flies and Estimation of Biodiversity Indices in Three Endemic Leishmaniasis Foci in North Khorasan Province, Northeast of Iran

Comparative Performance of Different Traps for Collection of Phlebotominae Sand Flies and Estimation of Biodiversity Indices in Three Endemic Leishmaniasis Foci in North Khorasan Province, Northeast of Iran

According to the previous study tolerance to DDT reported in North Khorasan Province, therefore collection and monitoring of phlebotominae sand flies is necessary (15). There is no sufficient document for evaluation of different collection methods of phlebotom- inae sand flies in Iran. The purpose of this study was to compare performance of different traps in three endemic leishmaniasis foci in North Khorasan Province, northeast of Iran to assess which of these traps could catch a large num- ber or show the most diversity of sand flies.

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Faunistic Composition and Spatial Distribution of Scorpions in North  Khorasan Province Northeast of Iran

Faunistic Composition and Spatial Distribution of Scorpions in North Khorasan Province Northeast of Iran

Data of the current research indicated that the scorpion activity started in March, and reached its peaked in August when the weath- er was favorable, leading to a gradual increase in the frequency of scorpion species. This find- ing was corroborated by others (21, 22). The presence of suitable environmental conditions for the emergence of species has caused the presence of scorpion species to reach its peak in the study area in August. Therefore, due to the high incidence of scorpions in the envi- ronment in Aug, the scorpion sting cases al- so tend to increase, which call for an urgent need to implement training programs by health- care providers in an effort to prevent scorpi- onism in this month. In this investigation, most of scorpions were collected at night. This in agreement with the results of re- search carried out in other regions of Iran such as South Khorasan Province (22, 28). According to the scientific fact that scorpi- ons are nocturnal creatures, this finding is the- oretically expected. Therefore, personal pro- tection against scorpion stings at night be undertaken. To the current authors’ knowledge, among the limitations of this study mention can be made of the potential risks of scorpi- on stings and the problems of collecting scor- pions in mountainous areas.
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Epidemiological survey and geographical distribution of cutaneous Leishmaniasis in North Khorasan province, 2006-2013

Epidemiological survey and geographical distribution of cutaneous Leishmaniasis in North Khorasan province, 2006-2013

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, data of the Leishmaniasis patients between the years 2006-2013 were collected from the different districts of North Khorasan Province. The gathered data were analyzed by using SPSS16 statistical software and chi-square test. Results: Data concerning 2831 patients with Cutaneous Leishmaniasis were collected. The maximum outbreak of the disease occurred in 2011 and the minimum occurrence was reported in 2008. The mean age of the study population was 22.80 ± 18.08 and the maximum cases of infection were observed in age group of 16-30 years. 58.6% of the patients were male and 53.5% of them lived in the villages. The maximum infection of the disease was observed in Esfarayen with 1095 people (38.7%). There was a significant relationship between the gender and age of the patients and cutaneous Leishmaniasis (P<0.001).
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First Molecular Identification of Sarcocystis ovicanis (Protozoa, Apicomplexa) in the Brain of Sheep in Iran.

First Molecular Identification of Sarcocystis ovicanis (Protozoa, Apicomplexa) in the Brain of Sheep in Iran.

Methods: In general, 80 samples of sheep's brain were collected from slaugh- tered sheep in slaughterhouses of North Khorasan Province. Tissue digestion method was used for observing bradyzoites in tissues. Histopathological pro- cessing tracing Sarcocystis and ensuing structural change in the brain tissue were conducted. PCR analysis was conducted on all the brain samples. Sequencing was done for one PCR product. Genotype was identified by Blast search and homology analysis.

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CRFA-CRBM: a hybrid technique for anomaly recognition in regional geochemical exploration; case study: Dehsalm area, east of Iran

CRFA-CRBM: a hybrid technique for anomaly recognition in regional geochemical exploration; case study: Dehsalm area, east of Iran

