Yet if the association of language and identity was linguistic nationalism’s most notable legacy, then its achievement was ambivalent. For as noted in section two above, the linking of language, national identity and political allegiance was not a new development in Ireland. In fact it was first produced by the colonists as part of their policy of linguistic colonialism; from The Statutes of Kilkenny (1366) to Henry the Eighth’s ‘Act for English Order, Habit and Language’ (1537) , language use was taken to signify identity in the most simple and crude way. As the colonial adventurer Fynes Moryson ’s put it somewhat disingenuously in his Itinerary (1617): ‘ communion or difference of language, hath alwayes been observed, a spetial motive to unite or allienate the myndes of all nations... And in generall all nations have thought nothing more powerfull to unite myndes then the Community of language (Moryson 1903: 213). Yet though this belief arose precisely from the political and cultural order imposed by colonialism, it was not theorised and popularised within Europe at least until the end of the eighteenth century. At that point, largely under the influence of the German Romantic and idealist traditions, questions of language, identity and politics again rose to the forefront of crucial debates.
According to Pavlenko (2002, p. 282) within applied linguistics research, the root of poststructuralist inquiries can be traced in the critical applied linguistics works of Pennycook especially when he stated that we ‘need to rethink language acquisition in its social, cultural, and political contexts, taking into account gender, race, and other relations of power as well as the notion of the subject as multiple and formed within different discourses’ (Pennycook, 1990, p. 26). As Pavlenko clarifies, this need was later more deeply dealt with through Bonny Norton’s works (e.g., Norton, 1995). This research is theoretically informed by poststructuralist view of language because it can provide complementary approaches to the study of language and culture in ELT (Morgan, 2007). Accordingly, it is related to this theoretical stance in that it argues how the identity of an individual is reshaped from the time he started to learn English and hence confirming the dynamicity of language and identity.
People have different roles towards others in different groups; people have multiple identities. One’s identity may shift according to the situation and social context. Social identity theory (cf. Tajfel, 1982) claims that people have different feelings and attitudes towards the different groups they identify with or differentiate from. People tend to favour their in-group, known as in-group favouritism (Edwards, 2009). This form of social categorisation can cause stereotypes to be formed, either positive towards the in-group, or negative towards the out-group. Out-group homogeneity is an effect caused by the stereotyping of groups: “my group is made of many different individuals, but you are all alike” (Edwards, 2009, p. 26). The different identities one holds on to and lets go of is not something static but ever-changing, and like the fuzzy boundaries between groups, “personal and group identities fall on a scale and are inherently blurred” (Meyerhoff, 2006, p.77). In the vein of in-group favouritism, I expect the Dutch speakers to prefer to speak the Dutch language and communities above the French language and communities. I expect the identifying process to have an influence on language choice, when wanting to belong to the group of French speakers by shifting to that language. In addition, divergence can be of influence when speaking French, as a statement of not wanting to belong to the Dutch- speaking community. I expect the Dutch-speaking Brusseler not to shift to French for change of in-group, but for communicative means. I expect the speakers to ascribe French-speaking group membership traits to themselves as a part of the speakers’ identities. When speaking Dutch, I do not expect them to identify with the French-speaking community, in this case the out-group of French speakers might be stereotyped, and the French speakers’ traits are not applicable to them.
This thesis deals with the ways Boyomais youngsters build up a lucrative identity for themselves by adapting their use of language. I started off, in chapter 2, by presenting Kisangani in terms of the two vernaculars that are spoken in the city: Lingala and Swahili. In chapter 3, foregrounding the importance of relationships, I then sketched the socio- economic background so as to better understand the mechanism of the daily struggles of youngsters in Kisangani. Consequently, in chapter 4, I presented the Yankee, whom many youngsters aspire to be, as the ultimate city dweller; somebody who has seen it all. Placing the Yankee next to the Bills, the Yuma, the sapeur, the co-operant, the trickster, the shegue, the musician, and the responsible father, I discussed in detail the Yankee’s link to Lingala, to Kinshasa, as well as his inherent ambivalence. Returning to language, I dug, in chapter 5, into the roots of urban Lingala and its various types: Lingala Facile, Kindoubil and Inverted Kindoubil. I concluded this chapter by suggesting that the Yankee speaks Kindoubil, an Urban Youth Language that is prestigious and powerful because it fails to be recognised as arbitrary.
Identity orientations refer to the relative importance that individuals place on various identity attributes or characteristics such as race, religion, culture and language when constructing their self-definitions (Chew, 2007; Cheek, 1989). Accordingly, the present study aims at identifying the impact of identity aspects on the Iranian learners' English language achievements at Shiraz University Language Center (SULC). Moreover, the study seeks for finding the impact of demographic factors on language achievement and aspects of identity among the Iranian EFL learners. To fulfill the objectives and find answers to the posed questions, a questionnaire representing aspects of identity and consisting of 45 items in the form of Likert Scale (personal: 10 items + social: 7 items + collective: 8 items + relational: 10 items + special: 10 items) was distributed among 180 language learners attending at SULC. Both descriptive statistics (Mean + SD) and inferential statistics (t-test + ANOVA+ Correlation + Multiple Regressions) were run on the data. The results demonstrated no significant relationship between language achievement and the aspects of identity; that is, none of the identity aspects is a predicting variable for language achievement in the Iranian context. Among the demographic factors, only gender can account for two aspects of identity, namely, personal and relational identities. Apparently, the results are local not universal.
Nheengatu is one of the co-official languages of São Gabriel da Cachoeira in the Amazon region (AM/Brazil). About 8000 people in the Upper Rio Negro region speak it, and there exists a contemporary movement for its revitaliza- tion in the state of Pará (PA/Brazil). Based upon field research in both these regions, this paper bears reflections on the inter-relations existing between language and identity including references in the areas of Applied Linguistics, Culture Semiotics and Anthropology. I propose a discussion on Nheengatu language, which is often considered in a dysphoric way, i.e., as if it had been imposed on the natives, resulting only from the colonizers’ strategies. I pro- pose we can instead envisage it from the perspective concerning the tactics constructed by the aboriginals in order to preserve and reconquer their iden- tity, i.e., from the point of view of a Poetics of Relation within a complex, contradictory and hybrid linguistic approach.
Focus on history should not preclude the oddities of the present. But sadly too much emphasis on language and identity issues in the literature of the Caribbean has sidelined the gender studies of this region. The differences in sexes in the present day Caribbean are significant too than the differences in languages, identities, races and classes. Family structure and re1ationships are still carrying their antecedents in the plantation system, and the resultant is a ‘complex fami1y arrangement that the social and legal status of women are entangled’ (Gordon).  Taking into account slavery and the post-colonial effect, the most of the children who were born outside a legal marriage are devoid of inheritance and the property rights. These family laws not only discriminate them on the grounds of a legal marriage but also deny the social realities of marriages without wedlock in the Caribbean during the colonial period. Clearly, the sexual experiences and experimentations are a punishment for women. Professional women of middle class have been facing legal discrimination too e.g. wives of Jamaican nationals were exempt from the need to get work permits in Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, Bahamas and Barbados.
Taking the perspectives of social and ethnolinguistic identity theories and the feminist theory of hate speech, Horbyk applies critical discourse analysis to study readers’ discussions of language-related articles published on Ukraine’s leading news website Ukrains'ka Pravda (Ukrainian Truth). By demonstrating the abundance of hate speech in readers’ comments on language issues in Ukraine through the fierce mutual “othering” of the Ukrainian-speaking and Russian-speaking Ukrainians, Horbyk shows conflicting discourses on language and identity. He concludes that although verbal combat and hate-speech-laden discourses on language and belonging point to aggressiveness, and perhaps demonstrate undemocratic behaviour in anonymized communication online, they, in fact, display a variety of group allegiances and indicate acute social issues, even preparing “the ground for more civilized, consensual, and democratic interactions” (Horbyk, this issue).