Identification of geochemical anomalies is a crucial step in regional geochemical explorations. In this regard, new techniques have been developed based on deep learning networks. These simple-structure-networks act as human brains in processing the data by simulating deep layers of thinking. In this paper, a hybrid compositional-deep learning technique was applied to identify anomalous zones in the Dehsalm area located in 90 km of SW-Nehbandan, a town in South Khorasan province, Iran. The compositional robust factor analysis (CRFA) was applied as a tool to select a meaningful subset as an input to Continuous Restricted Boltzmann Machine (CRBM). The dataset consists of 635 stream sediment geochemical samples analyzed for 21 elements. Using CRFA, the 3rd factor (i.e. Pb, Zn, Cu, Ag, Sb, Sr, Ba, Hg, and W), which indicates the occurrence of epithermal mineralization in the area, was considered as an input set to CRBM. The best-performed CRBM with 80 hidden units and stabilized parameters at 150 iterations was finalized and trained on all the geochemical samples of the study area. The average square contribution (ASC) and average square error (ASE) values were determined as anomaly identifiers on the reconstructed error of the trained CRBM. A statistical threshold was applied to the values of the criteria (ASC & ASE), and the resulting outputs were mapped to delineate the anomalous samples. The maps indicated that ASC and ASE had the same performance in multivariate geochemical anomaly recognition. The anomalies were confirmed spatially using mineral prospects of Pb, Zn, Cu, and Sb, as well as several active lead and copper mines in the study area.
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Zoning Of Apple Trees In Province Of Khorasan Razavi, Iran

Zoning Of Apple Trees In Province Of Khorasan Razavi, Iran

Day length, evapotranspiration and their effects on crops and thereafter, combined these data through weighting each layer in GIS, and eventually produced a map of suitable areas for cultivation of these plants [10]. Other studies in this area are Oche (1998) [17], Sayta pariya (1999) [27], Norwood (2000) [16], and Aggarwal (2003) [1]. The following researches conducted inside Iran can also be mentioned. Mahmoudi (2003) used remote sensing and geographic information system to determine suitable areas for planting new varieties of wheat in Zanjan province. They used TM satellite images for the identification of agricultural land from other lands. In addition to climatic parameters, Kind et al. (2006) used slope gradient layer to determine areas with suitable slope as one of the criteria of proportionality in climacteric zoning for planting winter rain fed wheat in Moghan and Ardebil districts using GIS. They used four classes of winter wheat for classification in rain fed wheat conditions. In this study, the effects of climatic variables and topographic mapping on winter wheat were assessed individually and also as a group (information layers overlap) using GIS in a climate model location. Bazgir (2001) [3], Farajzadeh and Takaloubighsh (2002) [9], Makhdoum (2002), Sobhani (2006) [29] and Rasouli et al. (2006) [19] conducted zoning in Kurdistan, Hamadan and Ardebil provinces, respectively, through analyzing the climatic factors and elements in GIS, and found that agroclimacteric zoning is possible by analyzing elements in GIS. Thus, in this paper, we attempted to investigate the feasibility of prone/suitable areas for apple cultivation in Razavi Khorasan province.
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Motorcyclists' safety in Iran: implication of haddonmatrix in safe community setting

Motorcyclists' safety in Iran: implication of haddonmatrix in safe community setting

the Fars province, the highest mortality rate was revealed in Niriz city (NSC) (254/100,000 motorcycles) and the least reported from Eghlid city (SC) (122/100,000 motorcycles). In Busher province, the highest death rate was detect- ed from the Busher city (SC) (41.8/100,000 motorcycles) and the least was from the Genaveh city (NSC) (41.7/100,000 motor- cycles). In Khorasan province, the highest death rate was reported from the Torbat-e- hydarieh city (NSC) (200/100,000 motor- cycles) and the lowest from Bardscan city (SC) (16/100,000 motorcycles) (table2, 3,4). About fifty percent of motorcyclists died on scene of crash, 25% died on the way to the hospital and 25% at the emer- gency room. 73.2% of motorcyclists be- lieved that wearing a helmet is looking funny, 44.4 percent said that it is disturbing, 30 percent mentioned that they feel warm when wearing a helmet and it generate heat particularly in summer time.36.4 percent said it blocks the hearing, and finally more than 70 percent expressed that the helmet usage is an embarrassing to the riders in
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Human Cystic Echinococcosis in Different Geographical Zones of Iran: An Observational Study during 1995–2014

Human Cystic Echinococcosis in Different Geographical Zones of Iran: An Observational Study during 1995–2014

The data on all types of echinococcosis in Iran were collected from 1995 to 2014. Over this pe- riod, the total number of cases reached 8518. The trend in cases of human CE from 1995 to 2014 is illustrated in Fig. 1, showing the number of the cases in each year. The highest incidence rate of echinococcosis was reported in 2010 with 615 cases and the lowest in 2007 with 246 cases. Among 31 provinces of Iran, Razavi Khorasan Province from northeast was the more infected province with the 1801 CE cases and the lowest rate of CE was reported from Hormozgan Prov- ince in the south part of the country with the on- ly one case in 2009 (Fig. 2).
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A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE MIRIDAE (HEMIPTERA) FAUNA IN SABZEVAR AND ITS COUNTIES (RAZAVI KHORASAN, IRAN)