The results of language planning and policy programs are often seen in the modification of linguistic behavior of some groups of people. The reasons for the program differ from one country to another, a common one is to maintain nationalizing efforts and another is to implement language modernization or to acquire a new language or languages deemed important for nationhood (Dakhir and Abid, 2011). Although different researchers may define language policy differently, all of them are generally agreed on the main purposes behind it – that of status planning and corpus planning (Bucholtz and Hall, 2005; Cooper 1989). Status planning deals with the promotion of a vernacular as the formal or official language of a country. In most times, it is carried out for de-colonization purposes by the newly established independent states in order to promote the feeling of patriotism among their people (Dakhir and Abid, 2011). Status planning may result in the advent of a language to establish a national identity in independent countries (ibid). Corpus planning, on the other hand, as a linguistic activity, tends to modify a language in terms of its phonology, morphology, syntax and lexis. Thus, corpus planning is perceived as a language policy with a direction towards modernization and standardization. Corpus planning is viewed as a complement to status planning (Wright, 2004; Cooper, 1989).
The concept of ‘international posture’ thus considerably broadens the external reference group for integrative attitudes from a specific geographic, linguistic and cultural community to a nonspecific global community of English language users. Yet, precisely because it is a global community, the question arises whether it is appropriate to conceptualise it as an ‘external’ reference group, or as part of one’s internal representation of oneself as a de facto member of that global community. It is this theoretical shift of focus to the internal domain of self and identity that marks the most radical rethinking of the integrative motivation concept. A key study that has prompted this shift of focus is Do¨rnyei and Csize´r’s (2002) large-scale longitudinal survey of Hungarian school pupils’ attitudes to learning foreign languages during the 1990s. Commenting on the salience and multifaceted composition of an integrative motivation factor in their survey data, Do¨rnyei and Csize´r speculate that the process of identification theorised to underpin integrative- ness might be better explained as an internal process of identification within the individual’s self-concept (p. 453), rather than identification with an external reference group. Do¨rnyei (2005) develops this speculation further by drawing on personality psychology and exploring the theory of ‘possible selves’. According to this theory, possible selves ‘represent individuals’ ideas of what they might become, what they would like to become, and what they are afraid of becoming’ and so ‘provide a conceptual link between the self- concept and motivation’ (Markus & Nurius, 1987: 157). As Do¨rnyei (2005) suggests, a vision of oneself as a proficient L2 speaker might be one facet of one’s ideal self or possible self in the future. Identification with this vision of oneself in the future may provide the motivational basis for learning the L2, rather than identification with (or integrativeness towards) a particular group of target language speakers.
The delivery of services and beneﬁts to people supporting older and disabled relatives and friends depends largely on their identiﬁcation within constructs of ‘ care-giving ’ and ‘ carer ’. Those who are married or living with a partner may be particularly resistant to adopting the identity of ‘ care-giver ’ or ‘ care receiver ’. This paper investigates the circumstances of couples and their adoption of carer identities, drawing on a study of the ﬁnancial implications of a partner’s death. That study was based on over 750 couples where one partner died, drawn from the British Household Panel Survey, and separate qualitative interviews with people whose partner died in the previous two years. The ﬁndings show that carer self-identiﬁcation was inﬂuenced by the partner’s health-care needs and service contacts, including welfare beneﬁts receipts. None of the socio-demographic factors considered was statistically linked to whether people described themselves as providing care for their partner, unless there was an underlying association with the partner’s health-care needs. The ﬁndings underline the problems of using self-reported identities in surveys and estimates of take-up of services and beneﬁts, and the diﬃculties of delivering entitlements to people who care for their partner at the end-of-life. A challenge for policy makers is how to move beyond formal categories of ‘ carer ’ and ‘ care-giving ’ to incorporate inter-dependence, emotional commitment and the language of relationships in planning support for frail older people.
bilingual if one considers the Berber language and regional vernacular dialects of Algerian Arabic as well. The development of modern standard Arabic as the language-of-state, however, derives from many motivations. First of all, for most Arab Muslims, Arabic was the language of their history and their religion (Gordon 136) so they felt the need to regain their Arab and Muslim origins and classical Arabic is the language of Arab-Islamic identity since it is the language of the Koran throughout the Muslim world (Mostari 26). It would be hard to imagine a language with a stronger claim to the historical and literary heritage of the majority of the Algerian population (Holt 25). Secondly, like French in France, Arabic was seen as the language-of-power since it is practiced by many Arab nations and language is an instrument of power throughout the world (Mostari 26). In addition, like the Parisian dialect of the king and his court, Modern Standard Arabic was seen as the language of prestige since it was practiced and enforced by the educated Algerian elite, especially the nationalists (Mostari 26). Mohamed Benrabah, 18 therefore, describes Arabization as “identity planning through language planning” (“Language and Politics” 73) since the government was attempting to define Algerian identity and nationalism with the Arabic language as a means to that end (i.e. Algerian linguistic-nationalism).
In this regard, an opinion of J. Nye, an author of the "soft power" concept, is also of interest – analysing the attempts of Russia and China to apply this technology, he was skeptical enough about the direct involvement of the state in the promotion by using "soft power" methods (Nye, 2013). Therefore, the central task is to determine the underlying substance of identity construction – a substance which is real and mediates reality, serves both as a medium and a message (McLuhan & Fiore, 1967), may overcome political boundaries and is not associated with the state. We suppose this substance is language. The importance of communication in philosophy and methodology of science has been reinterpreted in the framework of logical positivism. In linguistics, this process took place in the context of neohumboldtianism and mainly within the hypothesis of the linguistic relativity of W. Sapir and B. Whorf. Generally speaking, the main idea of the explanation of linguistic relativity can be formulated as follows: "...reality does not determine the language spoken, but, on the contrary, every time our language divides reality in a new way. Reality is mediated by language" (Zvegintsev, 1960: 111; Whorf, 1960). The importance of language and languageidentity in the system of the formation of a unifying identity is determined by the fact that in many modern paradigms of the humanities (and both in the framework of poststructuralism and postmodernism) language appears as a phenomenon not mediated but mediating reality. Consequently, languageidentity is the space for the construction of paradigms of ethnicity understanding, the space for the formation of unifying values.
typical African life, culture, identity, beliefs and thoughts. The last part of the article is an attempt to check if this shift of the African culture towards the western one is an immediate consequence of globalisation or simply a disappearance of the African languages thus the melting of the Africanity. In other words, is it just an unavoidable effect of globalisation? Or is it the collapse of an old identity, since to destroy a language is to destroy an identity?
Nothing made me feel more Canadian than going to Korea. Making errors with a new language is something all learners go through. However, when interacting with strangers like cashiers, I received scornful looks when making a mistake or when I could not understand what they were saying. They looked at me like I was stupid and were often unwilling to help me further or explain what they meant. Since I was clearly “not enough” to be Korean, I considered myself more of a waegookin, or ‘foreigner’, in part because there were many other aspects beyond just the language that were unfamiliar to me. However, some of my Korean colleagues would ascribe a Korean identity to me when I demonstrated my knowledge of Korean food names or certain kinship terms. “You know that? You’re really Korean,” they would tell me. I felt that I was constantly pushed and pulled between two categories, neither of which I really fit into. When riding the subway or when walking in a busy crowd, I could only think of myself as an imposter among them. I looked like them on the outside but inside, I was very different.
students are often assigned pair or group work. Instructors reflected on the intensity of the one-to-one telephone interactions in comparison to classroom-based participant structures where ‘learners can take turns in answering the instructors’ questions, or even avoid participation altogether; these options were obviously denied to our students’ (Strambi & Bouvet, 2003: 82). What is evident here is that the established practices of face-to-face language classrooms were well known to the instructors who in classroom contexts had fairly stable expectations of the repertoire of knowledge and skills needed to manage their role with a degree of competence. Their identity as language teachers had been shaped and reinforced through the role of classroom language teacher and the face-to-face interactions that make up these arrangements. Distance language teaching disrupted many of those expectations and established practices and entailed a different process of identity enhancement which, initially at least, they found demanding and in conflict with their personal and professional needs.