A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE MIRIDAE (HEMIPTERA) FAUNA IN SABZEVAR AND ITS COUNTIES (RAZAVI KHORASAN, IRAN)

The fauna of Iranian Miridae was recently studied by Arkani; 2009; Ebrahimi et al., 2012; Ghahari & Cherot, 2014; Hosseini, 1997, 2013a,b,c; 2014a,b; Hosseini & Linnavuori, 2000; Hosseini & Shamsi 2014; Hosseini et al., 2000, 2002a,b; Linnavuori & Hosseini, 1998, 1999, 2000; Lashkari & Hosseini, 2012; Linnavuori, 2006, 2007, 2009; Mirab-Balou, 2008; Shamsi et al., 2014; Wagner 1971; Yarmand et al., 2004. This study aims to conduct research on the fauna of mirid bugs with the focus on Razavi Khorasan province, especially Sabzevar.

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PSORIATIC ARTHRITIS IN 300 PSORIATIC PATIENTS IN IMA M REZA HO SPITAL, MASH H AD UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES

PSORIATIC ARTHRITIS IN 300 PSORIATIC PATIENTS IN IMA M REZA HO SPITAL, MASH H AD UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES

Imam Reza hospital is one of the main teaching and referral hospitals which is located in Mashhad, the cen­ ter of Khorasan province, Iran. This is a prospective study over a [r]

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Landslide Zoning in Amir Almoemenin (AS) Water Supply Pipeline Complex, North Khorasan

Landslide Zoning in Amir Almoemenin (AS) Water Supply Pipeline Complex, North Khorasan

Paleozoic rocks in the studied area aren’t exposed. Mesozoic rocks contain relatively thick sequence of li- mestone, marl and some terrigenous rocks. Source rocks and reservoir of Khangiran gas reserves in near area are part of Mesozoic sequences. Northern Khorasan Province has a changing climate due to its expanse, local and natural factors. The main reason for climate changes of this region is the interaction between different columns of air which enter the region from the west, southwest and northeast of this province. In addition, high moun- tains and depressed areas have significant effects on climate changes of the province; generally, Northern Kho- rasan Province has a temperate, alpine climate [4].
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Investigation of Visceral Leishmaniasis among 192 Dog  Carcasses Killed by Road Accidents in Khorasan Razavi, North-eastern Iran during 2014-2016

Investigation of Visceral Leishmaniasis among 192 Dog Carcasses Killed by Road Accidents in Khorasan Razavi, North-eastern Iran during 2014-2016

Investigation of VL on dog carcasses which killed on the roads of Khorasan Province had some limitations in this study. The limited number of population study, difficulty on exact examination of signs in carcasses killed 2-3 d before observa- tion in different climate conditions and difficulty in diagnosis were the main problems. Post- mortem change is an important phenomenon considered in future studies. We suggest using live dogs instead of dead cases (25). Liver dog samples digested in proteinase K solution hardly and we had to use spleen samples for DNA ex- traction. In one study on infected dogs, it was shown detection of kDNA by PCR from skin samples is better results than tissue samples in symptomatic animals (31). It is noteworthy al- most infected dogs are asymptomatic (8, 9, 10, 32).
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Comparison of the environmental indicators of phosphorus efficiency and the balance between saffron and wheat production systems in the Qaenat region, Iran

Comparison of the environmental indicators of phosphorus efficiency and the balance between saffron and wheat production systems in the Qaenat region, Iran

ABSTRACT: Improving the resource use efficiency in agro- ecosystems is an important factor for reducing environmental pollution. To evaluate phosphorus (P) efficiency and balance indicators, research was conducted in wheat and saffron production systems in the Qaenat region (South Khorasan Province, Iran) during 2011 and 2012, based on the method of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The required information about wheat and saffron cultivation was collected via questionnaires and the required coefficients were obtained from various literatures. The results showed that the phosphorus efficiency and balance indicators were significantly different between distinct districts only in the case of wheat crops. The highest P efficiencies of wheat and saffron farms were 7.21% and 2.93%, respectively. Additionally, P efficiency and balance indicators showed a significant difference between both crops in some districts, so that wheat had higher P efficiency than saffron, which was mainly because of the different amounts of animal manure applied to these crops. There was no significant difference between the different ages of saffron farms for P efficiency and balance. Furthermore, there was a significant negative correlation between P efficiency and balance indicators. It would appear that there are many opportunities for improving the efficiency of P and to prevent environmental pollution through the optimization of management decisions.
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