In classroom interactions, identity construction is an essential trait of interactional competence. The ability to use language as a resource to mediate classroom learning and construct desirable identities is central to the notion of classroom interactional competence. During interactions, class members have several roles, such as opening and ending conversations, asking questions, making errors, correcting errors and so on. Having such roles in certain settings enables the competence of participants in that process. This study examined identity construction in classroom discourse. Identity in this study was found to be fluid. It confirms the CA perspective of identity as an achievement and an interactional tool. The students in this study employed several strategies in constructing their desired identities, both verbal and non-verbal, whilst at the same time challenged other members‘ identities if they were considered inappropriate. The discursive shift of identity was proven through the use of different linguistic resources such as shifts in pronouns to indicate shifts in positioning. It was in the interactional arrangements that the students were able to engage in the learning process, construct desirable identities and accomplish the tasks.
This research set out to investigate the following questions: Why do the students enroll in French, and in what ways do the students position themselves to learning French? What kinds of social issues do they confront when coming back? How do such issues impact their identities? Using the frameworks developed within sociocultural second language acquisition, identity, and motivational theories, this a mixed methods study includes semi-structured interviews and an online survey. Some of the reasons why students come back to the college system to study French include family background, political decisions, patriotism, gainful employment, cosmopolitanism, globalization and travel and retirement. Studying languages seems to be a highly personal decision and identities are impacted in many ways including the use of power, prestige, economic gain and divergent thinking. However, a key conclusion drawn from this study is that learning French opens doors for communicative purposes and being able to speak another language expands one’s mind, according to the participants in the interviews. Additionally, knowing French in the Southwestern Ontario workplace enhances one’s ability to attain gainful employment within the public sector specifically, and within entry-level positions within the private sector generally.
Currently, the process of globalization, intense intercultural contacts, changes in social structure, and internationalization of higher education influence inter-ethnic relations, ethnic identity, as well as language changes. These processes can be observed among the Russian-Germans living in the territory of the Kirov region. Their investigation started in 1999 and is currently going on. The relevance of the study is due to the significance of the linguistic interaction at the present stage of the German language development in Russia, where for decades the German language has been developing and changing in linguistic enclaves environment. In this regard, this paper aims to explore ethnic and linguistic identity of German bilinguals living in the environment of a foreign language, different dialect, or different confession in isolation from the main ethnic array. The leading methods in the study were socio- differentiated analysis, as well as comparative and statistical methods used while correlating the dialect systems under review to other German dialectal systems, literary German language, as well as with the Russian language. In the study, we came to the conclusion that the priority layer in the structure of the ethnic identity of Russian Germans in the Kirov region includes the following distinctive features: common territory, language, religion, family life, folklore, crafts, norms of behavior, common historical destiny and common psychological makeup. The language of the German ethnic minority, who live in the territory of the Kirov region, is unique and peculiar. It is characterized, above all, by mixed dialects in a foreign language environment and by a variety of their existing forms of. The paper is of practical value to scholars dealing with the German island dialects.
The anatomic view is so represented in Western culture that the less-informed public finds it difficult to distin- guish between gay and transgender persons. Considering sexual orientation, the anatomic view allows saying that male to female persons should be considered as homo- sexuals. However, a male to female person who is attract- ed to men generally feels female, and may have felt so as long as she can remember, often predating any feelings of sexual attraction. Conscious that her attraction towards men is consistent with her feelings of identity, she sees herself as heterosexual. She probably sees her partner’s attraction to her in the same light, as indeed he might. One of the contributions that work on transgenderism can offer to sociolinguistics and anthropology is a fo- cus on the relationship between language and the lived body. Transgenderism contributes to an affirmation of the permeability of gender boundaries. Several studies have been performed regarding the language of transgender persons and the adoption of stereotypical speech, that is, a way of speech that helps produce the appearance of appropriately sexed corporeality. For example, it has been noted that transgender females generally use more tag questions (i.e. questions appended at the end of a statements, like “this is silly, isn’t it?) and the so-called “empty adjectives” like lovely and precious 64 . On the